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Volume XXVII.] 


[Number 1 

A Valuable Jersey Cow, 

It is some time since we have given the Jer- 
seys a place in our live stock picture gallery, 
and so we give place this week to a cow which 
is entitled to recognition by her useful and 
profitable deeds. She is the cow Alluring, 
calved January 13, 1877, and is a daughter of 
Colunibiad "id 1515 and imp. Purity 1408. She 
was bred by Messrg. J. C. & D. Pennington, of 
Paterson, New .Jersey ; by them sold to Mr. W, 
N. McConnell, of Dartford, Wisconsin, and is 
now one of the Chestnut Farm herd of .Jeiseys, 
owned by .John Boyd, of Chicago. In some re- 
spects Alluring is a phenomenal cow. The 
Jirfcdri-H' Qa:.eU.i' says her capacity for convert- 
ing food into milk 
and butter cannot 
be fully realized by 
a person who has 
not seen her. Her 
consumption of food 
is so great that it 
may be said of her 
that she never 
knows when she has 
had enough ; yet is 
never distressed by 
over - eating. Her 
disposition is so 
i(uiet iind gentle 
that she is a great 
pet with every per- 
son who knows her. 
The most timid 
heifer in the herd 
is never alarmed at 
her approach. Al- 
luring was tested 
by Mr. McConnell 
in July, 188'2, who 
was her owner at 
that time. He 
milked her himself 
during a trial of 
seven days. She 
made l!l lbs. 5 oz. 
of butter. Her only 
feed during the 
summer of 1882 was 
pasture — wild grass 
in the daytime, 
tame pasture at 
night. Considering 
her age (five years) 
and the feed given, 
the result of the 

seven days' test may be regarded as 
among the very best on record. Her pres- 
ent o\vncr has no doubt of her ability to 
exceed her first trial. Alluring is in very 
good company at Chestnut farm, having for 
stable companions a number of highly-bred 
.Jerseys, all of them large producers, three of 
which are daughters of Marius 7(>0, four 
daughters of Champion of America 1.5(i7, and 
a number of grand daughters of Albert 44; but 
the pride of the establishment is the bull Cham- 
pion Magnet 6480, son of Champion of America 
1507 and Mink 2548. The latter is dam of 
Mink 2d 3890, record 19 lbs. 11 oz., grandam 
of Mh oon Lady 6560 and Julia Evelyn 6007, 
records 17 lbs. 3 oz. and 15 lbs. 15i oz., re- 
spectively; also great-grandam of Theresa M. 
8364, record 14 lbs. 2 oz. at two years. 
The engraving shows the oow in a natural, 

though not in the most graceful position in the 
world. It gives the animal. full credit for her 
udder development and exhibits her other inilk- 
ing marks well. 

Improving Dairy Cattle. 

The dairy cattle of California have shown 
very marked improvement during the last few 
years. Not only have a much better class of 
bulls been used, and in mnny cases thorough- 
breds of the best milking breeds purchased, but 
there has been a continual selection and slaugh- 
ter of the poorer cows, and thus improvement 
of the herd has progressed at both ends, as it 
were. The influence exerted by consigning the 

for butter during the past three seasons, and 
the lively demand for pork, has placed many of 
our dairymen upon their feet financially, and 
their prospects were never brighter. 

The influence of this course will be perma- 
nent. There is always a considerable percent- 
age of loss in <lairying from keeping unprofit- 
able cows, and their beef value has proved the 
incentive for their destruction, while with- 
out this they might have lingered long, encum- 
bering the ground. 

Umversitv La.vus.— At the last meeting of 
the Board of Regents it was decided to ofTer for 
sale some 3,000 acres of land at iiflO per acre, of 
which the first payment is 20 per cent or.1i!2 per 


poorer cows to the butcher is shown well in the 
following paragraph from the Ferndale, Hum- 
boldt county, Eiiti'rprisi' -. 

The higli prices which l)eef cattle have com- 
manded during the past six or eight months has 
resulted in at least one great good to the dairy- 
men of this country. They have thus been af- 
forded an excellent opportunity of disposing of 
the many head of wild cattle which have over- 
stocked their ranges, and have rid themselves 
of all objectionable animals, retaining none but 
those fully fit for dairying purposes. When 
beef was at 4J cents per pound there Wtis no 
special inducement for them to sell, and this 
advance in prices to 8 and 9 cents has given 
them the long-looked for opportunity. All the 
dairying cows in the Bear river and surround- 
ing country are now of the finest class. This 
circumstance, together with the good price pajd 

acre, and on the balance there is five year scredit 
given at 7 per cent per annum interest. The 
advantages of locating under the agricultural 
grant are that no improvements or occupation 
is required, and those who have exhausted their 
pre-emption or homestead rights can obtain 
additional lands by purchasing of the University. 
It must not be understood that these lands are 
already selected. On the contrary, the land 
agent of the University acts as locating agent 
for those who have found government land 
they would like to purchase. By addressing 
the land agent of the University at Berkeley 
further information can be had if desired. 

The South Carolina Legislature has made an 
appropriation of ten thousand dollars for a dis- 
play of the resources of the f^tate at the coming 
World's Cotton Kxposition at Ne^y Orleans. 

Trees and Insects. 

A number of planters of Tulare county are 
alarmed lest they introduce injurious insects 
upon some trees which they liave contracted 
for with a San Jose nurseryman. The Tulare 
R('(lixf,er has been taking much interest in the 
question, and has endeavored to get the State 
Inspector of Fruit Pests, Dr. Chapin, to exam- 
ine the nursery an<l declare whether it be in- 
fested or not. We sympathize with the Tulare 
planters in wishing to exclude insects if pos- 
sible from their orchards. Certainly it will 
cost them a great deal of eflbrt and money to 
keep the pests in check, if they do introduce 
them. Some fault is found with Dr. 

Chapin because he 
will not examine and 
report upon the pre- 
sence or absence of 
scale insects in the 
nursery in question. 
Dr. Chapin docs hot 
think such an act 
comes witliin his 
sphere under the 
law as it now exists, 
and declines to re- 
port as requested. 
We do not propose 
to enter the discusj 
sion of this point. 
Dr. Chapin and the 
Tulare Regh-.lcr can 
have that fi^ght to 
themselves, as we 
do not Kr e that his 
report would afTect 
the contracts exist- 
ing between the 
nurserymen and his 
Tulare customers in 
the slightest. If 
Dr. Chapin would 
make a favorable re- 
port on the condi- 
tion of the nursery - 
it would probably 
prevent a contest 
over the trees to 
bedelivered in Tu- 
lare county, by lead- 
ing the planters to 
withdraw their pro- 
tests, but it would 
not be proof that 
the insects would 
not be introduced nevertheless,- because 
they may be caught up after the trees 
leave the nursery from infested cars or 
otherwise. Again, if Dr. Chapin should 
report the nursery at San .lose infested, we are 
of the opinion that it would uot release the 
tree buyers in Tulare county from their con- 
tracts, for if the agent has contracted to deliver 
healthy trees the trees themselves must be the 
subject of examination to determine whether 
the contract is fulfilled or not, and not the con- 
dition of a nursery several hundred miles away. 
Tlie nursery might be infested, and yet the 
men who took the contract to deliver healthy 
trees might do it by disinfection or by procuring 
trees from elsewhere. It seems to us that the 
matter must be decided by examination of the 
trees themselves, and if the contract is for trees 
free from insects, let no others be taker,. 

fAeiFie f^URAL PRESS. 

[January 5, 1884 



Notes on French Agriculture, 

Agricultural Credit. 
KlilTOKS l'iiKss:—Oue great obstacle to Kieiich 
agriculture lies in the absence of pecuniary 
credit for the farmer. He is not considered a 
trader by the law— that is to say, he is not en- 
gaged in commerce and industry; cannot )>e de- 
clared a bankrupt; hence if the banks come to 
his assistance it is as a private individual. 
French agriculturist* complain that it does not 
pjiy thum to borrow !i per cent. Those who 
adopt this view Itelong to the class, who, after 
obtaining a loan, have not the skilled knowledge 

for its profitable application, and that which is 
too often the case, the loan is invested in other 
projects. I'armers wlio borrow when they are 
on the road to ruin, will find t.Ke lowest interest 

Loniljardy is perhaps the best cultivated 
country in Kuropc; there farmers are thriving. 
'J'liey borrow money at 7 or 8 per cent, and re- 
main not the less prosperous. The reason is 
they know how to utilize it. Mr. Leon Say, 
ex-Finance Minister, has just visited Lombardy 
to examine into the working of the agricultural 
banks, to wliich the prosperous condition of the 
farmei-s is due. In I'rance the standing econom- 
ical and administrative vice is, tliat the .State 
governs everything, and everything goes to the 
State. In Lombardy it is just the contrary. 
There each townland has its savings bank, 
which is at the same time a loan fund, and fed 
by the local deposits. The little banks are 
managed gratuitously, and loans are granted, 
not on the farmer s property, but on his value 
as a shrewd, industrious, and steady man. These 
attributes count almost for nothing in France, 
•where the security must be material. 

Lombardy is thus covered with a net work 
of mutual loan fiends, and these in turn ar'' 
sustained by the (Jrand Central Popular Hxnk 
that advances money to cash bills. The rate 
of interest, perfectly free, never exceeds fS per 
cent. Kach depositor or shareliolder has his 
bank book, and the amount therein registered 
can be at ouce negotiated by means of the book, 
which is scrip and ever property of the bearer. 
The cidef bank of Milan has 2'JfS of these little 
saving-loaning bunks, manipulating a total of 
•_M() millions of francs annually: there is a total of 
.'i")(>,000 depositors— for traders and citizens i an 
co-operate as well as farmers representing an 
aggregate of -.'80 million francs— all thrift; fru 
gality without |)arsimony. 

Horse Notes. 

France has certainly not yet got into the 
secret of horse breeding. However, her gov- 
ernment since Ki.'il has been dabbling with 
solutions. In Austria, Russia and Germany 
the State breeds, real's and trains nearly all the 
liorses re(|uired for the army. In France the 
State merely his regional studs, occupied by 
about ■l,r<'2() stallions, of which L'lS are pure 
Knglish and IS7 pure Arab blood: there are 
l,S()0 lialf-blood. These stallions are sent over 
the country to cover whatever mares are pre- 
sented. Hut while the government devotes 
nuicli care to proviiling good sires, it pays no 
attention to the mother. 

Itisnottlius in the countries as above a I 
luded to. Furtlier, Austria, etc., aim to obtain 
a light horse, suitable for all kinds of work, the 
sad.lle .as well as draft. Now French agricult 
iirists desire a heavy animal, awkward, nu 
energetic and lymphatic, something of the 
mastodon type, pi-rliapo. Now, a circumstance 
over which the\ have, likely, no control com 
pels to this preli-i. nce— the haliit of employing 
two-wheeled carts instead of the four-wheeled 
wagon. The two- wheeled vehicle in turn is 
necessitated by the nature of the roads. There 
is great loss of power in the yoking of five or 
six horses in a tandem line to verv primitix e 

France expends -JO million francs annually 
for the remounting of her cavalry. AH this 
money could be kept in the country did the 
arniy buyers oiler a higlier price. As it is, all 
animals higher than the chartered rates are ex- 
ported. Horses are set to work too youn" in 
France; some at eighteen months and so bec°ome 
prematurely used up. Farmers woul.l not be 
able to work gooil blood colts at such a low age 
hence why they prefer heavy, massive sires. 

The army vets are experimenting a new mode 
of procedure; they purchase the horses at three 
years of age. and pending two years, allow them 
to have the run of meadows, iu addition to the 
stable, feeding them well and training at the 
same time. These two years of idleness, thoui;li 
costly, p.-iy in the end, as the animal.s endu'e 
longer, having been spared premature fatigue 
It has been found also, t'lat coifs thus brought 
up, remam peculiarly exempt from the malaifies 
of cavalry horses condemed ever to remain so 
many hours daily tied to the manger. 

While on the subject of horses, I may ob- 
serve, tlKit in the buying of thein the seller's 
recommendation never receives any weight. He 
13 too well known to have an ax to grind. The 
intendinK buyer endeavors to obtain a private 
peep at the animal in the stable, take the horse 
unawares, a, when the dealer is present it 
M-ould .-ippear different. A look can thus be 
obtained at t)ie animal feeding; its a^'e con- 
troUed; the eye peered into to asci rtain"if the 
owner bo mild or wicked. Care is taken to 
":i\ e tho horse shown off, not on a littered run 

but on a hard, or stone-covered road, making 
it at first walk, and next to stand in a horizon- 
tal position. Then order a trot, observing well 
if the animal, on turning, yields to a side to 
relieve some drawback about the feet. After 
the run, listen to the resj)iration and note the 
movement of tlis Hanks; press the throat to 
provoke a cough; if the latter be frank and 
sonorous, the horse is in good health; if dry 
and short, Ijeware. In the of saddle 
horses, the purchaser ought to mount himself 
and remark if the animal replies to the pressure 
of the knees and the spur; if the buyer is oc- 
(Hipied with a pair for a carriage, have them 
put to and take the ribbons yourself. 

American Pork. 

II[he 'V'iJ^eyar^b. 

'i"he government has recovered from its scare; 
the great hog (juesfion is settled. American 
pork is again admitted into France: never hav- 
ing cominu.iicated trichnosis to Americans 
themselvts, or the Knglish, it was a strange 
conclusion to consider it would poison the 
French. All's well that ends well. But sali- 
cylic acid is now in as illogical a position as 
American pork; the acid, in addition to being 
a powerful antiseptic, is efticacious ia the treat- 
ment of foot and mouth disease, yet the gov- 
ernment prohibits its use as if it were dynamite. 

The Food Question 
Is ever at the front. M. (iayot confirms his 
experiments, that the addition of a little phos- 
phate of lime to the rations of young horses 
stimulates their development. Many farmers 
have laiil in supplies of leaves of the elm, lin- 
den, and willow. Avoid those of the .ash. as 
they are astringent, for the winter feeding of 
sheep. Chemically, such leaves are ranked in 
point of nutrition, on a par with ordinary 
meadow-hay. Though palm cake and meal are 
excellent fatting sul)stance8, Professor Holde- 
Heiss of Damstadt, finds the meal less rich in 
fatty matters than tlie cake. In the latter case 
the oil is extracted by pressure: in the former 
l>y chemical agents. The mean percentage of 
fatty principles in the cake is 12. Attempts 
are again being made to popularize the use of 
chestnuts for feeding stock. Mixed with the 
ordinary rations in the proportion of 2 lbs 
daily for sheep, and IG for cattle, chestnuts 
have given fair results. They are tannic and 
bitter, and hence liable to induce constipation, 
but they impart no special flavor to milk, and 
add firmness to the Hesh. 

Sorgo has never really taken in France. It 
was in 18.") I that the French Consul at Shang- 
hai sent a numlxir of the plants for experiment. 
It was introduced with too many flourishes of 
trumpets. However, it was from the indus- 
trial, not the fodder point of view, that its cul 
ture was a.lvocated. It was thus brought into 
competition with maize and beet. Sorgo re- 
(luires nither much care, and is cultivated as 
maize. The .soil must not be poor, nor made 
too rich; the cUmate must have at least a mean 
temperature of (i!) degrees for 1.10 days; asso- 
ciated with these conditions nnist be a fair 
amount of humidity, or irrigation, for sorgo is 
a tropical plant. The plant grows to (i and 1 1 
feet high, in a tuft of, S to 10 stems, of which 
two or three bear the seed. Dr. Sicard has 
discovered that the sacherine substance disap- 
pears from the summit of the plant pend- 
ing the maturation "of the grain, while 
it continues to accumulate in the stem. The 
experiments of Biot and Soulteiran confirm that 
on removing the ears of maize before their ma- 
turity this (lid increase the secretion of juice in 
the stem more than two per cent. The same 
remarks apply to sorgho. Bear in mind the 
maturation of the plant must not be confounded 
with its natural desiccation, a process (juite 
distinct and taking place at a dilferent epoch 
In France the yield of soigho is about •>.'> tons 
per acre, giving '2.-. per cent, of its weight of 
]uice, that which represents aljout lit cwts. of 
crystalhzable sugar. But this corresponds to 
the yiel.l of beet sug.r, and the latter can be 
worked more easily and al)Ove all more surely 
l or forage tilled like maize .lO tons per acre 
have been reajied; the plant must be cut be- 
fore it hardens and the knots get woody. It is 
charted and mixed with l)ran. Some suggest to 
dry It like hay. Its great c(.mpetitor, however, 
IS maize. A beet-sugar manufacturer at Kich 
hofen undertakes to buy roots at I '2 fr. ton all 
round, plus an increase for roots above a fixed 

Hawthorn hedges along fields and railways 
are being utilized. At every six feet distance 
a good hawthorn is alloweil to grow above the 
clipped surface; on this a shoot of a pear tree is 
grafted, and trained in the form of a pyramid 
will soon yield excellent fruit. 
Paris, France. 

The Future of Grape Growing in Cal 

ifornia * 


a newspaper or 

To Clkan Mikkoks.— Take 

part of one, according to the size of the "glass 
l old It small and dip it into a bajin of ele.iu 
cold water; when thoroughly wet squeeze it out 
in your hand as you would a sponge, and then 
rub It h.-ird all over the face of the glass, takiu" 
care that it is not so Met as to run down in 
streams. In fact, the paper must only be cmn- 
pietely moistened or .lampeiied all through. 
Attvr the glass has been well rubbed with wet 
paper, let it rest for a few minutes, and then 
go oyer it with a frch, dry newsp.aper, folded 
sma l m your i,...nd, till it looks clear and 
bright, which It will immediatelv and 
with no further trouble. This method, "simple 
as It IS, IS the best and most expeditious for 
cleaning mirrors, and it will be found so on 
trial— giving a cleanness and polish that can be 
prodiicecj hy dq othor procow, 

During the last four or five years, the in- 
crease of the vineyard area of California has 
been so rapid as to give rise to considerable 
speculation regarding the final outcome of 
the movement, which stands in striking con- 
trast to the deep depression of the vineyard in- 
terest that reached its lowest stage al>out the 
year 1875. At that time eight dollars per ton 
w-as the highest price paid for grapes, with a 
slack demand; and hogs, poultry, and even 
cattle were let into the vineyards to gather the 
vintage preparatory to the contemiilated pulling 
up of the vines and their replacement by grain 
or fruit trees. The recognition of the invasion 
of the phylloxera added to the gloom, from 
which a heavy and increasing indebtedness 
seemed to render escape hopeless for those whose 
all had been staked on the success of viticul- 
ture. Wagon-loads of uprooted vines entered 
Sonoma, and were corded up for sale as fire- 
wood around the public square of that de- 
spondent town. 

How greatly changed is the picture to-day. 
Not only have the aliandoned vineyards been re- 
planted in (oftentimes somewhat ill-considered) 
defiance of the phylloxera and all its works, but 
the valley lands, with a sixfold increase in value, 
havebeconie too narrowfor theexpanding indust- 
try, and the oaks and chaparral of the mountain 
sides are giving way before the encroach- 
ing perennial green of the vine, both in the 
Coast Kanges and in the foothills of the Sierras. 
Kven the brown, dusty plains of Fresno and 
Tulare are changing their sombre summer garb, 
and are "wearing the gieen" of the grapevine, 
where but a few years ago the bright but brief 
spring bloom of the wild flowers alone relieved 
the intense monotony. Kven the supposed 
'•barren mesas" of Southern California are be- 
ing invaded by the vine, which seems only. now 
to have realized that what it has been doing for 
centuries in the droughty coast region of Med- 
iterranean Spain, can be done again, and better, 
ia the more fertile soils of California. 

But is not grape-planting Ijciiig overdone? 
Do we not hear of vineyanls, thousands of 
acres in extent, being established, one after an- 
other, threatening to deluge the market with 
their products, and finally to leave at least 
tiie small grower, if not themselves, no better 
oil' than they were in lS7.j'/ 

Such warnings have been repeatedly 
sounil^d; and mingled as they are with allu- 
sions to incontrovertible facts that seem to 
sustain them, it is well worth while to examine 
somewhat closely into the foundation of these 
predictions; for should they be well grounded, 
it will be ill for the many who are now invest- 
ing their savings in this alluring inilustry, with 
the hope of literally being enabled hereafter to 
sit under their own vine and fig tree. 

It behooves first of all to consider the causes 
of the previous great depression, and to draw- 
lessons therefrom. Why was it that the wines 
of California were a drug in the market and 
barely passed muster under foreign hibelsV It 
was un((ue8tionably because in their hurry to 
realize the golden harvest the great majority of 
the vintners of that time aimed altogether at 
ijuantity to the neglect of quality, and threw 
upon the market chierty wines "oadly made from 
such indifferent material as the Mission grape, 
and which had barely had time to get fairly 
through their after- fermentation, consequently 
lacked character, and frequently spoiled 
on the purchasers' hands. When the stand- 
ard varieties of foreign grapes, pru<lently in- 
troduced by far-seeing men, came into bearing, 
bad was made worse by giving to wines made 
of Mission must, with 'a slight admixture of the 
nobler juice, the name of the latter: thus con- 
veying to the consumer in the Fast and to a 
few daring investigators of the new article in 
Kuropc, the idea that the noble Riesling, the 
(Jhaselas, and the best varieties of Burgundy 
and the Bordelias, were so deteriorated in the 
California climate as to yield an irredeemably 
faulty product, which could at most be used 
for dilution, to some extent, of the wines of 
France or (Jermany, but whose earthy, harsh 
taste would ever render them unacceptable to 
the kiiow er of good wine. 

It were bootless to discuss at this lime 
whether the growers or the wine merchants 
were most to blame for these costly mistakes: 
or whether, perlia].s, they were only an almost 
inevitable phase of an incipient industry under 
new conditions. It suffices for our present 
purpose to know that such a state of 
things existed at the time of neap tide; 
and that knowledge should forever pre- 
vent a repetition of the faults that led to such 
a low ebb. It is ditlicult to conjecture how 
long the depression would have continued but 
for the intervention of that arch enemy, the 
phylloxera, which spread terror and devasta- 
tion among the vineyards of France, and sent 
her wine inen hants and their foreign corres- 
pondents on a painful search for new sources of 
supply to all possibly available countries. They 
began to recollect among her many sins in 
the way of bad wines, California had furnished 
some really good samples. Could it be possi- 

HllKard, of the .State Cnlversltv, In 
the On-rlaiul lot Jftiiunpi', i 

ble that these might be duplicated, and the 
French wines thus saved from the "foxy" con- 
tamination of the native American wines 
which the Kastern States were willing and able 
to furnish in unlimited quantities? 

It was the turning-point of the tide iu Cali- 
fornian viticulture. The attention not only 
of France but of the K.iatcni States was again 
directed to the product of Californian vine- 
yards, which in the meantime had brought 
a respectable area of good Kuropcan \ari- 
eties into bcarintj, and could make a 
vastly better showing for (piality. And al- 
though some mistakes have been made even 
since then, on the whole the golden opportunity 
has been well utilized by our wine makers 
f rom the lowly function of producing some- 
thing that France would tolerate as an admix- 
ture to her wines, they have rapi.lly risen to 
that of establishing standard (jualities that find 
favor under their own names and labels. They 
have become convinced, and are rapidly convert- 
ing the rest of the world to the belief that the 
faults heretofore observed in California wines 
were not of Nature's making; and that between 
the limits of Oregon and Mexico most, if not all 
the most desirable qualities of Kuropcan wines 
mav be reproduced under an intelligent selec- 
tion and mutual .adaptation of grape varieties 
climates and soils, and by the manufacture of 
wines under the management of experts, instead 
of the hap hazjird system before pursued. And 
not being trammele.l by time-honore.l habits in 
the premises, they are rapidly and consciously 
applying American ingenuity and energy to 
the solution of several problems, upon the suc- 
csssful solution of which the future in store for 
the grape industries of ( lalifornia so essentially 
d 'pends. The grape-growers, at least, now ful- 
ly understand that duality, not ((uantity alone 
will in the near future be the determining 
factor as b-tween profit and loss: and the some 
w_hat heated discussions at the late convention 
show that they are not disposed to submit to an 
arbitrary classification of their products, in 
Imlk, by the wine "Kcrchants, but will insist 
that special excellence, whether of locality or 
treatment, shall command corresponding prices 
as in the wine countries of Kurope. One of the 
chuf difficulties now existing lies in the lack of 
a sulticient number of competent wine experts 
whose judgment shall be unbifsjd by local 
habits contr.acted in the Ol.l World, and open 
to the modifications called for by new condi- 
tions of climate and soil; and as well to the 
recognition of ^ xcelleiice not precisely in accord 
with any type of old-world wines, such as it is 
extremely probable will be found among the 
products of California vineyanls. 

Among the most important and at the same 
time most ditHcult (juestions still to be settled 
for Californian viticulture, is the special adap- 
tation of grape varieties to local climates and 
soils, and to desirable blends; an<l before these 
points are settled, many heavy losses and dis- 
appointments will be sustained. At this time 
some communities are so sensitive on this sub 
ject, that it is unsafe to suggest a doubt of the 
adaptation of the local climate to certain pre- 
ferred and productive grape varieties in which 
heavy investments have been made; and yet, 
the longer such delusions are indulged in, the 
heavier will ultimately be the losses from the 
slow and low sale of unsatisfactory producte. 
No one locality or region cm be good for all 
classes of wines; and those who insist on trying 
to force the Kiesliiig and the Muscat into yield- 
ing their choicest products on the same acre of 
land, will simply find themselves distanced by 
prudent competitors who adapt their tfl'orts to 
natural conditions. 

All these things will inevitably right them- 
selves in the course of time by the survival of 
the fittest. In the process of evolution on this 
basis, doubtless a gooil many will sillier; not 
because "the business is overdone'" in general, 
but because their particular pro<luct is a drug 
in the market, being, from whatever cause, be- 
low the mark of excellence required to secure 
profitable returns. They may upon a dill'erent 
plane exiicrience a depression like that of 1S7,"). 
The fact that immense quantities of very indif- 
ferent wine are consumed in France and (Jcir- 
rnany will not avail here, where the laboring 
masses rarely touch wine, good or bail, thus far 
preferring beer or strong liquors. It is hardly 
probable that for some time to come it would 
pay well to ship "l iii onliniiin " all the way 
to luirope; and although the use of native 
wines is likely to increase materially in this 
country, displacing in a measure the less health- 
ful beverages now consumed, yet this is too 
slow a process to be relied upon by those now 
planting vines. 

We have a very analogous conditio.i of 
things in the case of the orchard fruits, which 
until lately have been planted in a somewhat 
indiscrimiii.-te manner. Orchards made up 
of a few choice varieties adapted to the locality 
provsTvery profitable, and will doubtless con- 
tinue to do so, being in demand for canning and 
drying; while indillerent and mixed fruit be- 
comes more and more every year a ilriij,' in the 
market. But in this case the California grower 
has to compete with the products of the Kast, 
where there are regions whose orchard fruits, 
both fresh and dry, fairly compete in ipiality 
with ours. Not so in the case of the grape: for 
California seems to have, and is likely to retain, 
from climatic causes, the monopoly of the pro- 
duction of the FjUropean "rini/i ra" grajie on 
the North American continent, and with it that 
of the production of wines like those of the old 
world, as well as of raisins. Thus far, at le.aet, 
few wines made from the grapes of the Ameri- 
can stock (ire entirely free from the inherent 

January 5, 1884.] 


"foxiness" whicli, -while acceptable by way of 
a ^change, seenis to militate against the 
daily use of wine, from the same cause 
that makes cake unacceptable in place 
of bread; and the toughness of skin and acidity 
of tlio inneriiiost pulp tell at least e(|ually 
against the making of raisins from the Ameri- 
can berries. On the otlier hand, since the 
American varieties also succeed perfectly in 
California, our wine makers have the oppor- 
tunity of producing blends such as have never 
been attempted as yet (unless quite lately, and 
upon a small scale, in France), and which 
promise remarkable results. 

Considering that when all the vineyards at 
present planted shall be in bearing, the entire 
product of California will probably still amount 
to only about one thirtieth of the total product 
of France, and will only al)out e(iual that of 
Itussia and Turkey, which is scarcely heard of 
HI the worUFs commerce; that, as a consequence 
of the invasion of the phylloxera, the wine prod- 
I rt, of France remains stationary in the face of 
an increasing demand and higher prices, 
compelling an extensive importation from 
other countries to maintain an adequate sup- 
ply; that the invasion of Spain and Portu- 
gal has but just begun, and seems to progress 
almost unchecked, despite all efforts to arrest 
it, having already caused a material falling oS 
of the wine exports of those countries, whose 
somewhat unprogressive population will be 
slow to adopt the only feasible remedy of graft- 
ing on resistent stocks; that the inroads of the 
insect are but just beginning to be felt in the 
wine-growing districts of Russia and (ireece; 
and finally, that for many years the price of 
wines, especially of the higher grades, has been 
steadily on the increase; it seems that the pros- 
pect of losses in conse(iuence of over-production 
of good wines in Califotnia is too remote to de- 
serve serious consideration at this time. Practi- 
cally the same is true, even in a higher degree, 
of the raisin industry. Not only is it likely 
that the European production of this article will 
be materially decreased for some time to come, 
but the probable increase of consumption 
of an article so universally liked, but thus 
far too iiigh-priced to be available to the 
laboring classes, should also be kept in view. 
In this case, as in that of wines, high (juality 
will, however, bo needed to maintain profits. 
First and second-class raisins will not be a drug 
in the market for many years to come; nor will 
there be much dillioulty in converting a raisin 
vineyard into a wine-making one, or vice msn, 
by grafting, should need arise. 

There are two other clouds, apparently more 
serious at present than that of over-production, 
that threaten the success of viticulture in this 
State. One is the presence of the phylloxera; 
the other, the scarcity of available labor, re- 
sulting from the "Kxclusion Act." 

As regards the phylloxera, it seems to be grad- 
ually but surely spreading over the State, in the 
absence of any effective system of (luarantine 
other than such as the grape-growers of certain 
districts agree upon, or such as individuals prac- 
tice for their own protection. Two chief causes 
contribute to tliis remarkable indifference to- 
ward a danger that has shown such formidable 
results in Kurope. One is the indisputable fact 
that its attacks are not as fatal to the vine in 
California as elsewhere, despite the apparently 
favorable conditions ofifered by the climate. 
Another is the inveterate habit of Califoruians 
to take risks and abide by the results. A third 
may be found in the great rapidity with which 
young vineyards come into bearing, allowing 
losses to be made good in a much shorter time 
than would be reijuired in Europe. However, 
a goodly proportion of the new plantings are 
now being made of resistant stocks, especially 
in districts already infested; while others are 
made with a view to permanent protection by 
periodic inundation. Altogether, the grape- 
growers have evidently made up their minds to 
get along with or without the phylloxera, as 
may be necessary. 

The otlier tlircatening difficulty is that of a 
scarcity of labor, and for the immediate future 
it is certainly a serious one. The Exclusion 
act is rapidly rendering Chinese labor 'una- 
vailable, and no other as yet appears to take 
its place. The diHiculty is especially serious 
in the case of the great vineyard enterprises 
covering thousands of acres, which have 
been entered upon within the last three 
or four years. These are in nearly'' the 
same predicament as were the cotton plant- 
ers of the South after the war, when they found 
themselves unable to command the negro labor 
that had previously run their thousand-acre 
plantations so smoothly. They tried to solve 
the probkm by inviting immigration; but 
the immigrants when they came would 
not serve on the same terms as the 
negroes, but wanted their own homes. In the 
course of experience the planter's question, 
"How shall we run our large plantations ?" has 
been answered by the practical response : "You 
must not 'run' them at all, but subdivide them, 
and settle families on moderately-sized home- 
steads." Measurably the same answer will, I 
think, have to be given to our thousand-acre 
grape grow-ers; and when they submit to the 
obvious necessity their enterprises will perhaps 
bring them less money for the time being than 
if their vineyards had been "run" by gangs of 
Chinamen, but they will certainly redound 
more to the benefit of the community at large. 
^Vholesale planting, wh.;ther of cotton, sugar- 
cane, wheat, or vines, is certainly the least de- 
sirable form of agriculture, and compatible only 
with servile labor or its equivalent. Like 
bOQAnza mines, it enriches the fe,v, but leaves? 

the laborers in poverty and dependence, and 
impoverishes the soil; while diversified farm- 
ing on small holdings creates general and 
permanent prosperity among an intelli- 
gent and independent population. It must 
be gravely doubted that any system of 
tenantry or colonization can be more than 
temporarily successful in connection with these 
large enterprises. They are likely, moreover, 
to suffer from another cause. It has been often 
said that the profits per acre in the wholesale 
planting of wheat are very small as compared 
with those obtained under similar natural con- 
ditions on smaller holdings, on account of the 
expensive plant, and the waste from numerous 
leaks that cannot be stopped when operations 
are conducted on so large a scale. If this is 
true of so simple an indus' ry as wheat planting, 
how will itbein the case of one involving so much 
judgment and technical knowledge as grape- 
growing and wine-making, and one so entirely 
dependent upon the quality of the product for 
its pecuniary success? ^Vhere are the experts 
to supervise minutely, as must be done, the de- 
tails of the vintage from several thousands of 
acres, every part of which must be watched 
lest a little leaven should damage the whole of 
so delicate a merchandise as wine? By dint of 
its very vastness, the undertaking falls into the 
same risks as in the case of the attempted 
making of wine by each small grower, of whom 
not one in ten possessed the necessary knowl- 
edge of the processes. There is a measure below 
as well as above which an industry like this in- 
volves great risk of fiuancial failure. 

For small growers, whose families can con- 
tribute largely to the labors of the vintage, the 
labor famine will have no terrors; and, gener- 
ally speaking, the grape industry will suffer 
less than thatoforchardfruits, whosebulkyprod- 
ucts require much more handling before get- 
ing into a marketable and preservable shape. 
With the former, the pressure ceases with the 
picking. Must once in the casks or vats is not 
very exacting in the amount of labor re(juired, 
however much it stands in need of the closest 
and most intelligent attention; and wine once 
made almost takes care of itself, and can wait 
for a market as long as the owner's 
financial condition will permit. Yet the 
grower of grapes exclusively will find himself 
under the difficulty of being unable to give em- 
ployment tliroughout the year to those whose 
help he needs during the vintage, a disadvan- 
tage inseparable from all undiversitied farming, 
except perhaps in the cases of cotton and sugar 

For this rea.son alone, even the small vine- 
yardist should to a certain extent diversify his 
products; apart from the general maxim that it 
is unsafe to rely and stake all upon tlic outcome 
of a single crop, however rarely that crop may 
fail in our amiable climate. In the case of 
wine-making it is doubly desirable that the pro- 
ducer should be financially al)le to hold his pro- 
duct until it shall have distinctly shown its 
best quality; and unless he be a capitalist, he 
can do this only by having something else to 
fall back upon for immediate pecuniary needs. 

While, then, we may not share the appre- 
hensions of those who fear that grape-planting 
will necessarily be overdone in the immediate 
future, if the present rate of increase be main 
tained for some years to come, it may reason- 
ably be expected that the high profits realized 
within the last few years will not much longer 
be generally maintained, unless the increase in 
the quantity of the product should be accom- 
panied by such parallel improvement in the 
quality as shall materially and rapidly enlarge 
both the home and foreign market for Califor- 
nia wines. Those growing a high grade prod 
uct have no reason to fear unremanerative 
prices; but it may be that the valley lands, 
yielding from ten to seventeen tons per acre, 
will, for wine-making purposes, before long 
fall behind those of less exuberant yield in tlu 
net returns. When labor is scarce and high, 
high (|uality and value of necessity gain pre- 
cedence over hirge (quantity and inferior grade, 
which iu the old world, at least, is lield to be 
insep:irable from such high production. In 
France the average product per acre is about 
one and two thirds tons, and much less in 
the vineyards yielding the celebrated wiues; 
while more than twice that amount is 
the least average assignable to California. 
Although contrary to the cherished convictions 
of not a few of her enthusiastic sons, it is hardly 
reasonable to suppose that the same laws that 
govern wine production and the taste of wine 
consumers elsewhere will not hold good here, 
and will not vindicate themselves whenever 
a normal state of e(iuilibrium is reached, as 
with the increased facilities of communication 
must soon be the ease. 

As a result of this increased communication, 
also, the labor question will adjust itself thi-ough 
the influx of immigration; and it is pleasant for 
those whose home interests are permanently 
established in this sunny clime to consider that 
a commonwealth of fruit-growers and vintners 
is, almost of necessity, one of more than average 
intelligence, not only because of the special 
need of the use of brains and knowledge in- 
volved, but also because the pursuit is so 
attractive as to bring within its ranks, especially 
in later life, a good many educated men from 
"the professions." Nowhere, probably, is the 
desire for a country home so universal as in 
California, for nowhere does nature render it so 
easy to combine it with a rational enjoyment of 
life. It may not be irrelevant to add, that no- 
where will a good professional training of those 
devoting themselves to agricultural pursuits be 
more richly reppi<?i 

An Interesting Region. 

Mr. Arnold Hague contributes to the third 
annual report of the Director of the United 
States Geological Survey an abstract of his 
forthcoming monograph upon the general 
geology of the Eureka district. 

On the Nevada Plateau the broad central 
north and south valleys, lying between merid- 
ional mountain ranges, reach an average altitude 
of 6,000 feet above sea level, the country falling 
away gradually on both sides till at Salt Lake, 
in Utah, tlie altitude is 4,'2.")0 feet, and at Carson 
and Humboldt Lakes, in Nevada, 3,800 feet 
above sea level. 

In general the broader physical features of 
the Great Basin ranges are much the same all 
the way from the bold escarpment of the 
Sierra Nevada of California to the precipitous 
wall of the Walisatch mountains of Utah, 
the distance in an east and west line being 
about 42.5 miles. They form long, narrow 
mountain uplifts with sharply-defined limits, 
rising with more or less abruptness above 
broad intervals of desert. In width they 
seldom measure more than eight miles, but 
frequently extend for more than 100 miles in 
length, with serrated peaks and ridges rising 
from 2,000 to (),000 feet al)0ve adjacent valleys. 
For the most part they possess a simplf^ topo- 
graphical structure and a simple drainage 
system. They are characterized, more es- 
pecially the lower ranges, by absence of trees, 
and in many cases are nearly bare of pll vege- 
tation, presenting rough, rugged slopes of naked 

On the higher parts of the plateau the ranges, 
reaching a greater altitude, partake more of an 
Alpine or sub- Alpine character. Precipitation 
of moisture is more abundant, as seen both in 
tlie more fre<iuent rains of summer and snow 
of winter. A greater precipitation produces 
larger and more freipient streams, and a con 
tinned moisture favors a varied vegetation 
— the spurs and ridges being more or less cov- 
ered with dwarfed and stunted forest growth. 

The East Humboldt mountains, midway be- 
tween the Sierra and the Wahsatoh, form the 
most prominent range in the (ireat Basin. 
They present not only by reason of the greater 
number of rugged and commanding peaks — 
many attaining an elevation over II, 000 feet 
abovesealevel but by theirbroad, massive pro- 
portions, long unbroken ridges, and Alpine 
character, the boldest uplift on the Nevada 
plateau. Next west from the Humboldt occurs 
the Diamond range, followed by the Pinion 
range, with the broad Diamond valley lying 
between them. Southward the s luthern 
extremities of these two ranges eiit;r the 
Eureka districtandforina partof its mountainous 

On the plateau, among the more marked ex- 
ceptions to the long, narrow ranges which rid 
the surface of the country may be mentioned 
the Roberts Peak Group, connecting the Wah- 
vveah with the I'inion range, the White Pine 
mountains, and the subject of the present re- 
port, the mountains of the Eureka district. 

The Eureka district forms a rough mountain 
lilock standing out by itself, except for its nar- 
row connections with the Pinion and Diamond 
ranges, almost as completely isolated from its 
neighbors as the longer parallel ranges. As a 
mountain mass, however, it has never received 
any distinct appellation which would include all 
its members, it being made up of portions of sev- 
eral ranges and short uplifted blocks so inti- 
mately connected and inosculated as to form both 
topographically and geologically a single group 
hemmed in on all sides by the characteristic 
detrital valleys. To the north. Diamond valley 
extends for over 40 miles in an unbroken plain, 
the lowest part of the depression being covered 
in winter by a broad sheet of water, which, upon 
evaporation, presents during the greater part of 
the 3 car a hard level floor, strongly impreg- 
nated with salt. To the south of the district 
lies the broad basin of Fish Creek valley, con- 
necting with Newark valley on the east side of 
Diamond range, while Antelope valley cuts 
off the Eureka district on the west side from 
the neighboring mountains. 

It is doubtful if any area of eijual extent in 
Nevada possesses more varied physical features 
with such strongly marked contrasts. In close 
proximity may be seen long serrated ridges, 
broad summits, gently inclined tables of nearly 
horizontal sedimentary beds, with abrupt es- 
carpments along canyon wails, and highly tilted 
strata in rough irregular spurs. And as might 
be expected in a country made up of individual 
blocks and parts of ranges and so interlocked as 
to form one broad mass, the region is character- 
ized by broad shallow basins, long narrow ra- 
vines and winding valleys, presenting a more 
than ordinarily accidented surface with an 
intricate structure. Above the broad base of 
the surrounding sage-brush valleys, which have 
an altitude of 0,000 feet above sea level, rise 
many prominent peaks from 2,i")00 to 4,500 feet. 
Diamond peak, in the northeast corner of the 
district, at the southern extremity of Diamond 
range, is the culminating point, measuring 
10,037 feet above sea level, and, with the excep- 
tion of the high summits in the East Humboldt 
range, is one of the loftiest peaks on the Ne- 
vada plateau. Prospect penk, on the central 
ridge, and the second point in the district, mea- 
sures f),604 feet, while Atrypa peak, to the 
southwest on the same ridge, has an altitude of 
9,063 feet above nen Invftl, Other points are 

White Cloud peak, the highest point on a 
broad plateau-like ridge, 8,!).")0 feet, Alplia peak 
8,98.5 feet, and Woodpecker's peak 8, .598 feet, 
all of them being formed of sedimentary rocks. 
Among volcanic mountains may be mentioned 
Richmond mountain just east of the town of 
Eureka, which rises to a hight of 8,392 feet; 
and Pinto peak, an isolated cone to the south- 
ward, which reaches an altitude of 7,880 feet 
above sea-level. 

Nature presents a barren, arid appearance 
\ egetation is everywhere limited, and is mainly 
confined to bunch grasses on the mountain 
slopes, and sage brush in the open valleys 

As the valleys are mainly filled with coarse 
detntal material from mountain slopes soils 
suitable for agricultural purposes occupy very 
small areas, and are only found in the l)roa<le'r 
basins. In the favored spots where water fc r 
irrigation purposes can be readily ol)tained all 
the more hardy vegetables grow well, and are of 
excellent quality, but nearly all crops suffer 
from early frosts. In no sense can the country 
l)e regarded as an ii.'ricultural one, and cultiva- 
tion of the soil is only remunerative to the farm- 
er by reason of the very high prices received 
for his produce. 

Mendocino Hop Notes. 

Ei,n'0R,s PRES.S :-A8 hop raising in tiie past 
two years has taken rank as one of the leading 
industries in Mendocino county, the following 
Items on this subject may prove interesting to 
many of your readers : 

The acreage planted in hops in this county 
prior to 1883 was about 700, but owing to the 
failure of the European crop in 1882, and the 
high prices hops lirought that fall, the follow- 
ing spring everybody that had good hop land cn 
their farms put out as many acres as they could 
and the acreage increased from 700 to 1 600 

From the 1 ,600 acres planted there was about 
6,;)00 bales of dried hops harvested, and, aver- 
aging the bales at 18.5 pounds gross, the crop of 
this county amounted to 1,202, .500 pounds. 

The cost of producing this crop is rather 
astonishing when figured up. The cost of rais- 
ing the crop, dried and ready for market, was 
about as follows : Planting, poling, training, 
etc., five cents per pound, or .1i;60,125; packing 
cost this season an average of two cents per 
pound green, or eight cents per pound dried 
amounting to j?9(),200, to which must be added 
drying and baling, at a cost of two cents per 
pou:id, or i;!24,0.50. As will be seen by the 
al)ove figures, Mendocino's crop this year cott 
•'?180,375 before it was ready for the market. 

Estimating our crop as bringing an average 
of eighteen cents per pound laid down in the 
market this year, will give a return of §216,650 
to the revenue of our county, and after ded'uct- 
ing cost of producing leaves the growers about 
•^36,27.5. According to the above figuring, the 
profit per acre on the 1,600 planted would be 
about §22.50. Many realized more than this, 
while others did not come out even. Some of 
the growers sold their crop to better advantage 
than others, as prices paidiu this county ranged 
from thirteen to twenty-two cents, according to 

Some of this year's hops were damaged from 
not being picked when ripe; but that could not 
be avoided, owing to the scarcity of pickers, 
even at the liigh prices paid. It was almost iml 
possible to get Chinamen up here to pick, 
and those we did get were not a success. 

Our crop for 1884 will be far in excess of the 
past year, should everything be favorable, as 
the 900 acres planted out in 1883 will raise 
double the quantity they did this year, which 
will increase the yield about two-fifths next 

Several of the hop raisers, being discouraged 
at the low prices realized this year, have leased 
their yards to Chinamen, which is considered as 
anything but a good plan by many of our large 
producers, from the fact that great care is re- 
(jaired in preparing hops for the nuirket, and 
the everlasting greed of the Mongolian race 
will not allow them to proceed about curing 
them properly. The experience of one or tw'o 
of the Russian River hop men who have leased 
to Chinamen in the past liaxe been far from 
satisfactory. They invariably pick them before 
they are ready in order to get their crop har- 
vested in time to work in other yards; and an- 
other thing that is very important iu curing a 
good marketable article, they neglect to kcc]) 
a uniform temperature while drying, many 
times turning a batch out about two-third.s 
dried, causing them to sweat and be almost 
wortliless when brought to market. Too much 
care cannot be exd'ci-sed in packing and drying 
hops if you expect to realize a good figure for 

Some damaged their hops this year by put- 
ting too many in a sack in the field before 
bringing to the kiln. Eighty pounds of green 
hops is enough to put in a sack at a time, for 
when too many are crowded together they in- 
variably sweat, not only losing the rich color 
they should have when dried, but impairing the 
flavor and almost ruining them. 

The fame of Russian River hops is such that 
it is unfortunate for those who take pride in 
raising a good article to have growers that are 
indilfercnt on the subject lease their yards to 
Chinese. Our hops are worth at present from 
two to three cents per pound more than any 
other brand in the New York market; l)ut if 
great care is not taken in the future our hops 
may not command any better prices than those 
raised elsewhere. A. G. Lf.kpf.I!, 

Ukiah, Cal. 


[January 5, 1884 

Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granges are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 

Harvest Feast at San Jose Grange. 

[Written for lU rai, Pkkss I.v Sister O. J. All>cc.) 

We had a pleasant day for our harvest feast, 
albeit Jack I'rost was about, as we found by our 
early start in the morning. Granger Hall was 
well fillet; by our members; but there was not 
so many visitors as we hoped to have seen, after 
the invitations extended them through the 
Prkss and Palron. We conferred the third 
and fourtli degrees upon a class of six, three 
brothers and three sisters, the most of them 
young people. We are gathering in a good 
many of the young of late, and we aim to make 
our meetings so interesting as well as instruct- 
ing, that there will yet more of the same class 
hasten to join our ranks. 

After partaking of a bountiful feast of all tlie 
delicacies pertaining to the season, tliere was 
an open meeting, and we listened to several es- 
says from our members, interspersed with music. 
Bro. Webster also made a neat little speech 
wliich was well received. Bro. Overhiser said, 
after listening to such able essays he thought he 
could Sity nothing so appropriate as to read the 
Doclaration of Purposes, as there were some 
outsiilers among us who might be glad to know 
our intentions, and what we met week after 
week for. I heren ith send you one of the es 
says, read by Sister S. A. Bicknell : 

The Gleaners. 

Sisters, you are now welcomed into our Coun- 
cils as (Ileaners. We look to you to follow the 
Harvesters, and gatlier in witli your perceptive 
faculties what they have failed to collect with 
their philosophic reasoning. We are gleaners 
after truth and knowledge ; let us glean in the 
Book of Nature ; go out into the sunsliine, and 
turn page after page in this great book. You 
will read there that we have been advancing — 
still are advancing from the lower to the highe" 
spheres in life, and ever must be. From this 
book we glean beautiful lessons, learn grand 
truths, that help to build up noble manhood and 
grand womanhood, destinetl to walk side by side 
out into the great harvest fields of progression, 
where together they shall wield the sickle anil 
gather in the ripened sheaves of truth. Let us 
all be harvesters, as we are all gleaners, in the 
great fields of Nature. Women can no longer 
be content to sit with their heads covered, and 
l;arn of their husbands at home ; they have 
been gleaning after knowledge. In looking at 
the tiny blade of grass, or the simple wild rose 
in the field.s, we learn lessons of progression. 
Y'ear after year, as we cultivate (lowers to 
beautify our homes and make them more 
attractive, we are gleaning lessons for eternity, 
lessons that elevate us. It is soul-growth. 
Turn your eye from the wild to the beauti 
ful cultivated roses in our gardens to-day and 
tell me, is not progress stamped upon every 
leaflet ? We do not cultivate the wild rose but 
try to root it out of our grounds. In its place 
we plant the tree of knowledge; cultivate it 
well that it may spread its branches high and 
wide to protect us from error. We must try 
to glean useful lessons from every path in life. 
If our ritual is founded upon the book of 
nature and we are gleaners after knowledge, 
then indeed I am proud to be a gleaner; but if 
it is founded on tlie book of Ruth, who went to 
glean in the fields of Boaz, that she might be 
permitted to sleep at his feet and rest from her 
toil, then, althonf;h I do not feel dishonored, I 
do feel that we li^u e gone back to a time in the 
history of the world when ignorance reigned 
supreme, and only the wihl rose with its 
faint perfume struggled up from the 
uncultivated soil to whisper the possi 
bilities that could be reached by cultiva 
tion and knowledge. I am informed that our 
ritual originated in Washington, the home of 
cultured men, who sit in the councils of our 
nation making laws to govern its people. 
Woman was excluded from their councils as out 
of place, or unfitted to mingle in their deliber 
ations. Here in this national city a few men 
with progressive minds conceived a plan to or 
ganizc the farmers of our country into co- 
operative councils, where they could meet and 
mature plans that should elevate, instruct, and 
bind them together as brothers. Working for 
the good of all, they called themselves "Harvest- 
ers." These good men, feeling the want of wo- 
man's refining influence, like their elder brother 
Adam in the story of old, invited us into their 
garden once so beautiful; now weeds and this- 
tles were chokuig out the fruits and flowers. 
Here is work to be done. All that is objection- 
able we must carefully remove without injury 
to fruit aiul flowers; so we went gleaniun in this 
garden. It was pleasant labor. It was a labor 
of- love for the good of humanity. They were 
pleased with our labors, and named us 
* Gleaners." 

I associated the name with the story of old and 
stumbled, for only ignorance held woman in 
that unenviable condition in life. Our watch, 
ward is "Advance," although our progress be 
slow; even though we faint by the wayside, 
others shall catch the echo of our voices, take 
up the watchward, "Advance," until man and 
his eipial — woman — march on together, each 
carrying a share of the sheaves of truth and 
knowledge; then you will honor her in every 

walk of life; then you will have her standing 
by the side of man in all the departments of 
our government co-operating together for the 
good of all. t , J 

Brothers, you have the advantage of Adam 
in this respect. You know he had to sleep 
while a woman was made for him. Crooked 
and uncouth she musi have been, made of a 
rib, and a spare rib at that. We were ready 
maile and on hand, but you cannot x^jan us 
from your councils and homes or harvest feasts. 
Still, sisters and brothers, let us be harvesters 
and gleaners in the fields of nature. 


HE.\LDSBURii Granoe, Sonoma County.— 
.James McCish, M.; A. S. Bouton, 0.; C. P. 
Moon, S. ; Charles Alexander, A. S. ; C. A. 
Morrill, L.; Sister A. L. Warner, C; T. .1. 
Barnes, L. : \V. N. Gladden, Sec; J. (i. Heald, 
G. K.; Sister Price, Pomona; Sister Mary 
Allen, Flora; Sister \V. T. Allen, Ceres; Sister 
Charles Alexander, L. A. S. 

O.i.M GitAN'cE, Ventura County.- Richard 
Robinson, W. M.; .John Montgomery, O. ; H. 
J. Dcnnison, L. ; K. Ayers, S. ; .John Pinkerton, 

A. S. ; W. S. McKee, C. ; Robert Ayers, Treas.; 

B. F. Spencer, Sec; Milo Cory, (i. K.; Mrs. C. 
E. .Toules, Ceres; Mrs. Geo. Tood, Pomona; 
Miss L. Dennison, Flora; Miss Ida Ayres, L. A. S. 

i'Li.vAs GuANdE, Plumas County. — Wm. 
Arms, M.; R. G. Hamlen, O.; K. .1. Wood, L.; 
Veva Ayers, S. ; A. Hubbard. A. S. ; W. E. 
McXeil, C: .1. L. t row, Treas ;T. Black, Sec 
(). McKlroy, (i. K.; Mrs. Trimble, Ceres: Sister 
Arms, Pomona; Sister Sperry, Flora: Sister 
Hibbard, L. A. S. 

PoTTKR Valley Grange, Mendocino Co. — 
Wm. Eddy, M.; S. H. McCreary, ().; W. V. 
Kilbourn, L. ; .Jerry Lierly, S. ; W. A. Grover 
A. S. : H. P. McGee. C. : H. Everett, Treas. 
(j. U. Kiel, Sec y: R. 15. Burrows, G. K.; Mrs. 
L. B. Lierly, Ceres; Addie Dashiels, Pomona; 
Annie Mcliee, Flora; Addie Spencer, 1.. A. S. 

S.M^RAME.N'To Granhe. — O. S. Flint, W. M. 
(i. C. McMuUen, W. 
man, W. L ; William 
V. Flint, A. W. S.: 
M. Spraigue, W. Sec'y. 
K.; " 

at their triumph would render the existence 

political parties, with their rancor and bitter- 
ness and turmoil unnecessary and impossible. 

Let us remember, and labor as remembering, 
that with the triumph of the principles of the 

range, "comes the good time coming;'' when 
crime shall cease and fraud shall fail, and justice 
hold aloft her scale, and with her glittering 
sword in hand banish foul knavery from our 


The Death of John Lewelling. 

Editors Press : — Inside please find resolu- 
ons passed by St. Helena (Jrange in memory of 
our lamented Bro. John Lewelling, which I will 
thai'k you to insert in your issue. — AVili.iam 
Peterson, Secretary St. Helena Grange. 

WiiF.RE.vs, It his pleased our Divine Master to 
remove from our midst our worthy brother, ]olin 
'.ewelling, to that higher Grange above; therefore, 
be it 

Resolved, That in his death our Order has lost an 
earnest and faithful member, and the conmmnity a 
highly valued citizen, the memory of whose active and 
useful life will be cherished long after his familiar 
face and form have been forgotten. 

Resolved, That we tender our heartfelt sympathy 
to the family and friends of the deceased, and com- 
mend them to our Great Master above, who alone 
can give consolation and comfort in this their hour of 

Resolved, That our Grange hall be draped in 
mourning for thirty days, and that these resolutions 
be spread upon the minutes of the Grange; also, 
copies be sent to the family of the deceased, to the 
Rural Presj, and ('•iliforuia Patron and local 
papers for publication. — Committee, S.\raii Pf.i 


O.: Ann M. Jack 
Tibbcts, W. S.; F. 
Geo. Rich, W. C. 
; W. Hack, Jr., (} 
Ruth Merwin, W. Pomona; Alice Green 
\V. Flora; Mrs. J^aniel Flint, M'. Ceres 

Edith Uudin, L. A. S. ; C. D. Tibbets, Organist, 
Santa Ros.v Granije, ]So. 17. -Election De 
cember 8, I8.S;J: E. W. I)avis, M.; John Adams, 
0. ; G. W. Davis, L.; Mrs. E. A. Rogers 
Chap.; Otto \. Ort, S.; L. .1. Hawkins, A. S. 
.Julius Ort, Treas.; W. 8. P. Coulter, Sec: Lee 
Adams, (i. K.: Mrs. E. W. Davis, Pomona 
Mrs. G. W. Davis, Ceres; Mrs. Amanda Moore 
Flora; Miss Minnie Coulter, Iv. A. .'-i. 

Walnct Creek (jR.^mm;, Contra Costa Co. 
\. Jones, M.; T. C. Whitten, O.; \V 
Caven, L. ; J. Larkey, T. ; J. \V. Jones, S. 
Mrs. J. Larkey, C. ; E. A. Seaman, Sec.; C 
S. Whitcomb, (J. K.; T. W. Sturges, A. S 
Mrs. T. W. Sturges, L. A. S. ; Mrs. 
Seaman, Pomona; Mrs. W. R. Daley, 
Miss Anna L. Loucks, Ceres. 

WooDUBiDiJB Grange, San Joaquin Co, 
Woodruff', M.; (i. H. Ashley,!).; J. L. Hutson 
L.; W. B. White, S.; J. Thompson, A. S. ; E, 
J. Mcintosh, C: H. M, Woods, Treas.; Mrs 
E. J. Mcintosh, Secy.; R. .1. Par.sons, (i. K. 
Sister R. .1. Parsons, Ceres: .Sister Martha 
Williams, Pomona: Sister G. H. Ashley, Flora 
Sister J. Thompson, L. A. S. 

E. A 


Good Standing in Grange Work. 

Worthy Master .S. T. Coulter, who is now on 
his return from the meeting of the National 
(irange, tarried, as he expected to do, ai his old 
home in Missouri for a visit. While there he 
took occasion to write the following important 
letter to the Patron: 

I desire to call the attention of the members 
of our Order, and especially that of the Mas 
ters and Secretaries of our Subordinate 
Granges, to the provision of law requiring that 
the evidence of "Good .Standing" shall only be 
imparted to those who are entitled to it. "Good 
Standing" implies freedom from all charges on 
the hooks ol the Order, of whatsoever kind, 
and precludes pecuniary arrearages as well as 
other deliiKiuency or misconduct. The 
dence of good standing is imparted by the 
Worthy Master of the National (irange (to 
such as are entitled to receive it), through the 
Masters of the State and Subordinate Granges 
A State (irange is in good standing w hen it 
free from all charges of whatsoever kind on th 
books of the National (irange. A Subordinate 
(irange is in good standing when it has a lik 
freedom from charges on the books of the State 
(irange. And a member is in good tt:indin 
who is, in like manner, free on the books of tl 
Subordinate (irange. 

It is to be hoped that all will strive to be 
readiness at the opening of the New Year to 
receive the evidence of good standing. And 
let us all enter upon the work of the New Year 
with a united and fixed determination to make 
it a year of even more prosperity and usefulness 
than any that has preceded it. 

The coming year promises to be one of ex 
citement and political partisan turmoil. Let 
us never for a moment lose sight of the fact 
that the triumph and supremacy of the princi 
pies of our (Jrder are infinitely more to be 
laboi cd for than that of any political party 



Walnut Creek (irange will liave its installa 
tion of officers on the second Saturday of Jan- 
uary. Bro. C. Wood, District Lecturer, has 
)een invited to act as Installing Otticer. The 
harvest feast will be at 10 a. m. All Grangers 
are invited to attend. — N. Jones, W. M. 



The Ladies' Appeal. 

Beet Pi lp Dairy. — Livermore Herald, Dec. 

: The Alvarado Beet Sugar (Jompany, it is 
reported, intends to establish a dairy in con- 
nection with its sugar factory. The commence- 
ment is to be made with I")0 cows. The com- 
pany now work 10,000 tons of beets, giving 
sulficient refuse to feed oOO cows all the year 


Coi'NTV St.\tistI( S. - .S(«/irfan/ : G. H. 
Shaw, Assessor of Humboldt, has been the sec- 
ond county oflicial to respond to the reijuest of 
the Bureau, with which statistics are at the 
command of sucli otficers. The report opens 
with the statement that the acreage of the 
county, exclusive of town lots, is •2,101,840, and 
that 17,1'2'2 acres are under cultivation; 1,844.- 
"18 acres are unfit for cultivation, and of this 
',(•21, G(X) acres are timber land. A very limited 
number of acres of desirable farming land are 
open to pre-emption. Land is valued at from 
87.5 (maximum) to ."^lO (minimum) per acre, or 
an average of 42. .50, and the average rent per 
acre is The improvements, exclusive of 

town buildings, etc., in the county, are valued 
at 304,095, and the agricultural implements are 
assessed atS'l"2,(i07. Labor-savingimplenients for 
agricultural purposes have a total value of 
.?")."),510, .and fences cost .'<3^20 a mile to build. 
Farm hands are paid on an average of ^30 per 
month, including l>oard, and find employment 
for six months in the year. During the re- 
maining si.\ months they jiut in their time in 
the woods getting out lumber. Ten hours con- 
stitutes a day's work, and deductions arc made 
for absence by reason of sickness. The mental, 
moral and physical condition of the laboring 
classes is good, and there is w-ork for all, and 
the demand exceeds the supply in the lumber- 
ing districts. The roads are only medium in 
condition, but the sanitary condition of all land 
is good. 


The (Jakland Woman's 'I'emperance Union 
on December 31st distributed throughout Oak- 
land a neatly printed note as follows; 

To THE Lahies of OrR City : — Vou have 
heard of the sixty thousand homes in our land 
annually made desfdate by intemperance: and 
some of you have had a glimpse into that desola- 
tioB: for much of th"' iroi to them that J'olhir 
njter sIroiKj driiil: comes even on thii- siilc the 

Our Heavenly Father has pronounced a woe ' 
upon him who putteth the cup to his neighbor's 

Dear friends, let us eacli ask tlie blessed Mas- | 
tor, "Lord, is it I "r" Did that erring man, once 
the pride of fond parents and the hope of his 
country, ever taste wine in my home, or once j 
feel his blood stirred by the viands at iny table ? 
Aye, in .wijmc home, and at many a table. 

To night, as with a mother's love you bend 
over your sleeping boys, think of the tempta- 
tions that will surround them, and pause, on 
these holidays, lest by word or deed you should 
tempt another. 

In the name of those who mourn their dis- 
honored dead ; in the name of those who are 
chained by appetite to a living death; in the 
name of those j'et unhurt; in the name of a 
nation s need; in the name of our homes; in 
the name ok Goi>, we earnestly entreat you to 
refrain from the use or passing of wine, and 
from offering it t) your visitors on New Year's 

As this leaflet finds its way into a thousand 
of the l)eautiful homes of Oakland, may we not 
hope that wine may be banished from every 
table; that 1884 m.ay begin with husbands anil 
brothers untempted. 

Lane Lectnres. 

The second course of popular lectnres at 
Cooper Medical College, corner Sacramento 
and Webster streets, San Francisco, will be 
delivered during the coming winter, according 
to the programme below. These lectures are 
free. No ticket of admission is required : 

Progr.ammc of I-ccturcs. — January 4, 18S4, Pro- 
fessor C Gushing, " The Influence of the Mind on 
the Bodv;" January 18, Professor H. fiibbous. 
Sr., " The Influence of the Body on the Mind;" 
February i. Professor J. H. Wythe, " Diseases of 
.Modern Civilization;" February 15, Professor ('. .\. 
lillinwood, "Progress in Medicine; ' March 7. Pro 
fessor ). O. Hirschfelder, " The Spinal Cord, with 
Experimenis: ' March 21, Professor W. D.Johnston, 
"Spectrum Analysis;' April 4, Professor Henry 
Gibbons, Ir., " Sleep and Sleeple.ssness;" .\pril 18, 
Doctor J. F., "The Antiseptic Method; ' 
M.-iy 2, Professor A. Barkan, "The \'oice; ' May 
16, Professor L. C. Lane, "Food." The lectures 
.are at 8 o'clock P. M. 

Northers and Southern Garden and 
Ni'RSEKY'. — This is the name which Randolph 
Peters applies to his well known and long 
established enterprise at Wilmington, Dela- 
ware. We have just received a catalogue of 
his very comprehensive stock which we find 
full of interesting points for planters. A great 
many trees are sent to this coast from Mr. 
Peters' nurseries and we have heard them well 
spoken of. ' ' 

Editors Press; — It commenced raining about 
•2 o'clock Sunday morning; has continued to 
rain slowly nearly all the time since. The rain 
comes very gently <md all goes into the ground. 
The grass is gro.\iug very fast, and grain is be- 
ginning to st u t up w ith new life. The farmern 
are looking for good,crop« In Lake county next 
year. All the farmers will be busy putting in 
their crops aa soon as the rain stops. This is a 
warm rain, wind in the south and southwest, 
most of the time. — A. H. PoE. 

WoolNgtes.— Lower Lake "H, Det!. '2:2 : 
The wool and mutton growers of Lake county 
have of l.ate years evinced a commendable en- 
terprise in the improvement of their lierdsi 
Years ago, when this pursuit was in it« in 
cipiency, our sheep men owned the common 
Spanish sheep, known to that fraternity as the 
"bare belly." It soon became apparent that 
this stock was not profitable, and they began to 
cross them with the .Spanish and French merint'. 
This cross was continued until tJie desired grade 
was attained. That grade is not to any ex- 
treme. It it not desiralile to grow full blood 
sheep for their wool product, as such wool is 
loo heavy and the shrinkage is so great that 
buyers depreciate its price. What iK wanted in 
most all the factories of the United States is 
light, bright, free wool. In order to obtain 
light wool a Very fine grade of sheep must be 
avoided. That it be bright a certain degree of 
fineness must be attained and the health of the 
animal carefully attended to, and that, together 
with good range upon which the herds run, is 
what makes the wool free. Hence we say that 
light, bright, free wool is that which is most 
souglit for. The secret of the excellent;e of our 
wool growth is found in the atmosphere of 
Lake county. The salubrity of our climate is 
as much a source of profit to the dumb animal 
as to the human family, and the result is seen 
in our wool clips which show a long, light, 
flexible texture that is much sought for by the 
purchaser. In conclusion, we will suggest to 
our growers that they do not overstock their 
ranges, but carefully attend their feed and 
maintain the grade of their sheep, not .allowing 
it to run down nor breed up to any very high 
blood grade. 

Lob Angeles. 

Less Water Anp M<>i(i' Fki it.— Pomona 
Courier: Mr. H. L. Sliaug shipped twenty Ijoxes 
of oranges to Los Angeles Thursday, which, he 
believes, is the first shipment made from this 
locality this season. This shipment is impor- 
tant, as showing what may Ije accomplished 
here without summer irrigation. Mr. Shaug 
purchased his place about three yeais ago, 
and his orange grove is ten j'ears old. At 
the time of purchase his trees were not as 
thrifty as he could wish, and his experiments 
during the past three years confirmed him in 
the opinion he then formed of the reason. H^ 
believes their unhealthy appearance was en- 
tirely due to an over abundance of water used 
in irrigating, which he immediately took steps 
to correct, with the following result: The first 
year he irrigated twice during the summer, thi- 
year following Init once, and the past snmim 1 
I not .at all. He finds that his trees not only 
thrive better, but there is no diminution in th'; 
! (|uantity of fruit, and he is enabled to market 
] his oranges some weeks in .advance of his neigh 
I bors, \Vho " have tried to aocomplish the same 
result by turning on the water oft^n. Mr. 

January 5, 1884.] 


Shaug's experience with deciduous fruits is 
productive of equally good results. He is strong 
in his belief that summer irrigation is detri- 
mental to the good of his trees and shrubs, and 
in the future will do his irrigating in the win- 
ter. There are others in the valley who have 
come to the same conclusion, and the theory 
is steadily gaining converts. We shall watch 
with interest future developments in this new 

Pasajiena Persimmons. — Timen : W. T. 
Clapp, of Pasadena, brought into town yester- 
day four vatieties of the .Japanese persimmon, a 
fruit which is highly esteemed by some people 
and as heartily detested by others. When fully 
ripe, it is, however, very palatable and has a 
tine flavor. It is good when "all smothered 
in crame. '' 'I'hose grown by Mr. Clapp are very 
large and |iresent a fine appearance. He has 
been very successful with the fruit, last year 
selling the persimmonsreadily attencentsapiece, 
and from one little tree only four feet high 
realizing $(>. There is no doubt that the .Japan- 
ese persimmon is a profitable tree when the 
right variety is planted and proper care taken 
in its cultivation. 


(iKAs.s AND ^TOVK.— Cil 1/ FirsK, Dec. "28: 
Krom conversation witli several representative 
men we are enabled to form an idea of the 
present condition of stock and their feed, and 
of the progress of agricultural operations of 
the county. In the valleys proper grass has 
grown but very little in the last four weeks, 
except where very much protected liy old grass 
and brush. On the hills it has not seemed to 
frost so hard, and from Long valley. Round 
valley and Anderson, stockmen report good 
feed, a)id cattle and sheep in good condition to 
fat. The higher ranges around Ukiah, Little 
Jjake and Potter are also reported as well 
stocked with feed, but the low hills have re- 
ceived their share of frost, and the growth of 
the grass has been checked. On the south hill- 
sides it would have made better progress had 
there been moisture enough, while the northern 
exposures have scarcely thawed out on many 
days during December l"'rom everywhere comes, 
however, the cheering word that stock is in 
such good order that even trivial losses can 
only be occasioned by unusually severe weather 
for the rest of the season. In farming opera- 
tions our people are -more dilatory than one 
would suppose from the amount of early rain 
fallen. It came before they were ready, and 
but little has fallen since they fairly began 
operations. Hence, for some time the ground 
has been too dry to bring up the sown grain, 
and too hard to plow except where ([uite sandy 
and loose. Very little of tlie rich black land 
has bi en sown as yet. In this valley they arc 
about half ilone seeding. In Potter those of 
the lower end of the valley are done, or nearly 
so, while at the upper end only a fair com- 
mencement has V)een made. The present rain, 
though light, will answer immediate purposes 
for plowing, seeding and growth, and is better 
than a heavy flooding rain for the present; Imt 
the ground was not thoroughly soaked through 
last winter, and we must soon have an old-time 
drencher, or we shall dry up. A dry season 
gives us the best crops, but for the sake of the 
general good we will submit to a wet one with 
equanimity as soon as it can come. 


The Zinkandel Grave.— Ho-ald : Early in 
November, in referring to the fact that Mr. 
Robert Thompson, of .Sonoma, was engaged in 
investigating the history of the Zinfandel grape, 
to which variety the prosperity of the wine in- 
terests on this coast is so gi-eatly due, we 
stated that J. R. Nickerson, then of Placer, 
exhibited this grape at the State Fair as early 
as IS.")!) or 18()0. The question, then, as to 
where Mr. Nickerson got the grape became a 
subject of interest. The (irass Valley l-nion 
has recently interviewed Mr. Nickerson on the 
subject and he says he procured the grapes 
which he planted in his vineyard near Lincoln, 
Placer county, from Dr. Perry, who at that 
time had a nursery a few miles below New- 
castle, in this county, and also from Hon. 
Wilson Flint, then of Sacramento, and without 
knowing definitely, he believes he obtained 
them from Mr. Flint, who had imported a 
number of varieties from France, for the 
purpose of getting the best of that country to 
adapt them to the soil and climate of California. 
This is probably the true history of the intro- 
ductionof the Zinfandel grape into California, 
and therefore the credit should be given to Mr. 
Flint. Mr. Nickerson says from his experience 
in the cultivation of this grape the stalk should 
be kept back to one foot in hight, the fruit 
spurs cut long (four or live inches in length) so 
that the grape clusters are permitted to rest 
upon the ground, to escape injury from mildew, 
and to fully develop in size and the rich flavor 
which is characteristic of the fruit. They 
should be cultivated without irrigation 

San Bernardino. 

Grape ({rowinc. — Riverside I'nss: Tlic 
best methods in grape growing will eventually 
prevail. If trellising vines is the best, let that 
be done; but this system has not proven the 
best. Several years ago Mr. D. C. Twogood, of 
Riverside, tried this plan. He set posts through 
his vineyard, and put fence wire on the posts 
and trained his vines upon these wires. The 
result was that vines continued to grow late in 
the fall, and the fruit ripened so slowly that it 
was impossible to cure the grapes before the 
winter rains, Any system that delays the 

ripening of the grapes is erroneous, as- they 
ripen late enough now. Mr. Twogood was 
compelled to change his system and use that 
now in vogue by all vineyardists in this section. 
Regarding the Sultana for raisins, vineyardists 
are still in doubt. The Muscat makes the best 
raisin, and there is danger that a large crop of 
Sultanas will not be well received by the 
markets. The peoj)le are feeling their way 
along in this matter, and the future will de- 
termine whether or not the Sultana can be 
planted on a large scale successfully for raisin 
purposes. It is a good bearer and in this re- 
spect is much preferable for the country at 
large to the Muscat, as the Sultana will do 
well where the Muscat will not bear at all. 

The Rains. — The rainfall last week, which 
makes the sum total for the season .3.20 at San 
Bernardino, .3. 22 at this place, and 11. 90 at Los 
Angeles, and in that proportion all over South- 
ern California, has I)rought out a transition 
scene that is pleasing to the eye and makes glad 
the heart of the farmer and horticulturist far and 
near. tThe rain, which was the heaviest known 
for years in the Colorado desert, has revived 
vegetation along its borders all the way to the 
summit that languished for a few drops of 
the dews of heaven to strengthen and invig- 
orate it and give it the semblance of life. 'I he 
carpet of green that greets the eyes of the over- 
land passengers as they come rolling down from 
the summit of the great San Gorgonio pass and 
go Hying down through the great San Bernar- 
tlino valley, with the yellow orange groves, 
waving palms, the plowing, planting and gath- 
ering of citrus fruits, and the air of prosperity 
on every hand, with the prospect of an abund- 
ant harvest, makes the outlook altogether 
lovely. It restores confidence in all great en- 
terprises and undertakings; it gives backbone 
to business; it makes sales in large tracts of 
land that have been hanging fire through the 
influence of croakers, who can always see a dry 
season ahead and snuff calamity from afar of}'. 

San Diego. 

The Rains. —f/n/o?(, Dec. 27 : The rain con- 
tinued at intervals throughout Friday night, 
and there were a number of light showers yes- 
terday. The fall since our last report has been 
twenty hundredths of an inch, nuiking a total 
of one inch and fifteen hundredths for the storm. 
Thus far this season 4.0.3 inches of rain have 
fallen, of which 2.01 inches fell in October, 
twenty hundredths of an inch in November, 
and 1.82 inches in December to date. During 
the late storm the interior of our county fared 
even better than along the coast. At the Cajon 
about two inches of rain fell, and the amount 
was still greater further inland. Frank Frary 
says it has rained almost constantly at .Julian 
since Wednesday last. The mountain roads in 
tliat section were washed out considerably by 
the rain. Along the mail route of Warren 
Hackett the rains were equally heavy. At 
Poway, Bernardo, Hear \'alley and I'ala the fall 
issstimated at two inches, while at Tonecula 
the estimate was still larger. While it has not 
rained any since yesterday afternoon, it is 
doubtful whether the storm is yet over, as the 
weather is still in an unsettled condition. 
Whether we have more rain now, or not, mat- 
ters little so far as the good it would do is con- 
cerned, for the ground is thoroughly soaked, 
and in fine condition for plowing and sowing all 
over the county. The acreage which will be 
planted to grain will be almost doul>le that of 
any previous year, and the outlook for a pros- 
perous season, with abundant crops, could not 
be better. 

San Luis Obispo. 
Sea View Ranch. — Editdks Press: Vou 
will see by this that we are in our new home, 
having purchased a tract of land at the above 
named place, which has been subdivided into 
tracts for colony purposes. "Oak Park" is a body 
of land ten miles south of the town of San Luis 
Obispo, and is in one of the finest sections of the 
State for fruits and vegetables. The larger por- 
tion of the lands here slope in a southwesterly 
direction toward the bay of San Luis Obispo, 
and are sheltered on the north, east and west by 
a high range of hills from cold winds. It is 
warmer in these little valleys than it is in the 
valley of San Luis Obispo. This is one of the 
finest localities along the coast north of Santa 
Barbara for the culture of semi-tropical fruits, 
such as oranges, lemons, limes, figs, olives, etc. ; 
and for fruits of the temperate zone, as apricots, 
prunes peaches and vines it is unsurpassed. 
There is no lietter place in ( -alifornia for raising 
olives than here. Of the olive grove planted by 
the early Mission Fathers of San Luis Obispo, a 
few only are remaining, and they are veneiable 
looking trees, the rest having been cut down 
for fire-wood and cleared away for streets, 
liuildings, etc. San Luis Obispci has been 
termed the "city of the olive tree." The few 
olive trees left standing are as large as oaks. 
C. H. Phillips and P. H. Dallidet, .)r. , are doing 
a good work for this part of the country. They 
are live men, and are selling land in small tracts 
to suit purchasers, thereby adding to the ma- 
terial wealth and prosperity of tlie country. 
This locality is in the warm belt. While there 
has been frost north, east and south of us, there 
has been none here. We have made our vege- 
table garden, and have peas and turnips already 
growing. We are three miles from .\rroyo 
Urande, a railroad station on the Pacific Coast 
railroad, and three miles from a shipping point 
on the bay of San Luis Obispo. Ever living 
springs of pure, soft water; an annual rainfall 
of twenty inches, and a delightful climate, un- 
surpassed in the world, all combined, make it a 

desirable place for residence. — 0. F. Shaw, 
M. D., Arroyo Grande. 

Mtll Needed.- - JV/Vj/f^r' : From Capt. Cur- 
rier we obtain a few items regarding the north- 
ern section of our county. Farmers have been 
busy plowing and sowing grain since the last 
rain and quite an extensive area has been put 
in. The rainfall was abundant, and answered 
for the time, Imt the ground is becoming too 
dry for cultivation. The planting of vines and 
fruit trees is receiving a great dea.l of attention. 
Farmers are urging the necessity of building a 
large flouring mill in .San Luis Obispo to give 
them a better market for their grain. They are 
incited to this by the success of the new mill at 
.Salinas City, which has furnished a market for 
the wheat of .Jolonand other sections of south- 
ern Monterey. The .Salinas City mill turns out 
550 barrels of flour every twenty- four hours, 
and has taken ()0,000 sacks of grain from .Jolon 
valley this season, paying froui five to ten cents 
percental more than the farmers could have ob- 
tained had they been compelled to ship to San 
Francisco. The wheat of Salinas valley is of a 
superior quality and makes the best flour in the 
market. With a capacious mill in this city and 
our local railroad extended over the .Santa Lucia, 
all the grain of that region will be brought here, 
and ships will be laden with Hour and wheat 
from this port. 

Los Osos. Holiday times were well cele- 
brated on the fine ranches of this district, both 
by the dwellers and their guests. The pleasant 
home of Mrs. A. Tate was graced by the arrival 
of her niece. Miss Jennie Hutchinson, who has 
been attending the Harmon Seininary in 

Santa Cruz. 

.Str.vwhekries. — Yolo Dfinorraf : Our friend, 
Mr. Ira Thurber, of Watsonville, kindly fa- 
vored us with a couple of l)0xes of his fine straw- 
berries, which the expressman delivered just in 
time for our Christmas dinner. Many of these 
strawberries were over four inches in circum- 
ference by actual measurement. They were 
grown in an open field of forty acres near Wat- 
sonville, .Santa Cruz county, from which tons 
and tons are gathered and sent to the. San Fran- 
cisco market, the crop continuing to ripen from 
April to .January, and some seasons all the year 


Cotton. — Gridley HiraUl: A Chinaman at 
Redding last week shipped to the Capital 
Woolen Mills, .Sacramento, eighteen bales of 
cotton weighing 500 pounds each. It was 
grown on land located in the foothills of .Shasta 
county. The mill company readily paid eleven 
cents a pound for it. Heretofore the cotton 
used to mix with wool has been imported from 
St. Louis, but the lot above referred to is repre- 
sented as far superior to the impoi ted article 
and costs from one to two cents per pound less. 
Several experiments in cotton-raisiug have been 
made in this county. The majority of them 
resulted very satisfactorily. 

Sonoma. Chk'KEn.s. — Ari/u^ : L. C. Byce, 
of this city, sent a lot of his celebrated Plym, 
outh Rock chickens to Auckland, New Zealand- 
and he has just received the gratifying intelli- 
gence that the birds landed there in good con- 


TiLARE Lake Lands. — Tulare Lake, in 
Tulare county, is constantly diminishing in area, 
owing to the drying up of its water. It once 
measured 28x(i2 miles, but its present areii, is 
only about 7x28 miles. The lake is a part of 
the State domain, and as the water recedes 
from the shore new lands are opened, or rather 
uncovered, to settlement. The lake is drying 
up at such a rate that it is believed it will be 
entirely gone in the course of a few years mare. 
The present area of the lake is equal to that of 
about a thousand farms of 100 acres each. The 
Bulletin says: "A party of seven citizens who 
left this city on the 4th instant, to spy out pub- 
lic land on the niar.;in of Tulare J^ake, in Tulare 
county, have returned after a successful expedi- 
tion. They comprised Mr. Allen, of .Santa 
Rosa, William C. Peters, of .San Francisco, Mr. 
Norway, a surveyor of Santa Barbara, and four 
well-to-do farmers, Mr. Pfeister, of Volo, Mr. 
Welcli, of Alameda. Mr. Kennetli, of (Jontra 
Costa, and Mr. McPhcrson, of (Jolusa. Mr. 
Allen originated the expedition and led tlie 
party. All seven of the party just returned 
secured locations, Mr. Peters buying out a man 
already on the ground for $'ti)0 for ()40 acres. 
This land is all classed as swamp and over 
flowed, and lands of this class are all owned by 
the State, which permits purchasers to take up 
640 acres each. The soil is a rich, black loam, 
with no signs of alkali. That portion of the 
bed of the lake yet covered by water has not 
been appropriated. There are about forty 
artesian wells within a radius of twenty five 
miles around the lake. Farmers cannot depend 
on the rain. These wells are sunk to a depth 
of from 3.")0 to 500 feet, and the water is excel- 
lent for drinking as for other purposes. The 
eastern side of the lake is now all appropriated, 
but the western side has not yet been surveyed. 
It may he added tJiat these lands do not invite 
the settler of limited means. If proposing to 
make his home on the lands from the start, he 
should have a capital of §5,000. The State sells 
its title for SI per acre, giving fifty days for the 
purchaser to pay the first installment of ?1."')0. 
It will accept tlie lialance at the convenience of 
th'; purchaser, he paying interest annually in 
advance at 7 per cent. But water must be 
bought from the irrigation companies or pro- 

cured by sinking artesian wells." The cause 
of the rapid drying up of Tulare Lake is attri- 
buted to the diversion of water for purposes of 
irrigation, from King and Fresno rivers, which 
empty into the lake. 


R.\in. — I'rescott Courier, Dec. 24: Three 
inches and sixty-one hundredths of an inch of 
water fell here between i) o'clock Wednesday 
evening and .Sunday morning last. Pretty good 
spill for Arizona, "The oldest inhabitant" 
does not recollect having ever before seen or 
heanl of such a glorious rainstorm at this 
season of the year. 


('nor I'lidsi-Ki'Ts. — 0/v;/o;(/Vt», December 21: 
It is yet very early to speculate upon next year's 
crops, because a hundred accidents may serve 
to hinder or promote them. .Still it is gratify- 
ing to see that all circumstances so far indicate 
that the yield of grain will be large. The 
weather in many parts of the W^illamette valley 
and of eastern Oregon and Washington, too, 
was not favorable tor seeding during a large 
part of October, and the area sown is not 
greater than that of last year, as it would have 
been under more favorable conditions. But the 
seeding is fully equal to that of any former year, 
and it is in good condition in every part of the 
country. There will be, as usual, a large spring 

Land Grants WMch Should be Can* 

The Committee on Public Lands expect to re- 
port a number of separate bills when Congress 
reconvenes, <leolaring forfeited the lands 
granted certain railroad companies. The 
amount of land involved reported by the Chair" 
man of the ( 'ommittee, Cobb, is between 50,000,- 
000, and 100,000,000 acres. The Texas Pacific 
land grant is expected to be reported forfeited. 
This grant alone is 11,000,000 acres. In an 
interview Monday Cobb said there was no ques" 
tioii as to the right of the government to de- 
clare forfeited 25,000,000 acres of land on vari- 
ous roads. "The attorneys of the railroads," he 
continued, "will be given an opportunity to be 
heard, but will not be given too much time, 
The Northern Pacific has not complied with the 
terms of the grant. It has 48,000,000 acres 
that ought to be forfeited. In the .Judiciary 
(Committee of the last Congress the vote for its 
forfeiture was seven to eight. There are a 
number of railroad men here now trying to op 
pose any legislation of the character contem- 
plated. They have been trying to influence 
members of the present Congress. Some years 
ago they got the Supreme Court to declare tl.e 
judiciary did not have the power to declare land 
forfeited, and now they say the legislative 
power ought not to take any action of that kind 
because the question is not thoroughly undei- 
stood. These same men controlled the commit- 
tees from the close of the war up to the Forty- 
fourth Congress, and they controlled the last 
Congress. They had the conimittees packed in 
their favor. Over 100,000,000 acres of land 
should be declared forfeited. Questions of pri- 
vate claims which will, of course, arise, will be 
settled by future legislation. The government 
will not oppose men who, in good faith, bought 
lands from the railroads." 

News in Brief. 

A wild deer dashed through the main street 
of Elko, Nevada, the other day. 

There is said to be almost a million dollars 
of unclaimed deposits in the Massachusetts 
savings banks. 

(JovEKNOR Newell of Washington Terri- 
tory signed the woman's suffrage bill with a 
gold pen presented to him for that purpose by 
the ladies of Olympia. 

D.vNiD C. (JooK, the well-known .Sunday 
school publisher, has given a S2,500 Cottrell 
steam printing press to the American Mission 
Pulilishing House, of India. 

TiiK high water in the upper Willamette has 
carried away portions of a large bridge at Eu- 
gene City, Oregon, a great number of sawlogs, 
considerable lumber and one mill. 

.Si.\ United States army ofHcers and a well- 
known bridge builder, according to a W'ashing- 
ton dispatch, have started for Ciiina to assist 
that country in its prospective contest with 

A vERV large and enthusiastic ratification 
meeting was held at I'ortlaiid, Saturday, to 
celebrate the victcu-y gained by the women of 
Washington Territory by the passage of the 
suff'rage liill. 

A ciRrui.AH is posted in the coke region of 
Pennsylvania denouncing the introduction of 
Hungarian laborers, who, it is alleged, are 
crowding out other laborers, refuse to become 
citizens, and go back home as soon as they can 
save a little money. 

Tills .'^L'crctary of the Treasury has decided 
in the case of Chinimen brought to New York 
on the sliip llesoliUc, that they cannot be landed 
in the United .States, but may be transferred to 
any other vessel going to a foreign country. 

The Elko Iiuh peiKli nt says that the west- 
bound train, betvveen (ireen river and Granger, 
on the Union Pacific, recently encountered a 
herd of 1,200 or 1,500 antelope. The snow- 
was (|uite deep and drifted in places, and when 
they were first encountered many of them were 


[January 5, 1884 


[Written fur the Ki ral 1'hess t),v K. K.j 

One, one, one, one — 
Daytime work is done. 

Fireside lamps are burning. 
One, two, one, two — 
livening tasks to do — 

Time to profit turning. 

One, two, one, two — 
Many yards to do, 

Hook and thread a-lwining. 
One, two, three, four — 
Half a yard and more, 

While the lamps are shining. 

One, two, three, four — 
Close the outer door, 

Give the coals a stirring. 
Four, five, six, seven — 
Pussy thinks it's Heaven, 

On the rug a purring. 

Four, five, si\, seven — 
Home will be a heaven 

If we use it rightly, 
.■^even, eight, nine, ten — 
All be busy then. 

While the lamp shines brightly. 

Seven, eight, nine, ten — 
O'er and o'er again. 

Must we do our duty. 
One, one, one, one — 
I.ittle things well done, 

(iive to life its beauty. 

How We Celebrated Christmas Eve. 

IVVrittuTi lor the Ki kai. I'kkss, Ijy .Mahv Kikukli. (_'iiiu.kv. 1 
Tlie happy Christmas time is over, and the 
whole world has gone back to its every-day life 
and its same old monotonous round of dutier, 
and all of tlie dear little children have become 
quiet again, after the wild excitement causeil 
by the coming of Santa Clans. 

I have often thought that one of the blessed 
things aliout Christmas is the pause in the hurry 
and rush of life. It is as if we struggle, and 
work and fret all of the long year, and Clirist- 
mas day we sit f|uietly down with idle hands, 
witli some sort of imperfect recognition of "the 
peace that passetli all understanding." 

It is well that we have that one day on 
which the whole Christian people rejoice and 
are glad, for we do work so hard . and so con 
stantly, in one way and another, just to get 
food and raiment, taking .such anxious "heed 
for the morrow," and believing so much more 
thoroughly in the glory of Solomon than in the 
simple dress of the field lilies. 

Well, at all events, the winter being so far 
advanced, we have all gotten our new dresses 
and our furs, wc liave laid in our coals, the 
mince pies and fruit cake are ofT of our minds, 
80 we grown people sit down witli the wrinkles 
of care smoothed out of our brows, and for 
one wliole day we are at peace with the w hole 
world. And not only that, for as we sit we 
gather all sorts of liappy memories about us, 
and as we take a dainty Christmas card from an 
envelope, or turn the leaves of a book which 
has conie so many miles straight from the heart 
of a friend, we pass out of the weary present 
into the fair enchanted years of our youth. Sad 
faced men and women, are boys and girls again 
— and tliis dull gray world is full of all glail 
possibilities and golden hopes. 

.Somehow our hearts are softened and tender, 
and open to all sweet influences. 1 remeiiiljcr 
once seing a solitary pink rosebud, which in an 
unusually mild season bloomed at Christmas 
time in Virginia. I picked it, put it in a little 
vase, and I cannot describe the happiness it gave 
me in the many blessed thoughts and fancies 
that were born of it. In the same fashion a 
holly tree full of its red berries in a South Caro- 
lina plantation garden somehow brought me 
nearer the truth, that we all ought to come 
close at this special season. 

••'lowers liave a way of talking to us in their 
own silent language. Their little pure faces 
look so glad when we are happy, and when wo 
are sorrow ful they are the only things that hohl 
any sort of comfort. Some people object to the 
use of them about the dead, but to one wlio 
loves them it is a sort of consolation to place 
them near a heart that is taking all the joy out 
of our life as it goes to the grave. It is our last 
loving service, the gift of the only things on 
earth that bloom ouundefiled through the years 
in the midst of so much sin and misery. 

Once when I was very young, some one, to my 
supremo indignation, called me "fanciful," and 
since then in my journey through life I have 
been glad to feel that in this prosaic world my 
spirit was able occasionally to rise above the 
hard facts so potent to all observers, to be 
thrilled by the sleepy notes of a mocking bird 
in its nest on a moonlight night, or the chance 
perfume of a flower in the still dawn. 
JJut all of this time I have been writing of my 

grown up fancies, when my intention was to 
tell the mothers and the little ones who have 
just celebrated another Christmas, how we used 
to enjoy it in my Virginia home. 

In the first place, for tlie time being, for 
about three weeks beforehand, we entirely dis- 
graced ourselves, as far as our characters for 
truth telling is concerned, for the dear old 
fiction of Santa Claus is such a delightful center 
around which an inventive mind can weave all 
sorts of pleasant stories, aided by a child's (jues- 
tions, which are so suggestive. I was so sorry 
when my two oldest out grew tlieir credulity. 
But the two little ones were still firm believers — 
and after all, I had two more aiders and abettors 
ia my romancing. 

The unilerstanding was that Santa Claus 
always came beforehand to consult us as to 
what he should give: and one Christmas time 
my small man having suggested that he must 
get his clothing very sooty in coming down 
chimneys, we took the trouble to blacken the 
door-knobs, as if from the touch of dirty fingers 
— seeing which, he rushe<l into the house in a 
state of great excitement, asking if Santa Claus 
had been there, and upon hearing that be had, 
declared that he had been to the next house 
also, for there were black marks where he had 
climbed over the fence. 

The two use to call up the chimneys, giving 
a list of the desired presents, and sometimes 
Santa Claus would answer, in the mutiled tones 
natural to a stout person in snch close (juarters, 
always inquiring very particularly whether 
they had been very good. Such happy faces as 
they 'carried away from those interviews it was 
a real delight to see, and the x'enewed effort to 
"be good" made the house a jiaradise for at 
least half an hour after. 

The day before Christmas was generally en- 
livened by the music of numberless tin horns 
of all sizes, in the hands of darkeys, little and 
big, small white boys, and even "children of a 
larger growth," and with each fresh blast the 
excitement increased until by night-fall it M'as 
at fever heat. 

Now, I am well aware that I am going con- 
trary to popular tradition when I announce the 
fact that our children received all of their gifts 
on Cliristmas eve, al)8olutely without a sign of a 
stocking. Santa Claus merely came to us be- 
fore he nad become too tired to enjoy himself, 
ar.d as we grown people were fond of our morn- 
ing nap he indulged us in our wish to have a 
very merry, delightful evening instead of an 
early waking on our part and the risk of bad 
colds for the night-gowned, bare-footed little 
ones prowling about liefore ilaylight. 

.So as early as it was possible, after dark, 
Santa Claus, with his pack, was received in the 
dining-room, and his many bundles and boxes 
piled together, tliose for each person in a sepa- 
rate pile on the long dining-room table, Kvery 
year there were fifteen or twenty mysterious 
looking packages from relatives at a distance. 
These made a large mound for themselves, 
in the center, and the smaller ones were 
ranged round. -After everything was in proper 
order, Santa Claus gave a parting whistle, dis- 
tinctly audible to the eager children in the next 
room, then the doors were thrown open and 
they were admitted. There would be a shy lin- 
gering at the door for an instant, then each one 
would seek his own special property and we 
grown people stood by, ready to explain that 
Mamma told Santa Claus to bring thi.a," or 
Brother met him down in town and told him 
about that," spinning a top for a small boy or 
putting the new doll in its new cradle for the 
tiny girl, and papers were thrown about, oranges 
and apples rolled on the floor and candy disap- 
peared down little throats in the most astonish- 
ing manner. 

i'inaliy, after all of the small mounds had 
been razed the large one was attacked, and then 
the blessedness ot Christmas time crept into the 
hearts of the older people, and just for once in 
the long year we came close to those who were 
far away. 

The rest of the evening was spent in the par 
lors, lirilliantly lighted for that occasion and 
children's toys and story books elbowed the bric- 
a-brac on tables and mantles and overflowed on 
to the sofas and floor. As long as the bright 
eyes could keep open, the little ones enjoyed 
their Chiistmas Kve, and when they at last be- 
came weary, they went happily and contentedly 
to bed, to dream of all the wonders that had 
come to them until very near breakfast time on 
Christmas morning. 

It was not until last year that my boy of nine 
had a doubt as to the existence of .Santa Claus, 
and then it was one, that, with an excusable 
disregard of truth, was easily disposed of. But 
this year, being older and more a man of the 
world, he openly avowed his unbelief, and re- 
fused to be persuaded; so, for him, one of the 
dear illusions of life is dispelled; but the little 
Hve year old still clings to the dear old faith, 
and took her gifts with absolute trust from the 
warm heart and full hands of jolly old .Santa 

San Francisco. 

TwoHiiMi BuiDCEs. — The assertion that the 
new bridge of the New York, Lake V.rie and 
\Vestern liailroad, four miles from Alton, is the 
highest railroad viaduct in the world, is dis- 
puted by La Xaluri', which claims that pre- 
eminence for the bridge of Carabit, France. 
That remarkable structure is 1,800 feet long, 
and near the middle of the great central arch 
the distance from the bed of the river to the 
rail in 413 feet. The length and maximum 
bight of the Krie bridge are said to be respec- 
tively 2,051 and 301 feet. 

Polly's Shorthand Notes— No. 1. 

(Written for the Ri'r.(L PIIK.XI*, by MrH. O. I. IIopkiks.I 

Her name is Pauline, and she is as pretty as 
a pink rose just opening, without the aid of 
powder, rouge or crimping pins. Siie is short- 
hand reporter for the OM York Morniwj < 'hron- 
iric: takes notes of lectures, sermons, speeches, 
and so on, and keeps her eyes and ears open to 
everything th;it's going on, for the benefit of 
that enterprising sheet. They pay her hand- 
somely, and give her the credit of being the 
most reliable reporter on the staff. 

I am her sister. My name is Lottie, and I'm 
plain as a white clover blossom, unless I'm 
powdered and rouged and crimped to the ex- 
tent of my time and pocketbook. I do the 
sewing and mending for the whole family. I 
do the work well, and they pay me a stated 
sum for staying at home and working for the 
"firm," which consists of Mother Defrez, father 
do., little Bess, aged ten, the aforenamed Polly, 
and the said myself. 

"Oh," exclaimed Polly, glancing out of the 
bay window where she sat reading a sample 
copy of the P.^vciKlc Ri kal Pkess, "if there 
doesn't come Mrs. Trelvinl I shan't stay to 
get lectured for this grease spot on my wrapper, 
I tell you; but I must make her useful all the 
same. Manage to seat her as near the hall door 
as you can. I'll skip to the top stair and take 
notes like Jehu; here goes for an .\." 

Polly generally has to make herself scarce 
when callers are announced, for she is amaz- 
ingly negligent of her home attire. "Any- 
thing's good enough for you home folks," she 
seems to say by her house dressing. 

When Bridget is dispatched for her on these 
occasions, "In a minute, Biddy,'' she answers 
sweetly, and in an incredibly short space of 
time comes floating down in white with a 
bunch of violets under her chin, her golden 
hair in soft rings around her broad forehead, 
and the tiniest of slippers on her pretty black 
stockinged feet. Sometimes it's a black silk 
with a red jersey, or a maroon velvet skirt 
with silk overdress to match, but she always 
wears flowers — for company I mean. 

Of course everybody thi;iks Polly Mefrez tlie 
nc /ituii ultra of a girl. F.verybody, I ought to 
say, but Mi's. Trelvin aforementioned; she has 
caught Polly napping several times dresswise 
and didn't hesitate to deliver "a poor message" 
{a la Carlyli ) to her on the undesirability of 
getting into careless home habits. Kverybody 
likes Mrs. Trelvin, and old and young go to 
her for advice, assistance and sympathy in 
every variety of need. Polly likes her too; but 
she is as enthusiastic for the domestic column 
of the ('hroiiii-lc as for any other department, 
and almost always gets behind a door or into a 
room near by with note-book and pencil to take 
down that good lady's wise, sensible chats. 

Here's what Polly reported of this morning's 
call, which I began to tell you about directly 
after writing down Polly's exclamation. That's 
a habit I have- digressing I mean. 

"(iood morning, Mrs. Defrez. Dear, dear 
me Lottie you're quite thin; hai' a hard time 
with the hay fever last summer, didn't you 
poor child? If I'd seen you before you went to 
the ir.ountains I'd have recommended you to 
use a solution of borax and camphor for your 
eyes, throat and nose, and to take mutton broth 
every day as a tonic. It would have saved 
half your suffering. 

"Doing any fancy work now-a-days? Mollie 
.Stark has just .shown me a lovely bed coverlet. 
You must be needing such a one for your be.ieh 
cottage, or porliaps something of the kind for 
your guest-chamber at home here: strips of 
cream-colored linen embroiilered in a pretty 
design and joined with lace insertion; the bor- 
der of lace and the insertion lined with cardinal 
red satin. 

"Oh, Mrs. Defrez, .Judge David's wife gave me 
a recipe the other day for removing wrinkles. 
Just think of it ! Do you suppose that thirty- 
six grains of turpentine and three drams of al- 
cohol, mixed, applied to our crow's feet and al- 
lowed to dry, will make us look fresh and rosy 
like the Knglish women of our ages? I'm go- 
ing to try it, any way. .Speaking of .age and 
wrinkles, reuiiads me that Maud Porter's father 
and mother, who died lately, left poor Maud in 
almost destitute circumstances, now that the 
insurance company, where their lives were in- 
sured, has failed up. It seems they alw.ays 
depentled upon that for her benefit after their 
death. They had all their property invested in 
an English <^nnuity company, which paid them 
handsomely while they lived, but they used it 
every dollar yearly. The child never lifted a 
finger to any kind of work, and is wholly un- 
armed for the fight with poverty which lies be- 
fore her. I'm out of all patience with the fath- 
ers and mothers of this land. They must know 
how possible it is that their children m;iy all 
be called upon to support themselves, girls as 
well :is bays. Yet not one girl in a thousand 
is taught to do anything toward fitting herself 
for that contingency. 

"I'm going over to invite Maud home with me, 
to teach her to do something useful to make 
her living with. By the way, Lottie, do you 
know that that darned net work your grand- 
mother taught you to do is all the nige now? 
My cousin ( iladstone, the dry goods dealer at 
Ware, writes me that he's paying first-class 
prices for all kinds, but the star and fern-leaf 
patterns, and the five, three, two stitch are 
most popular. I'll sell it for you if you'll do 
some. Mark my words, the day will come 

when girls will be proud to exhibit their own 
handiwork as a salable commodity toward inde- 
pendent support, high, low, rich and poor. I 
suppose nothing would tempt you to go into a 
dry goods houe;e to sell your own needlework, 
you're so proud. How's Polly? You just tell her 
from me, that no matter how brilliant are her 
qualities of min<l, or how beautiful her person, she 
should be immaculately, daintily neat and order- 
ly iit all times, Herrick's verses about c.Treless 
shoestiings, sweet disorder, and all that, to the 
contrary notwithst;inding, not that she may 
marry well, understand me (twenty years ago I 
should have given that as a reason, i suppose), 
but because habits grow upon us, and old age 
shows up strongly the defects of youth. 

"What is more disgusting than an untidy old 
woman, I'd like to know V I smell cascarella 
bark burning. Uncle John has been smoking 
in the parlor, I know. W'ell, men will smoke, 
aviy what you may. Cascarella bark makes an 
agreeable perfume after a short air draft, but 
did you know that ground clove is an excellent 
disinfectant ? Or a few drops of cologne on a 
hot surf.ace ? Either of them will make a room 
smell sweet and fresh, (iood bye all." 

Polly didn't make her appearance down stairs 
till our two o'clock dinner. No guests were pre^ 
ent, but .she looked just lovely in a new Novem 
ber siiitof golden brown a-razon cloth, the skirt 
trimmed with a wide kilt plaiting, headed by a 
broad fold of velvet; full in the back with an 
apron front of the cloth. The bodice w.i8 
plaited into a velvet yoke, and she wore a vel- 
vet belt. Madame De Blois cut the suit, but I 
made it every stitch. I heard mother tell Bess 
to get thirty-six grains of turpentine and three 
drams of alchohol at Gould's Pharmacy after 
dinner. I'm going to begin net ilarning this 
very evening, five, three and two stitch. 

When next Polly takes notes of Mrs. Trelvin's 
talk I'll send them to the Pai ii-ic Ki-k.\i, Pke.«s 
to print for its multitude of lady readers. 

Manchester, N. H. 

What an Educated Man Ought to Know. 

Kuskin says an educated man ought to know 
these things: First, where he is— that is to say, 
what sort of a world has he got into; how large 
it is, what kind of creatures live in it, and how; 
what it is made of, and what may be made of 
it. Secondly, where he is going— that is to say, 
what chances or reports there are of any other 
world besides this; what seems to be the nature 
of that other world. Thirdly, what he had best 
do under the circumstances — that is to say, 
what kind of faculties he possesses; what are 
the present state and wants of mankind; what 
is his place in society; andwhataie the readi' st 
means in his power of attaining happiness and 
diff using it. The man who knows these things, 
and who has his will so subdued in the learning 
of them that he ia ready to do what he knows 
he ought, is an educated man; and the man 
who knows them not is uneducated, though he 
could talk all the tongues of Babel. 

Apropos to the above, Henry Ward Beecher, 
in a recent sermon, made the following remarks, 
which have the "right kind of ring" to thein : 
Some men think that because they have ha<l no 
tumultuous experience that they are not con- 
verted. That is not the case. Where a man 
says to himself, "Here, I .am not satisfied with 
my present mode of life, and I am going to 
change it, " he is convicttul. X suiMen change 
from absolute darkness to absolute light is not 
necessary. All education is gradual, unfolding. 
A man who gets up in meeting and relates a 
most startling ex[)erience that ne has had of 
sudden and complete change is not necessarily 
to be s t down as a liar, but neither is he to be 
taken as a leader. I heard a man say once : "I 
smoked and chewed and snufl'ed at a terrible 
rate, but when I found the grace of God from instant I never the sligiitest desire for 
tobacco." Well, setting aside the theory that 
he lied — which may be uncharitable — I will say 
that out of flirty millions of men he is the imly 
one that couid say that, and if the forty millions 
of men waiteil until they )t rid of their lusts 
in that way they would fm ever wallow in thein. 
I do not want you to imagine that here is a 
gospel churn into which you are to be poured 
and come out butter. What I want to know is, 
are you discontented with the way in which you 
are living, and do you want to change ? To 
join the church for business reasons is mean; to 
join the church for fear you will otherwise 
be dammed is meaner yet. To try to indulge 
in everything that is low and vile in this lite, 
and then to top ott' the loaf with (iod's sugar of 
mercy, is very mean. 

Tjie Ml.^sisst i-Pi J ETTIEH. — The establishment 
of deep water through the jetties at the mouth 
of the Mississippi Kiver is now bearing fruit in 
th'e character of the shipping going to New 
Orleans. Before the completion of the im- 
provements for opening the mouth of the river, 
that city could be reached from the sea only by 
vessels drawing 18 or 1!( feet at the utmost, 
but now the largest vessels can get in without 
the slightest difficulty. 

An Immense Watkk Powek. — Kxpcrta say 
that Broad river, at Anthony Shoals, (ieorgia, 
has a volume of Ml, 000, 000 cubic feet of water 
per minute, and its velocity is IT."" feet per min- 
ute, its fall in a mile and a cjuartcr being ninety- 
two feet. The horse power is calculated to 
be H7,286, while Lowell, the finest developed 
water-power in the United States, has only 10,- 
000 horse power. 

January 5, 188i,] 



Roy's Bitter Lesson. 

[Written for the RriiAi, Pkess by I. H. I 
I wonder if Roy Harrington really loved his 

If ;;ny one had said such a thing to him he 
would have been very much surprised. '"Love 
my mother ! " he would have exclaimed, "well, 
I should rather think I do. Who would a fel- 
low love if he didn't love his mother?" 

And yet il he had beeu asked, "How do you 
show your love for her, Roy?" he might have 
found it vciy difficult to reply. 

Love thiit does not show itself in actions is 
scarcely worth speaking of, and I am afraid the 
proof of Roy's love for any one besides himself 
was very often wanting. 

Not that he was a very bad or disagreeable 
boy; he was only careless and thoughtless and 
forgetful; too much taken up with liis own play 
and his own interests to try to return the kind- 
ness and affection bestowed upon hini. 

There was nothing remarkable about Roy in 
any way; he was neither the oldest nor the 
youngest; he was neither very bright nor very 
dull; he was simply one of the boys in a large 
family where every one was expected to do his 
own share of the daily work. And somehow it 
happened that Roy's share was very often neg- 

No one ever knew Jennie to forget to make 
the beds, or Susie to leave the parlor unswept 
and undusted. 

Mr. Harrington never needed to tell .lames 
to milk the cows, or to remind Sam that the 
horses must be fed. ' Kven little Tom brought 
in the kindling wood without being told, and 
Mary no sooner rose from the table than she 
began to help mother with the dishes. 

l)Ul/ anything whicli was left to Roy was a 
ljurilen to the whole family, from the uncer- 
tainty whether it had been attended to or not. 
His mother often sighed over this fault, won- 
dering wlietiier he would ever make a reliable, 
trustworthy man; his father talked to him, 
punished him, tried in every way to rouse him 
to some feeling of responsibility, but still Roy 
went on in the same heedless fashion, forget- 
ting to feed the pigs to-day, and neglecting to 
shut the door of the chicken house to-morrow, 
until the patience of everybody about liim was 

"Very well, my boy," his father had said to 
him more than once, "some day you will get a 
lesson you will never forget. 1 only hope it 
may not come too late." 

And the time came when Roy had cause to 
remember tlie w rds. 

The well was at some little distance from the 
house, and one of Roy's duties was to till the 
water barrel beside the kitchen door, so that 
his mother should not be re()uired to carry the 
water needed for the washing. 

Knowing the boy's weakness she never failed 
to remind him of his duty and to see that he 
attended to it. Hut it happened one Monday 
morning that .Jennie had a sore throat and did 
not get up to breakfast, so that mother had a 
little more to do than usual. "Remember to see 
that the barrel is full, Roy,'' she said to liim at 
the talde, and then she went up stairs to take 
.fennic a cup of tea. 

"Ves'm;" Roy had said, with his mouth 
full of cakes and .syrup, and his thoughts full 
of a certain trade he meant to make at school 
witii the boy who sat next to him for a beauti- 
ful agate which he wanted very much. 

"1 wonder how many marbles he'll take for 
it," he said to himself. "I'll get all mine and 
take them to school and give him his pick." 

Up to his room went Roy to look out his 
marbles. In a little while he heard Sam call 
that it was half past eight, and ofl' he rushed 
to be in time for school without another 
thought of the water barrel. 

Motlier was not feeling very well; slie hesi- 
tated a little before beginning the washing, 
but all her preparations were made and she 
decided at last to go through with it. 
Father and James had gone to town; there 
would be no dinner to get, and she 
would be done early and have a good 
rest afterwards. So she began, and all wMit on 
nicely till the first tub full of clothes was ready 
for rinsing. Then she went to the liarrel; it 
was empty, Not a drop of water had been put 
into it since she had filled the boiler and tubs 
in the morning. 

"Oh, Roy, Roy!" she said sadly, "how can 
you be so careless?" There was no one in the 
house but -lennie, and she was not well; it 
would not do to call her; heated as slie was 
from washing in the warm kitchen, she must 
go out into the cold air and bring the water 
frimi the well herself. 

When the children came home from school 
the first question as usual was "Where is 

"She is in bed," said Jennie, who looked 
worried and an.xious, "she was taken with a 
pain in her side, and I am afraid she is going 
to be sick. Father sent Sam for Aunt Mar- 
f^aret as soon as he got home. " 

"Aunt Margaret came an hour later, and the 
next thing was to send for the doctor; there 
was no doubt about it, mother was very sick." 

"Roy," said Jennie, "you had better fill the 
barrel, we may want hot water." 

Roy started with the sudden remembrance 
of his neglect in the morning. Had it been in 

any way the cause of his mother's illness? - She 
had often asked him to do some little thing for 
her, when she was washing, to save her going 
out into the cold from the hot kitchen. But 
no one else seemed to know of his carelessness, 
and he kept his question to himself. He had 
plenty of time to think it over, for the next 
day his mother was no better, and before the 
end of the week she was much worse. 

It was a miserable time for them all, but added 
to the grief and anxiety which the others felt, 
poor Roy carried about with him the burden of 
an uneasy conscience. What if his mother 
should die? Would it be his fault? How could 
he bear to live there at home without her, to 
feel that he had killed her? Would his father 
know? Sometimes the fear and the sorrow 
seemed more than he could bear. All the house- 
hold arrangements were upset by the mother's 
illness; the boys were turned out of their own 
rooms and Roy slept on a lounge in the little 
sewing-room opening off the large kitchen. He 
was waked one night by voices, the doctor's 
and aunt Margaret's; tney were talking very 

"Tell me," she said to him, "do you think 
there is any hope?" 

"There is always hope," said the doctor 
"while life lasts. I will be quite candid with 
you. I do not like the utter exhaustion evi- 
dent in her appearance to-night; still she may 
wake refreshed and strengthened; we will hope 
for the best," 

Roy sat up and clenched his hands together 
to keep from screaming out. What should he 
do ? He could not lie there in the silence and 
darkness; but he knew if he should get up his 
father would order h'\m back to bed. It was 
horrible to feel his own helplessness, to know 
that this might be the result of his ow n care- 
lessness, and to realize that he was powerless to 
undo it. He l)uried his face in the pillow. 
"Uon't let her die !" he sobbed. "Oh, don't 
let her die !" 

I think he scarcely knew what he was doing. 
He would not have called it praying, but over 
and over again he whispered the same words, 
while his pillow was wet with tears. But it 
was a prayer, whether Roy knew it or not, and 
one heard it who is ever more ready to hear 
than we to pray. 

When he awoke the next morning tiie house 
was pejfcctly still; he could hear the clock 
striking on the kitchen wall, but there was no 
other sound. He got up and dressed himself 
very slowly; he was afraid to see anyone lest he 
should be told his mother was dead. 

At last he opened the door very carefully. 
Aunt Margaret was sitting by the fire; shesmiled 
and held out her hand; then, without a word, led 
llov outside to the porcli. 

"My dear child," she said, "I have good 
news for you; your mother is much better. ' 

For an instant Roy felt as though he sliould 
fall, everything was spinning round. Perhaps 
Aunt Marguret knew how he felt, for she put 
her arms around him. "I am sure we are all 
very thankful," she said; "And as soon as she 
is stronger she shall know what a good thought- 
ful boy you have been all the time of her sick- 
ness. " 

"Can I see her?" said Roy. ".lust for a 
minute. It is my birthday." 

"Perhaps so, my dear; this afternoon when 
you come from school." 

And he did. Aunt Margaret took him up 
stairs and into his mother's room. 

"Annie," she said, here is a little boy came 
for his birthday kiss." 

Then in the <lim light he saw a white, thin 
face that did not look at all like his mother's 
until it lighted up with the smile he knew so 
well, and the dear voice he had not lieard for so 
long said faintly, "Dear Roy!" He leaned over 
and kissed her, and then without a word he 
went away. Once down stairs he ran to the 
barn, and climbing up into the loft hid himself 
in the hay; but as he would not like to have 
any one to know what he was doing there for 
the next half hour I shall not tell you. 

It seemed a long weary time before mother 
was well again, but at last she was able to come 
down stairs and sit in an easy chair by the fire. 
And one Saturday afternoon, as she and Aunt 
Margaret and Roy were alone together she said, 
"I wish you would go to my room, Roy, and 
bring me some yarn you will find in the lowest 
draw of the l)ureau. I am tired of doing noth 
ing, and I think I can begin the mittens you 
were to have had on your birthday." 

Roy brought the yarn and held it for her to 
\\ ind. 

"Indeed, he deserves a birthday present," 
said Aunt Margaret, "he was so good and 
thoughtful, and helpful while you were sick. 
Why, Roy!-- 

Poor Roy; he could not get away, for he was 
holding the skein of yarn, but his face (juivered 
and two great tears rolled down his cheeks. 

Aunt Margaret was a wise woman; she went 
out and left him with his mother. 

Then mother (juietly took the yarn from his 
hands and laid it down. "What is it, dear?" 
.she asked gently. 

Koy threw himself down on the floor and 
fairly sobbed, but at last he looked up. 
"Mother, oh mother," he said, "was it the water 

"I don't know, Roy," she answered. "I was 
not feeling well before, but I thought at the 
time that the empty water barrel had some- 
thing to do with my illness. It was when I 
was carrying the water that I first felt the pain 
in my side. I was very sorry for my little 

"Sorry for mel' said Roy in astonishment. 

"I should think you would hate me. I hated 
myself and so would every one else, if — if 

"No one would have known it, Roy, if I had 
not got well — no one but ourselves. And as to 
hating you, dear, mothers do not hate their own 
children because they do wrong. I shall not 
be sorry for all that I have sufl'ered if it will 
help you to overcome your one great fault, my 

Roy did not say anything, he was not good 
at expressing his feelings, but he moved close 
to his mother and laid his head against her 

Presently she said, "I am going to give you 
a little verse to learn Roy, and I think after 
this j'ou will remember it always. Bring nie a 
piece of p iper and a pencil and I will write it 
down for you." 

Roy read the words over slowly and then 
folded the paper and put it in his pocket. 

"No," he said very seriously, "I am sure I 
will never forget it." 

And I don't think he ever will. '^Phe words 
his mother wrote were these: 

"ICvil is wrought by want of thouglit 
.■\s well as want of heart." 

Walnut Creek. 


How to Reduce Fat. 

We copy the following, with some slight 
omissions, from an editorial in Dr. Dio Lewis' 

I have called to consult you about the strang- 
est thing in the world. I will tell you all. I 
am twenty-three years old. When I was nine- 
teen I weighed one hundred and twenty-two 
pounds: now I weigh two hundred and nine; I 
am filling up with fat. I can hardly breathe. 
The best young man that ever lived loves me, 
and has been on the point of asking me to 
marry him; but of course he sees I ar-i growing 
worse all the time, and he don't dare to venture. 
I can't blame him. He is tlic noblest man m 
the worh?,and could marry any one he chorises. 
I don't blame him for not wishing to unite 
himself to such a great tub as I am. Why, 
Doctor, you don't know how fat I am. I am a 
sight to behold. And now I have come to see 
if anything can be done. I know you have 
studied up all sorts of curious subjects, and I 
thought you might be able to tell me how to 
get rid of this dreadful curse. 

She had been talking faster and faster, and 
with more and more feeling (after the manner 
of fat women, who are always emotional), until 
she broke down in hysterical sobs. 

I inquired about her habits — table and other- 
wise. She replied: 

"Oh, I starve myself; I don't eat enough to 
keep a canary bird alive, and yet I grow fatter 
and fatter all the time. I don't believe any- 
thing can be done for me. We all have our af- 
flictions, and I suppose we out;ht to bear them 
with foititude. I wouldn't mind for myself, 
but it is just breaking his heart; if it wasn't for 
him I could be reconciled. " 

I then explained to her our nervous system 
and the bearing certain conditions of one class 
of nerves has upon the deposition of adipose 
tissue. I soon saw she was not listening, but 
was mourning her sorrow. Then I asked her 
if she would be willing to follow a prescription 
I might give her. 

"Willing ? Willing ? There is nothing I would 
not be willing to endure if I could only get rid 
of this horrible condition. " 

I prepared a prescription for her, and ar- 
ranged that she should call upon me once a 
week, that I might supervise her progress, and 
have frequent opportunities to encourage her. 
The piescription which I read to her was this: 

First. For breakfast, eat a piece of beef or 
mutton as large as your hand, with a slice of 
white bread twice as large. For dinner, the 
same amount of meat, or, if preferred, fish or 
poultry, with the same amount of farinaceous 
or vegetable food in the form of bread or potato. 
For supper, nothing. 

Second. Drink only when greatly annoyed 
with thirst; then, a mouthful of lemonade with- 
out sugar. 

Third. Take three times a week some form of 
bath in which there shall be immense perspira 
tion. The Turkish bath is best. You must 
work, cither in walking or some other way, 
several hours a day. 

"But, Doctor, I can't walk; my fett are 

"I thought that might be the case, but if the 
soles of your shoes are four inches broad, and 
are thick and strong, walking will not hurt 
your feet. Vou nuist walk or work until you 
perspire freely, every day of the wc(!k. Of 
course you are in delicate health, with little 
endurance; but as you have told me that 
you are willing to do anything, you are to work 
hard at something six or seven hours every day. " 

Fourth. You must rise very early in the 
morning, and retire late at night. Much sleep 
fattens people. 

Fifth. The terrible corset you have on, which 
compresses the center of the body, making you 
look a great deal fatter than you really are, 
must be taken oft', and you must have a corset 
which any dressmaker can fit to you- a corset 
for the lower part of the abdomen, which will 
raise this great mass and si'pport it. 

"This is all the advice 1 have to give you at 
present. At first you will lose half a pound a 
day. In the first three months you will lose 

from twenty to thirty pounds. In six months, 
forty pounds. You will constantly improve in 
health, get over this excessive emotion, and be 
much stronger. That you may know exactly 
what is being done I wish you to be weighed; 
write the figures in your memorandum, 
and one week from now, when you come 
again, weigh yourself and tell me how much 
you have lost." 

I happened to be out of the city and did not 
see her until her second visit, two weeks from 
our first meeting. It was plain when she 
entered that already her system was being 
toned up, and when we were again in my private 
office she said: 

"I have lost six and a half pounds; not quite 
as much as yon told me, but I am delighted, 
though nearly starved. 1 have done exactly as 
prescribed, and shall continue to if it kills me. 
You must be very careful not to make any mis- 
takes, for I shall do just as you say. At first 
the thirst was dreadful. I thought I could not 
bear it. But now I have very little trouble 
with that." 

About four months after our first meeting, 
this young woman brought a handsome young 
man with her, and after a pleasant chat, she 
said to me: 

"We are engaged; but I have told my friend 
that I shall not consent to become his wife until 
I have a decent shape. When I came to you 
I weighed two hundred and nine pounds. 
I now weigh one hundred and sixty-three 
pounds. I am ten times as strong, active and 
healthy as I was then, and I have made up my 
mind, for my friend has left it altogether to me, 
that when I have lost ten or fifteen pounds 
more, we shall send you the invitations." 

As the wedding day approached she brought 
the figures one hundred and fifty-two on a card, 
and exclaimed, with her blue eyes running 
over: "lam the happiest girl in the world! 
and don't you think I have honestly earned it? 
I think I am a great deal happier than I should 
have been it I had not worked for it." 

The papers said the bride was beautiful. I 
thought she was, and I took a sort of scientific 
interest in it. 

\Ve made the usual call upon them during 
the first month, and when, two months after 
the wedding, they were spending an evening 
witli us, I asked him it his wife had told him 
about my relations with her avoirdupois? He 
laughed heartily, and replied: 

"Oh! yes, she has told me everything, I sup- 
pose; but wasn't it funny?" 

X)oiMESTie QeopjojviY. 

RfcK Moi.i). — Wash a breakfast-cupful of 
rice, drain it and put into a saucepan with a 
liay leaf, a tiny bit of cinnamon, a small piece 
of rind of lemon cut very thin and free of 
white, and two teaspoonfuls of white pounded 
sugar. Pour ovefr this a cupful of cold water, 
and sot it on to boil. When it boils draw it to 
the side of the fire and add another cupful or 
two of water as required until the rice is quite 
swollen and perfectly well done. The water 
can only be added gradually for fear of its be- 
coming sloppy; after adding the second supply 
of water the lice must simmer gently, and 
when done every drop of water must be ab- 
sorbed. Care must be taken, by stirring it 
with a wooden spoon, that it does not burn to 
the saucepan. When cooked thoroughly take 
out the bay leaf and other flavorings, and beat 
it well for two or three minutes. Dip an 
earthenware mold into cold water and press 
the rice into it, to remain there until qnite 
cold. It will then turn out easily, ;md may be 
eaten with jam or any cold stewed fruit 
served round it in the dish. 

Oat C.^kks. — In making oat cakes it is best 
only to mix sufficient oatmeal and water for 
making them one at a time, as the paste so 
(|uickly dries. Moisten a couple of tablespoon- 
tuls of oatmeal, in which has been mixed a pinch 
of salt, w ith a little cold water, to the consis- 
tency of dough, knead it a little, and roll it out 
as thin as possible on a pasteboard, sprinkling 
meal plentifully above and below it. At once 
remove it with slice to the bakestone, which 
should be already heated, and over a clear fiie 
bake it on lioth sides, turning it with a slice 
carefully to prevent it from cracking. When 
first done they are quite soft, but as each is 
baked it should be removed to a dish standing 
in front of the fire, where it will quickly be- 
come hard and crisp. 

AiM'LE Cakk. — A pleasant variation on tho 
jelly and cream filling ui^ed for double cakes 
may be made of apples. Beat one egg light in 
a bowl, and into it a cup of sugar. Add to this 
the strained juice and grated rind of a lemon. 
Peel and grate three firm pippins or other ripe, 
tait apples, directly into this mixture, stirring 
each in well before adding another. When all 
are in, put into a farina kettle and stir over the 
fire until the apple custard is boiling hot and 
(|uite thick. Cool and spread between the 

GiiKKSK SANiAvic'itKs. — Cut thin slices of 
bread, buttered on the loaf before each is cut, 
and sprtad with grated cheese, in which has 
been worked a little melted butter, a very little 
made mustard, cayenne pepper and salt to liking. 
Put two together, buttered sides inward, for 
each sandwich, if the slices are small; if large, 
cut in half and fold over upon the mixture, 
They are very nice. 



[January 5, 1884 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

0<hce, S5S Market St. , N. E. cor. FrontSl., S. F. 
ta' Take the Slevator, No. IS Front St. "SI 

Address editorials and business letters to the firm; 
ndividuals arc liable to be absent. 

Our Subscription Rates. 

Our Subscription Ratbs are thrrk dollars a year, 
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advance, for any reason, kifty cents extra will be 
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aomes placed on the list without cash in advance. 

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special rates. Four insertions are rated in a montn. 

Ourlates forms goto press Wednesday evening. 

Entered at S. F. Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



Saturday, January 5, 1884. 


EDITORIALS.— A Valuable Jersey Cow; Inipiovinit 
Hairy Cattle: Trees and Inserts, 1. The Week; Perils 
of the Really Writer; Ostrich Faniiin((, 8. Poisonioiis 
and Troublesome Plants i>f C'aliforni t — No. 2; Eastern 
t'lieat for Hay; The ('ollegc of Agriculture, 9. Janu- 
ary Faslii'His. 12. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.- Jersey Cow "Alluring," owned 
by John Buyd, Chicago, 111., 1. "California Monk- 
dbood," or "Illue Weed" - Acoiitiuni Fiseheri, 0. Janii- 
arv Kashicns, 12-13. 

iloverniiient Carji; Cure for Mange; Another Cure for 
.Manxe; Trapjiing the Codlin ilotli; Crapes for Huni- 
bcilitt County; A Hurned Pod; San Bernardino County 
Water Kates, 8. 

CORRESPONDENCE. -Notes on French Agricul- 
ture, 2. 

THE VINEYARD. -The Future of Grape Growing 

in California, 2. 
THE FIELD.— An Interesting Region; Mendocino 

Hop Notes, 3. 

at San Jo<e (iranifc; Klci tions; Good Standing in 
Cranu'i; Work; The IJentli of John Mw^lliii^'; Installa- 
tion, 4. 

AGKIGULTURAL NOTES - From the various 
counties of California, 4-5. 

NEWS IN BRIEF -I 111 pa-e 5 and other papres. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.- Crjubctint,' (I'oetry): How 
wc Ci:li. l)r;iti:d Christmas Kve; Polly's Shorthand Notes 
.\'o. 1; Wh^it an Ediuated Man Ought to Know, 6. 

YOUNti FOLKS- COLUMN.-Boy's Bitter Les- 
son, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH. IIo« to Roduoe Fat, 7. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY. - Rice Mold; Oat Cakes; 

Aplile Cukt; Clicese .Sanihvii-bcs, 7. 
EDUCATIONAL. -•■.Some of Mv Faults," 10. 
SHEEP AND WOOL.— The Wool Trade of 



Business Announcements. 

, S. F. 

Aiiricultnial liiiplcineiits— Truman, Isliam & Co. 
I'atirii; Fruit Co. — San Francisco. 
Abel Stearns Kanchos — A. Robinson, S. F. 
Lands for Sale .Miller & Kniip|i, Visalia, Cal. 
Cultivator— Me.".dor .v Sinii.inis, Sati Jose, 
(irape Seed— C. Mottier, .Middletown, Cal. 
Nurseries— J. T. Ijivett, Little silver, .\. J. 
I'ears—J. Winchester, Columbia, CaL 
Balsam- J. K. Gates & Co., S. F. 
iJividend Notice— San Francisco Savings Union, S. F. 
Dividend Notice- German Savings and Loan Society, S. F. 
Swine -F. P. Beverly, Mountain View, Cal. 

"See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

Though there have been rams the clouds have 
atill refrained from that vigorous, persistent work 
which all have looked and longed for, and which 
is needed to set the moisture well down to the 
hardpan. The rains thus far have given only 
surface wetting, except where plowing has 
^iven quick access to lower strata. There is 
still, of course, much talk as to the outcome of 
such a season, and memories are being ru 
maged for data concerning similar years. We 
minister to the demand for (igures for compari 
son by giving in another colunm the Sacramento 
rainfall table for the last thirty-four years. 
This table is looked upon as better for general 
comparison than the tabic kept at San Fran- 
cisco. The sky has still signs of storms, in fact 
the season strikes us as one which will yet give 
a good deal of rain. It has not the suspicious 
fairness and climatic b-iaiity of a dry year. We 
shall not be surprised if .January brings weather 
enough to satisfy all. 

Perils of the Ready Writer. 

Many a man who has been conducting ques- 
tionable business has been ruined by letter 
writing. Many a scheme against the public 
good has been made known and overcome 
through the public warning which has been 
given by the disclosure of correspondence. The 
latest and perhaps the greatest illustration of 
these facts lies in the publication of a great mass 
of correspondence addressed by the railroad 
magnate, C. P. Huntington, to the late l)avid 
I). Colton during the time they were associated 
as partners in the manipulatiou of legislators, 
public journals, etc., in the furtherance of 
their railway schemes. This correspondence, 
brought out by the trial of the suit which 
Mrs. Colton has brought against her late hus- 
band's partners for a settlement has proved a 
great public benefit, by making it no longer 
doubtful by what methods these railroad man 
agcrs work. It has been known in a general way 
that they have molded the views and actions of 
public servants by their corrupting bribes, and 
tliat hardly any department of t)ie government 
has been free from their blighting touch: but 
this general impression was not definite and 
pointed as is the conclusion which must lie 
drawn now that the letters of Mr. Huntington 
contain plain allusions to the way in which 
this and that man was bought into 
positions of falsitj' to the public and of 
subservience to the railroad schemes. He 
who reads these letters will find men 
of prominence and influence spoken of as they 
could only be spoken of by one who had pur- 
chased their action, and trusted newspapers are 
mentioned as though they were the especial 
property of the railroad managers. This dis- 
closure has been received with cries of disap- 
proval from all parts of the country, and will 
no doubt do much to check such operations for 
a time at least. It is stated with much confi- 
dence from Washington that the publication of 
their methods will cost the railway the vast 
Texas land grant which it was endeavoring to 
obtain; and this alone will be a great 
saving to the country, though it is pur- 
chased at the cost of making known the 
corruption of so many prominent men. The 
view of the subject taken at the Kast is shown 
by these two extracts from the \ew York 
press. The Times says : 

The letters show that every corrupt means 
and every influence ingenuity could devise were 
used to secure legislation and to affect public 
opinion in the interest of the Pacific coast 
I monopoly. Probably these stray letters found 
in a dead man's effects afford only o glimpse of 
what was actually going on. The New York 
Sun says ; When such documents reach the 
public either by accident or through the 
quarrels of old associates and the chances of 
litigation the cause of honest goveniment is 
the gainer. If these letters in an incidental 
way reveal so much, what could not Huntington 
tell, if he were subjected to a rigiil crosb-exam- 
ination at the hands of competent investigators ? 

The fear of such exposure as has been made 
of Congressional corruption in Mr. Hunting- 
ton's letters will, no doubt, make Congressmen 
more honest, for a time at least. It is 
unwise, however, to place too much 
dependence upon virtue which is forced by 
fear of exposure. When the sensation dies 
away cupidity and avarice will again assert 
their sway. The only way to keep the public 
service pure is to select a much better and more 
honest class of men to represent the people, 
and this is a duty which presses itself home to 
every citizen of the country. We have had 
quite enough of these acute, clever, conscience 
less men. What we need in public places ii 
stalwart honesty, undaunted courage to fight 
evil and wisdom enough to make honesty valu 
able and courage effective. It is a good time 
now for every man to make up his mind that 
his voice and his vote shall go to the up i-aising 

of such men, and none other. 

An action has been brought by Sperry & Co. 
.tgainst the Santa Clara City Flouring Mill Com- 
pany to obtain an injunction preventing the 
defendant from using plaintiff's trade mark, 
the word "Germea,"as applied to their products. 
A similar suit has been brought against .John 

Ostrich Farming. 

It seems that this very interesting branch of 
poultry farming is reaching success at Anaheim, 
Los Angeles, in spite of drawbacks which were 
peculiar and no doubt unexpected. A writer for 
the Anaheim Ganlte gives a review of the ex- 
periment so far as it has advanced, and there" 
from we take interesting data. It seems that 
the ostrich farm suffered first and most from its 
host of friends — including as friends those 
whose curiosity led them to visit the place. It 
is a peculiar story, and we insert it because it is 
so. The greatest trouble, the writei says, was 
the visitors. 

" They came in hundreds and destroyed crops, 
pulled down fences, trampled down corn and 
plagued the birds until in sheer defense Doctor 
Sketchley was obliged to arrest several and 
have them prosecuted, and not until then did 
he have any peace. It was during this time 
that one of the cocks killed his mate, all the 
birds being much excited, and this particular 
cock (an extra savage one by the way), was 
plagued until his rage knew no bounds and in 
his excitement he rushed upon his mate and 
kicked her to death. It woula have been at 
that time a good thing if it were possible to 
have stopped all visitors. But no; the inhabi- 
tants seemed to think that the farm was only 
started for their pleasure. Finally a fifty cent 
tax was put upon visitors and that stopped their 

It seems that the effect of this host of visitors 
was to induce a distemper among the birds, 
which was reduced when gre.tter quiet was ob- 
tained. During the season from May 1st until 
October 1st five hens layed .SO.'i eggs, making an 
average of 01 eggs each. A number of chicks 
were hatched with the incubators, although 
many of the eggs proved infertile because of the 
interference with the birds by the visitors. 
During the past year they have plucked the 
birds twice; first in May, at which time the 
liirds had only just landed upon the farm, and 
all the feathers were in a much damaged condi- 
tion. However, ^'jOO was realizetl from that 
clip. They were again clipped last month and 
over '2,."i00 quills of all kinds were obt.iined 
from eigliteen birds, worth now about §1,000. 
They still have left on the birds a large quantity 
of blood feathers which will not be ripe for sev- 
eral months. The superintendent estimates that 
the entire value of the feathers from the birds 
for 1883 must be 8-2,000, averaging S9.") to the 
bird. Those conducting the enterprise have 
full confidence in doing much better another 

As was stated in the Prkss recently, 
another ostrich enterprise is contemplated 
in .San Diego county by the American Ostrich 
Company, of Boston, Mass. Their birds, "2.3 in 
number, recently landed in New Orleans, and 
will be brought by rail to their farm. Another 
farm has been started at Palatka, Florida. 
Their stock consists of three pairs of North 
African ostriches, which are a different variety 
from either those owned on the Anaheim farm 
or by the Boston Company. They are claimed 
to be neither so large nor hardy, and are not as 
good breeders, although they bear fine feathers. 

The writer in the Oazt tle has high expecta- 
tions of the ostrich industry, and thinks that 
in ten years it will l)e one of the leading 
branches of live-stock farming Ostrich feath- 
ers are always in fashion, and as the United 
States consume about five million dollars worth 
annually, and the consumption is yearly grow- 
ing larger, the business can be indefinitely ex- 
tended. It costs no more to raise an ostrich 
than it does a sheep, and instead of only get- 
ting two dollars worth of wool it is claimed 
that you get from eiglity to one hundred dol- 
lars worth of feathers every seven months 
from each bird. 

There has been remarkable activity at all 
the land offices on this coast in entering gov 
ernment binds since the publication of the re 
port of the Secretary of the Interior, in which 
he presents good reasons for the material modi- 
fication of the homestead law and the repeal of 
the pre-emption and other acts by which title to 
government land can be obtained. There is an 
evident disposition to take advantage of the 
present liberal laws while they remain in force. 

A SVNDKWTK of stock men is engaged in 
fencing into nanges a tract of 6,000,000 acres, 
leased from the Cherokees for five years, at an 
annual rental of SIOO.OOO. It is believed that 
1 ,000,000 head of cattle will be placed on the 
inclosed grounds by April 1st. 

DcRiNij the year 48,114 money orders were 
issued through the San Francisco Post Office, 
equal in value to 8!l2r.,ll5 02; fees, .*8,73l 03; 
the orders issued by Postmasters were .S28r>,7iy, 
making total receipts of .?3,802,(I42 0"). .Since 
tlio passage of the law establishing postal notes 
l,70ll have been issued, repre.'senting .§3,858 63. 
There were also paid out 143, "lO! orders, amount- 
ing to S2,7f3,(i().') 44; deposited with the 
treasurer, ??803,i>00. The total distribution 
amounted to §3,801,213 7i». Of the amount 
paid out there was §22, "iO^ 7) on !i,437 postal 

Thk Immigration Association report the fol- 
lowing number of arrivals for the year 1,S83, 
from points to the eastward: .January, 1,.390; 
February, 1,673; March, 4,11."); April, 6,824; 
May, 6,;)76; June, ,),10(i; July, 3,814; August, 
4,034; September, 5,071: October, 4,587; No- 
vember, 5,071 ; December, approximation, 2,660. 
Total for the year, 51,530. 

On Pruning. 

Enr oRS Press:— In your paper of December 
ist there isan article oh orch.ird pruning by J. S. Tib- 
bets, of Watsonville. Mr. Tibbels says that the 
roots of all trees should be pruned at the time of 
transplanting. I think .so too. He also .^ays it 
freciuonlly becomes necessary to root-prune trees to 
induce them to bear, and that some resort to a pro- 
cess of peeling the entire bark from a tree at a certain 
season of the year, I do not understand what Mr. 
Tibbets means by root pruning and by stripping the 
tree of its bark to make it bear. If Mr. l ibbets will 
be so good as to be a little more explicit on these two 
points I should feel thankful. I would ask him 
and others of your readers if cherry trees should be 
pruned or not. 1 have heard some say they shoultl 
be pruned, and some say they should not.— J. R. K. , 
Fresno. Cal. 

San Bernardino County Water Rates. 
The KiversiJe Fn-ss gives the following an- 
swers to Mr. Berwick's (|uestiors : The cost of 
irrigation water depends on circumstances— the 
amountof water used, the facilities for handling 
it, etc. Riverside pays from to §5 per acre 
for water for irrigation purposes. In Los An- 
geles it cDsts from §2 to per acre. There the 
city owns it, ami here it is owned by a company. 
In Kedlands, where a system of concrete pipe 
is in use, it is estimated that fifty cents per acre 
will cover all expenses in good shape. There 
the owners of the land own and control the wa- 
ter company. Water is sold liy the inch, each 
one paying for what he uses. At Ktiwanda the 
water is also owned and distributed the same as 
at ReiUands, but at the latter place it is distrib- 
uted free of charge, and then the water compa- 
ny's stock is assessed to pay running expenses of 
the company. Probably fifty cents per share— or 
acre- will cover the cost. The same rule will 
probably be adopted at Ontario. Riverside has 
an expensive system, and the cost is more than 
it ought to be. 

Grapes for Humboldt County. 
Ekitors Prehs: — I saw an inquiry asking 
what variety of /grapes to plant in Humboldt 
county. I live about 12 miles from the coast, 
in the fog belt, and a cool situation. I am try- 
ing several varieties; none yet tried hav been a 
success when exposed to the mirth wind, but by 
planting in a sheltered place ;ig;iin8t a wall or 
on the south side of a hill or any place that is 
well sheltered from cold winds, I can raise 
grapes of siiine varieties. I have succeeded with 
Chassehis, Rose and Delaware. Tliese two I 
would advise my friend to try on a small scale. 
It would be a good plan to try several kinds; 
by so doing most families could have enough for 
home use. Of course it would not pay to lake 
so much trouble for market purposes. — J.\mks 
Hoik:e, Ilohnerville. 

Cure for Mange. 
EDITOR.S Press :— Having been l^encfited on 
several occasions by advice of your kind and 
generous correspondents, I hasten to give your 
inquirer from Soledad the result of personal ex- 
perience with the mange. Many yeais ago my 
father had a valuable dog and cat, also, that" 
took this disease, upon which, after trying al 
most everything, he finally used a mixture of 
black sulphur and fish oil. Being then a mere 
boy, 1 have forgotten the quantities, but it 
seems to me it was one pound of the former to 
one pint of the latter. The result I remember 
was highly gratifying, for I was much attached 
to both pets. They were completely cured 
and never afterward had the disease. — Rolanh 
M.M UIN, Lompoe, Cal. 

Another Cure for Mange. 
KiHTiiRS Press :— In the Pres.'* of Dec. 15th 
I see an article from A. Banlitz, of ."-^oledad, ask- 
ing for a i.iire for the mange. I am informed 
by a reliable gentleman who has had experience 
with the disease, that fish brine rubbed on once 
or twice a day will effect a cure in a short time. 
— H. KiMH.ti.i., Napa, Cal. 

Trapping The Codlin Moth. 
F.nrroRs PitEss: - The first generation begin 
to fly about the first of .M ty. To make sure 
gather some in the chrys.. lis state in March or 
April, put iu a jar and set tlie jar 'n a place 
wliere you will see it every day. When they 
begin to liave wings, prepare jour tr.aps thus: 
The half of a kerosene can witli the tin bent in 
at tlie top an inch; a half inch of kerosene in the 
can, a little flat lamp near the oil. The light 
reflected from the bright tin will draw the moth 
five rods at least. It your orchard is forty rods 
square, sixteen traps will do the work. The 
moth will fly about the light until it touches 
the oil. This will end it. — W. W. B., Center- 
ville, Alameda Co., Cal. 

The Government Carp. 
*fii)lTORs Press I am gratified at the inter- 
est yon have taken in the matter of the distri- 
bution of carp. I fear that the applications will 
be returned too Lite for us to make provision 
the present season; but they will be placed on 
file and the fish sent forward in the next dis- 
tribution. — Spencer F. B.^ikd, Commissioner, 
Washington, D. C. 

A Horned Pod. 
Editors Press: -Some time since I for- 
warded a "horned pod" to the V. S. N.ational 
Museum, and just now received a reply in the 
shape of its true name, from I'rof. Spencer F. 
Baird, Director. It is Mnrtynia /irohoxciden. 
It was a rare specimen and I had but the one. 
Will some reader kindly inform me where seed 
of the same may obtained?— T. S. Pkk'E, Selma, 
Cal., Dec. 31, 1883. 

Janoaby 5, 1884.] 


Poisonous and Troublesome Plants of 
California— No. 2. 

IWrittcJi for Ki kal Press, by .J. 0. Leiimioii.l 

Aconltum Pischeri — "California Monks- 
hood,' -"Blue-Weed." 

The ranchmen of the high valleys of Cali- 
fornia are often heard discussing the probable 
cause of certain crazy fits and other sicknesses 
that atllict theii- sheep, cattle and sometimes 
horses. If the poison lily described in a pre- 
vious article, is at hand, the mischief is gener- 
ally very pi'operly laid to the account of that 
rogue secreted in the meadows. 

But if in wooded regions where the mount- 
ain streams seldom have meadow lands border- 
ing them, the mischief is often charged to a 
certain laurel shrub called "Sheep poison," or 
"Calico bush." And while this charge is often 
correct, yet it is most frequently an error, the 
culprit being a very innocent and indeed very 
handsome flower growing along the streams, 
and known as "California Monkshood", or gen- 
erally "Blue-weed." Animals affected by this 
jMonkshood stagger and reel about, lie down 
and rise again frequently, turn about uneasily, 
bite at their sides and gripe and groan as if in 
great pain. Not unfrequeutly lingering sick- 
ness, loss of appetite and death ensue. 

Any good purgative medicine, if adminis- 
tered at once, will afford relief, as the distress 
is caused by the acid, biting principle called 
aconite which resides in every part of the plant 

The instinct of animals generally protects 
them against poisonous plants but often want 
of other food tempts them to eat, and sometimes 
their taste has been perverted so as not to con- 
stitute a criterion. 

Sheep are most commonly affected by eating 
Monkshood, and this results from confinement 
upon limited ranges for fear of coyote; or may- 
hap, from hurrying them over high passes 
where there is little food, and that little is 
strange to the animals. 

But often a band of milch cows are halted 
for the night on a green spot of meadow, the 
owner thinking himself fortunate in finding so 
rich a lunching ground. The treacherous blue- 
weed is devoured with the succulent grass, and 
sickness or death follows. 

Frequently horsemen picket their animals to 
the alders by stream banks, and wonder soon 
after what ails their beasts. It the animal is 
very hungry, and the feed very scarce or the 
picket line short, the mischief is the sooner 

Nov , the plant that produces all this trouble 
is a species of aconitum -thank goodness, the 
only one of that poison genus found on this 
coast. It is an licrb, often growing three to 
six feet iiigh, with large, nearly arbicular leaves, 
cleft into three to five lobes, and mostly at the 
base of the stem. The latter is erect, un- 
branched, and terminating in a loose raceme or 
spike of large showy blue or whitish flowers, 
t!ie uppermost of its five sepals being arched 
like the cowl of a priest -suggesting the popu- 
lar name of monks hood. The species of 
monks hood, which is so celebrated as a medi- 
cine, is Aconiliim NapeUus, indigenous to Eu- 
rope, but often met with in our gardens, where 
it finds {i welcome because of its large, curious 
flowers, and long time of blooming. 

The genus AronUum belongs to the larger 
order Raniinrnlacea, which includes .SI genera, 
comprising over .^.TO known species of plants. 
They are well distributed over the earth, but 
most abundantly in the northern temperate 
and frigid regions. 

With few exceptions, the whole order is per- 
vaded with acid or narcotic properties, which 
are deleterious if not poisonous, but which, by 
intelligent treatment, are rendered innocuous 
or medicinal. 

Scarcely any are edible for either m:ui or 
beast. Ildeborus, another highly medicinal 
plant, l)elongs in this order, but no species of it 
is found on this coast. A variety of one of the 
species oiA(:tta,OT bane-berry, grows luxuriantly 
in our higli swamps. 

The bright red berries the size of peas, borne 
in a short spike, often tempt the appetite when 
one is fatigued and hungry from long journeys 
over the mountains. The few but very large 
and decompound leaves will serve to distinguish 
it. The genus Aiiiiihi/ia, or columbine, has 
four species on this coast, all beautiful and 
curious with their large bright-colored corollas, 

each ornamented with five long, tapering spurs. 
While the columbines are prized for setting off 
the table bouquets, like bell-glasses and Chinese 
lanterns in a giove, yet children and invalids 
are often injured by their odors, especially when 
they are fading. The same may be said of the 
larkspur — Delplimium — fifteen species of which 
are found here. 

It is also true, but not generally known, that 
all the buttercups and crowfoots are poisonous. 
Take one petal of the common yellow butter- 
cup of our California meadows and lay it on 
the cheek of an infant, and soon a red spot or 
blister will be formed. Sore lips among chil- 
dren is often caused by putting flowers of this 
order into their mouths. 7 he happiness of 
many a bright picnic girl has been mysteriously 
destroyed soon after she had collected her lovely 

Children returning from a ramble in the 
country often have headache or fever solely on 

M. Drake, its author, is not only a successful 
teacher, but is also a successful farmer — his 
special line of work being bee culture, at his 
home in Ventura county. We expect to be able 
to present our readers with some articles from 
his pen on this topic in the near future. The 
Rural is the friend of education, and knows 
that its readers are likewise. We are all inter- 
ested in the success and welfare of the schools, 
and all who have ideas of value which they can 
present clearly on educational topics, are in- 
vited to contribute them to our columns. 
Others of the best papers presented at the State 
Association may be looked for in future issues'] 

Eastern Cheat for Hay. 

The "chess" or "cheat" of the Eastern grain 
grower is Bromus Kpcal'mas. A sample was 
recently received from Mr. Parkinson, of 
Golconda, Nevada, asking its value and what it 

The College of Agriculture. 

Last summer there was an anonymous letter 
in one of the city daily papers reflecting severely 
upon the conduct of Professor Hilgard, of the 
College of Agriculture, charging him witli neg- 
lect of duty and other similar accusations, which 
were certainly a surprise to all who know his 
constant and earnest devotion to his work and 
his readiness to serve the agricultural interest 
of the State in every way within liis power. 
The charges evidently came from parties who had 
no conception whatever of the value of his work, 
and were disposed, either from a meddlesome 
disposition or from some altogether unintelligi- 
ble motive, to annoy him and to place him in a 
wrong light before the comnninity. The matter 
was brought up at a meeting of the Board of Re- 
gents and a committee was appointed to 
investigate into the conduct of the College of 
Agriculture in order that the evil report might 
be met by a careful statement of the facts. 
The committee consisted of Hon. H. M. Larue, 
of Sacramento, Speaker of the Assembly, and 
Hon. P. A. Finigan, President of the State Ag- 
ricultural Society. They met at Berkeley and 
received testimony, and made a general exami- 
nation of the conduct of the institution. At 
the meeting of the board on Friday, Dec. 28th, 
the committee handed in its report, entirely ex. 
onerating the Professor. The charge that he 
was habitually absent from hi.", office and lec- 
ture rooms proved unfounded. It was shown 
that his connection witli the United States Re- 
port of the Cotton Productions did not inter- 
fere with his regular duties, and, on the con- 
trary, it reflected the highest credit on the Uni. 
versity that the Professor liad been chosen to 
superintend the publication of this work, while 
among his assistants were to be found Profess- 
ors of the leading Eastern Colleges. In re- 
viewing the condition of the College of Agricul- 
ture, the committee paid glowing tributes of 
praise to Professor Hilgard's management, 
stating that the department compares most 
favorably with that of any college in the United 
States. In addition to the regular curriculum 
there are superior facilities for laboratory in- 
vestigation of the qualities of various soils. 

The Viticultural Laboratory now in oper- 
ation in the University offered the best oppor. 
tunities for the analysis of the several varieties 
of grapes. There were also in succeesful opera- 
tion an experimental garden orchard, in which 
investigations of the ability of various soils un- 
der certain known conditions were treated. 
The present roll of students in the college shows 
an increase over former years. The committee 
further advised that provision be made for se- 
curing the services of lecturers upon veterinary 
science and horticulture. In regard to the lat- 
ter study it was suggested that some arrange- 
ments might be made with the State Board of 

Regent Winans moved that the report of the 
committee be printed and distributed over the 
State, urging as his reasons for advising this 
course that there exists a serious misapprehen- 
sion in regard to the benefits attending a study 
of scientific agriculture, which, it was to be 
hoped, the report of the committee would tend 
to'remove. The motion was carried. 

Regent Rogers stated there is good reason to 
suspect that the person from whom the charges 
against Professor Hilgard had emanated is an 
employee of the University, and he moved that 
the committee endeavor to trace thesoarce of 
these charges. The motion was carried. 

^V'e understand that the report of the commit- 
tee has already gone to the State Printer at Sacra- 
mento, where it will be printed for general cir-] 
culation. We trust that all who inay have 
been imposed upon by the false charges may be 
reached by the complete refutation of them. 

The remains of De Long and comrades of the 
Jcnnnetlc expedition have arrived at Irkutsk. 
The remains were borne in procession through 
the streets, escorted by a detachment 
through multitudes of people who joined the 
cortege. Many wreaths were placed on the 
coffin, and printed copies of poems describing 
the exploits and unhappy end of the party were 
distributed among the crowd. Tlie remains 
will be taken to America. 

Rkcocinitiox ok Aov.'i.NX'n Payments. — The 
publishers make some slight changes in their 
offering of seed premiums this week, as may be 
seen by the tables on page 17. The premium 
marked 1 and 2 was very popular last year, and 
many orders were filled under it. We shall be 
glad to have subscribers avail themselves of it 
this year and be benefited thereby. 


account of the deleterious plants with which 
they have come in contact. Let careful pa- 
rents learn and remember that snakes andnorious 
insects are not the most dangerous to their 
playful children, but also some of the beautiful 
flowers in their gardens as well as on the 

These facts suggest the need of remedies. 
The best remedy is prevention, and thiscan come 
about only by knowledge. So it would be not 
only a pleasant undertaking, l)ut a profitable 
investment to have children instructed in the 
rudiments of botanical science, at least so far 
that they may be able to detect and avoid pois- 
onous plants like these so closely related to the 
deadly Aconitum described and figured in this 

Ei)T!CATi().\AL. — We call especial attention to 
the practical and witty educational essay pub- 
lished elsewhere in this paper, entitled "Some 
of My Faults." It elicited much favorable com- 
ment at the seventeenth annual session of the 
State Teachers' Association recently held in this 
city, before which body it was read, Mr. C 

'•BLUE WEED" -Aconitum Pischeri. 

is. Professor Lemmon determined the speci. 
men to be the Eastern cheat. The plant, 
alth ugh a great pest in Eastern grainfields is of 
some value as a forage plant, and as a plant for 
hay if it is cut at the right time. An exchange 
states that Mr. Stuart, residing near Jefferson, 
Oregon, raises cheat in the place of timothy, 
for hay. He has cultivated it for eight years as 
a regular crop. Experience teaches him that it 
yields one-fourth more hay to the acre than 
timothy; it does not volunteer more than 
wheat; it withstands the coldest winters, and 
does not freeze out. It succeeds well on wet 
land, not profitable for other crops, and yields 
of seed from forty to sixty bushels an acre. Mr. 
Stuart thinks that for milch cows, one and one- 
half tons of cheat hay are equal to two of 
timothy. He cuts it when just going into the 
milk; if allowed to stand too long before cut- 
ting, the straw becomes woody, hard and less 
nutritious. It cannot be highly regarded where 
better grasses will thrive, but in certain damp, 
! low lands it is worth a trial. 

Do.N'T_forget to date letters 1884. 



[January 5, 1884 


"Some of My Faults." 

[A i>ai)ei- icui] befin-e tht recent session "f tlie SUii- 
Teachers Association, by f. M. Prakc, of Santa I'ania, 
Ventuni county .J 

"You have abundant material to choose 
from," said one of my sarcastic fellow teachers. 
"Vou want to lash other teachers hy accusing 
yourself of all manner of faults you were never 
guilty of," asserted another who evidently had 
but little faitli in the veracity of my pen. 

"You haven't any faults," said one of my 
small-boy admirers, who must be excused on 
account of his youth and ignorance, for making 
such an unwarranted assertion. 

"You have only two faults, ' admitted an- 
otlier lad of 12, who was only a little less blind 
than the other. "You like to tease small boys" 
(I admitted that); "and your other fault is a 
great big one, bigger than all of mine," for I 
had just told him some of his faults, which he 
tried to excuse by reminding me of mine. 

Of course, if my faults as a teacher were 
peculiar to myself, it would do no good to read 
this sad catalogue; but there are other teachers 
who have faults similar to mine, and tliis honest 
confession may help some of them to see their 
faults more plainly. John Smith is one of 
these, and in order to save my own character 
as much as possible, and avoid the too freijuent 
use of the pronoun I, you will excuse me if I 
tell you of my faults by going after .John Smith, 
as he has many faults that I have, and some 
which I have not, and you may have the Yan- 
kee privilege of guessing which are his individ- 
ual faults and which are common to us both. 

John Smith is a pretty good teacher, if he 
does live in N'entura, and he has many good 
ijualities, including a diploma; but like every 
btlier teacher (present company excepted) he 
has failings. .Tohn Smith is partial to certain 
pupils; so am I. But we differ in our partial- 
ity. ] am fond of small boys — he of big girls; 
so we may dilfer in our way of displaying the 
same fault. 

But let me beg of you, when I mention one 
of John Smith's faults, if you have any doubt 
whether that fault may be mine also, to re- 
member the rule of common law — to give a 
man the benefit of a doubt. 

The teacher is said to be the school; so the 
faultier the teacher, the worse the school. A 
cross teacher makes an irritable school; a lazy 
teacher, an idle school; a careless teacher, a 
heedless school. 

How many of us teacliers never get cross, 
careless or lazy ? If outside matters are going 
wrong, or the last meal does not agree with one, 
can tlic voice keep perfectly even and the lirow 
unruHled ? Will sharp words not occasionally 
slip from the tongue, or a little impatience be 
shown to a pupil not up to the mark ? But if I 
were asked John Smith's greatest fault, and the 
greatest fault of nine-tenths of our teachers, I 
should emphatically say, "laziness." Down in 
Yentura, .John Smith has the reputation of being 
exceedingly industrious — for a teacher. He 
tiught thirteen months in the last school; 
he can walk thirty or forty miles a day if need 
be; he makes his own fires and is his own jan- 
itor, sn the people think he is not lazy. B;ick 
in his own home they knew him better. His 
fatlier let him study foi- a teacher, because he 
was too lazy to make a good farmer. He was a 
great admirer of honest hard work, that father. 
So was my father. He bought a mowing- 
machine, but lie used to walk behind it because 
it was sheer 1 iziness to sit upon the seat and let 
the poor horses pull him and the machine; but 
his son sits upon a seat to do his work, and the 
scat is cushioned and has springs underneath 
and a comfortable back to lean against. 

What is the cause of laziness ? Is it not a 
want of surticient interest in the work ? I know 
a teacher so lazy that he often falls asleep in his 
school-room. Put a gun upon his shoulder and 
he can tramp all day after a deer. I know a 
sulioolma'am who could not possibly walk a 
mile and a halt to the school-house; but she can 
dance all night and teach school the next day, 
or protend to. An uninterested teacher makes 
an indifferent school. If you tind yourself long- 
ing each day for four o'clock to come, or feel glad 
when Friday evening or vacation comes around, 
you lack interest in the school and you will i)c 
lazy in the school- room. Laziness crops up 
under many guises. A dull pupil, who should 
receive twice the care given to a bright one, is 
put off with about the same amount of attention 
as the other, under a specious plea of impar- 
tiality. Sympathy and assistance outside of 
school are given to a favorite pupil with far 
more graciousness than is shown to one not 
liked so well. Vupils are tolil steps they could 
have studied out, because it is easier to tell 
them than to teach them to do by themselves. 
Lessons are given out of the book, because it is 
easier than to put work upon the blackboard. 
Disagreeable tasks are deferred until it is too 
late to perform them properly. 

But though lazy to the backlione himself, 
.lohn Smith cannot endure to see idle pupils. 
He sometimes says to them, knowing they do 
not see how lazy he really is, "When you see 
me idle in the school-room, I give you leave to 
play also. " There is genuine work and there 
is a counterfeit make-believe. Some of the 
laziest teachers that I know of keep constantly 
at their kind of work, but their labor is me- 
chanical, and lacks life and enthusiasm. Some 

pupils, apparently lazy, study hard at times, ex- 
haust themselves and play in school, as they 
have a right to, and get scolded because they do 
not plod along like their dull neighbor. But 
you say, "Scold him because he sets a bad ex- 
ample to the other boys. " Sol do; but I se- 
cretly feel ashamed of punishing an innocent 
boy to help along his slower neighbor. 

Why do you teach school ? Did you ever try 
to answer this question honestly and unre- 
servedly? I like to teach; I like children; I 
like a certain amount of authority. I like to 
study child nature; I like the spare time I get, 
the few hours of work per day and only five 
days in the week; and last, but not least, 1 like 
the cash at the end of the month. These are 
the main things; habit makes almost any work 
light. I began teaching before I was seven- 
teen, and have taught for more than nineteen 
years. (The ladies will please not calculate how 
oUI I am, as age is a tender subject to old 
baclielors as well as to ladies. ) When one has 
taught that long most of his teaching runs into 
easy ruts which it is l>ut little labor to follow; 
he will not be so ready to take up new meth- 
ods, to devise new ways, to follow out lines of 
oiiginal investigation as he used to be. I sus- 
spect the main reason why we do not teach the 
same way year after year is because we get tired 
of the sameness and want a change. 

John Smitli don't always do as good work in 
the school room as he knows how to do. It is 
no excuse to say: "I do as good work as 
most of my neighbors." He should not think 
of the extra trouble and loss ol influence and 
popularity resultant from striking out too far 
from the ordinary school current, and should 
not give way because pupils like that work best 
which they are accustomed to, and which makes 
the least demands upon them for original 
thought and research. But Smith does let 
these things have weight; besides, the course 
of study which we have to keep within a school 
teacher's mile of generally forbids anything 
especially original. Here let me tell you one 
fault I am not guilty of. ^'ou remember the 
question in our annual reports : "Have you fol- 
lowed the course of study," etc. Now I don't lie 
and write "Yes," as John Smith does, but I say 
"approximately," wliich has an india-rubber 
meaning. But I humbly confess I do follow the 
course of study more closely than my conscience 
approves of. 

The most of us teachers have a certain liking 
for bright pupils. We like to see immediate re- 
sults. This liking for bright pupils is mixed up 
with a love of approbation, a little vanity, and 
several other traits not very commendable. For 
example, six months ago .Smith had two girls 
and a boy begin school. Two of them are now 
almost tlirough the .Second Reader; the other, 
a five-year-old girl and dull, is but half through 
the First R 'ader. Now, when I came to visit his 
school it was not at all necessary that he should 
very carefully explain to me what a very short 
time the two bright ones had I>een attending 
school, nor shake his head so mournfully over 
the dullness of the little girl and her irregular 
attendance. I liope none of you ever point to 
your bright ones with an air that says, "(iood 
teacher," and excuse your poor work by sigh 
ing, "dull pupil 1" 

I expect you all put your dull pupils forward 
as prominently as your bright ones when you 
have visitors, but Smith d(m't. He don't wish 
to hurt the dull ones' feelings by having them 
fail before visitors, 'you know. Here in S. F. 
you teach so that your pupils may gain a cer- 
tain per cent at examination times, and the 
most successful teacher is the one who can 
"boost" the most pupils into a higher grade in 
the required time, regardless of how tliey get 
along afterwards. That is the next teacher's 

In country districts we do things differently. 
There the most successful teacher is the one the 
neighborhood likes the best. We have to pro- 
mote to keep in favor, but we shift around so 
much that we can promote at the close of our 
tenn, as the law foolishly tells us to, and the 
next teacher may get along as best he can. 
Now, suppose .1. S. is the next teacher. NVhat 
ought he to do with these pupils improperly 
promoted? Turn them back, of course. But he 
don't always do it. He temporizes hy insert- 
ing oral work to review the back studies. He 
gives the pupils more help than is good for 
them. He tries many devices to avoid the 
storm which would follow summary treatment, 
until he gets intrenched in the good graces of 
the district; and by that time the impil proba- 
bly does not need turning back. The truth is, 
he does not make the welfare of the child his 
first consideration; his own interests look too 
large at times for the pupil's good. 

We have often been lectured through the 
educational journals for giving the pupils too 
much learning and too little education. J. S. 
does not escape this fault. J.,'.'arning makes so 
much more display at first; it is so much more 
easily given; it satisfies parents and pupils so 
much better: in fact it is better all round — ex- 
cept for the child. Smith compromises matters. 
If he has plenty of time he gives them educa- 
tion. If he is hurried he sighs and substitutes 
learning, and feels thankful the children don't 
know how they are cheated. 

Closely connei;ted with this matter of learn- 
ing or education is the question of what to 
teach and how much time to be given to certain 
studies and wlion to teach them. Here also. 
Smith falls short of my idea. He is fully per- 
suaded that technical grammar for children is a 
fraud and a delusion; yet he teaches it, or pre- 
tends to teach it. Five-sixths of the higher 
geography is comparatively useless to children; 

yet when they finish the primary, he consults 
the course of study and puts the class into the 
higher book. I hope to live to see the day 
when some good writer will publish a com- 
plete course of geography in one small Ijook. 
John Smith is also fully persuaded that music 
should be taught in all the grades; yet, as he 
would rather teach any other study, he neglects 
music most sadly. 

He regards natural history, especially the 
study of fruits, grains, domestic animals, and 
the insect enemies of the field and the orchard, 
of the highest importance. He belisves the 
true way to successfully combat our enormous 
losse s by disease and small depredators, is to 
form cabinets for each and every school, and 
enlist the aid of the children in trying to exter- 
minate these unwelcome guests. But his belief 
is passive and expends itself in an occasional 
talk, a fitful object lesson, and a few words of 

He does not believe that word analysis, ex- 
cept as a little word study from the readers, 
should be taught in our common schools, but 
for every five minutes Smith gives to natural 
history he gives at least fifteen minutes to word 
analysis. Why ? Partly owing to the course 
of study, ami partly because his unfortunate 
training in Latin and Greek made word analysis 
a pastime to him. 

Suppose some of you that are skilled in per- 
centage take a list of the studies that should be 
taught and are taught in our public schools, and 
mark down their relative importance using ^irith- 
r;!etic at 100 as a basis. See what fraction of the 
whole amount each study represents. Multiply 
each fraction by five hours, which represents the 
average time you really teach a day, and oppo- 
site the results place the time you really do give 
each study. I think the result will astonish 
you a little. 

As Smith gets older I find he pays less atten- 
tion to the play-ground. At times he enjoj's 
playing games with the childrsn, and the chil- 
dren enjoy it too. But as age checks the flow 
of blood, and the body becomes stiffer, one is 
apt to think he has work to do in the school- 
room and not time enough for play. 

This is wrong. A teacher's place at play- 
times is on the playground. He need not 
actively engage in play the whole time, but he 
should encourage suitable games by talk and by 
participation. Kvery good game for fair 
weather should have plenty of exercise in it, 
and running is the very best of exercises. I 
say fair weather, and it is fair weather for ac- 
tive exercise whenever it is not too warm. A 
little rain, or even a Scotch nust, won't hurt ac- 
tive, warm-ldooded children. Such games a.s 
marbles and tops are of little value for any pur- 
pose, and a teacher should encourage the play- 
ing of better games. "Pull-away," "base," 
and such games wherein young and old can 
join heartily and socially, though they may re- 
sult at times in torn clothes and a hard tumble, 
arc more useful to the child than geography or 
arithmetic. I never appreciated the folly of 
.San Francisco School Directors more than when 
I visited some of the finest school buildings in 
the city — buildings that cost tens u[>on tens of 
thousands of dollars, fitted up with fine furni- 
ture and apparatus; and for a play-ground for 
hundreds of jjupils, saw a cooped-up back-yard 
hardly big enough to swing a cat in, and for 
fear the sun should dry the ground too much, 
there was a big board fence and some sheds to 
stable the boys in rainy weather. The fence 
might have been put there to keep the neigh- 
bors from trespassing upon the school yard. 
Only one teacher was in any of these pens dur- 
ing recess, and the extent of his play was to 
shake two boys by their collars for too rough 
play. The only good I could think of for such 
places would be to use them for penitentiaries 
and put into them the San Francisco .School 
Directors and the teachers who rest satisfied with 
such attempts at play grounds. 

The health of our children is worth more 
than a whole block of lots in any part of the 
city, and the children's health depends upon 
their play ground more than upon any other 
one thing the city supplies. If teachers played 
more with their pupils they would insist on 
better grounds, and it is « rong for me or for 
you to avoid this daily play, for fear of loss of 
dignity, or .some other folly or laziness. Obey 
the rules of the games; do not be umpire if you 
can avoid it, in disputes, for children don't 
relish playing with bosses; and when you can 
no longer enjoy a play yourself you are old 
enough to quit the school room for good. 

Not only do we refuse to play with the chil- 
dren as we should, but a few teachers con- 
stantly pull oft a little time from the recesses 
by allowing class-work to interfere. A teacher 
has no right to keep pupils at work when they 
have earned their play. A lazy pupil will sel- 
dom be hurt if his recess is shortened, but it is 
the bright ones, and those willing to stay, who 
will be most injured. Of all the vicious edu- 
cational humbugs which have arisen in my 
time, I regard this no-recess doctrine as the 
very worst. Instead of fewer recesses we need 
more. An hour at a time is long enougli with- 
out a recess, and an indoors recess is almost as 
good as none. The education a boy gets at re- 
cess is not valued enough. He needs contact 
with other boys, good and bad, rough and gen 
tie. You cannot fence a boy away from evil, 
and if he runs against the barbed wire here and 
there he would not be so bad off as a boy who 
don't know anything of what he should avoid. 
Let the young colt run against the barbs and 
get torn a little, and wisdom learned from ex- 
perience well restrain him more than a hundred 
lectures. A burnt child will mind the fire, and 

it is folly to be continually pulling a young one 
away from the stove. 

Much has been written about children's 
lunches: and here let me observe that if those 
teachers who are crying "No recess," should 
switch off on the no-lunch track, they would be 
wiser. ( )ur children are stuffed from the hour 
of their birth until they get old enough to stuff' 
themselves, and then, as the habit is formed, 
they keep on stuffing until their stomachs are 
worn out. If a baby cries they feed him; if he 
throws up the food he does not want, they stop 
his mouth with a bottle. When he gets larger 
and comes in with a stubbed toe for sympathy 
and a rag, he is given a piece of bread and but- 
ter with a tl ick covering of molasses or sugar, 
so as to entice (he rebellious palate into ac- 
quiescence, if not belief, that it is wanted. I 
try to feebiy stem this tide of exce.-^sive and 
unhealthy food, but I get swept on the rocks of 
custom and public opinion. Mothers think they 
know better what to feed their children than 
any old bachelor could tell them. The pupils find 
a conflict of opinions, and home influence natur- 
ally prevails. I tell my pupils that spirituous 
liquors, tobacco, tea and cott'ee are injurious, 
especially to growing children; I read to 
them what others have said; I point out sad 
examples, that they may see near at hand, and 
I have pretty good success in getting them to 
let whisky and tobacco alone. But the mother 
says, laughingly, when I go to herhouse for sup- 
per, "Tom usually drinks tea and coffee with 
the rest of us, but because the teacher is here 
he told me to put water by his plate to-night." 
What can I do but smile and say, "I am glad 
Tom is good when he is with his teacher," and 
if I add a word about the injurious effects of 
tea and cofl'ee, politeness dictates that my 
speenh should be very short. 

if I fail in dealing satisfactorily with the food 
question, I think 1 make even less of a success 
on clothing. No one douf)ts that a child should 
have some clothes on, but how many is another 
question. If health and decency alone are the 
guides, a shirt and trousers are enough for the 
average boy. Suspenders are not so cheap as 
buttons nor as good. Boots and shoes are a 
nuisance, and often endanger the health in 
rainy weather. 'I he less covering a child has 
for head or feet the better, as a rule. Never 
send children indoors for a hat or a bonnet, and 
it won't hurt you to play out of doors a whole 
recess without your own hat. What are hats 
and bonnets good for anyway, except to weaken 
the eyes .uid make the head bald? Oh, yes, 
they do save the expense of washes to remove 
freckles. I forgot that. As for tight shoes and 
the other follies people indulge in for looks and 
tor fashion, teacliers lie very jiersistent if 
they keep children from such things. 

1 often feel that we are not solicitous enough 
about the moral training of pupils. If they 
keep clean and respectful, and do not fight, 
swear, use tobacco or hurt others upon the 
playground, we content ourselves with bits of 
good advice thrown in at stray times, and try 
to believe we have fulfilled the section of school 
law relating to morals and manners. 

We are apt to fail in morals and manners in 
other directions. Making rash promises is one 
of Smitli's failings, and though he always tries 
to keep a promise when made, he gets into many 
a scrape by not being careful enough to think 
what he says. Then some days John feels more 
indulgent than at other times, and permits 
things he would not allow on other days. On 
the days when one feels cross it is so easy to 
blame pupils for what is really our own fault. 
"If the teacher goes to whip you again, tell him 
it isn't your fault that his victuals don't agree 
with him, " advised a Yentura father to his boy 
in my hearing. It is strange how differently the 
same thing att'eets difl'erent persons. A certain 
Ventura schoolma'am is said to whip twice as 
many boys per day on the average since she 
was engaged to be married than she found it 
necessary to flog before that happy event took 
place. I never tried it, but it seems to me that 
that medicine would operate the other way with 
me. If some good looking lady wants to be 
sure of ti"e effect, 1884 is near at hand and is a 
multiple of 4. The trouble is that, instead of 
being guided by fixed rules of conduct laid 
down by our conscience after careful reasoning, 
we suffer ourselves to be swayed too much by 
the feelings of the moment. Uncontrolled power 
is what few mortals are strong enough to stand ; 
and to shake Jim Brown just because you are 
angry with him and can shake him, may soothe 
your feelings to-daj'; but if you really have Jim 
Brown's welfare at lieart it is nine chances to 
one that j'ou will be sorry you didn't use a little 
judicious tongue instead of injudicious biceps. 
A jK(//'V0i(.s use of the tongue is good; but like 
many another thing it is a good servant and a bad 
ma.stcr. We think many things in the schoolroom 
that it viould never do to say. You may justly 
think ^ child a dunce, but call him "low when 
you speak of him to others. It is admissible to 
tell a child he is lazy; for though it is worse to 
be lazy than dull the name does not offend. 
There is a mistaken notion about laziness and 
strong drink that is very prevalent. Both are 
wrongly supposed to be failings of smart men 
rather than ignorant ones. Laziness of body is 
almost invariably associated with laziness of 
mind; and surely where one wise man gets 
drunk, you can easily find five drunken fools. 

John Smith has one fault which seems to be a 
necessary evil for a teacher. He is conceited. 
\ Now I think if a teacher does not have a pretty 
good opinion of himself, others are likely to 
I agree with him. But John carries this a little 
j too far, for he not only overrates himself, but 
I he underrates other taachers. From the hight 


January 5, 1884.] 

fAeiFie f^URAL PRESS. 

of his experience, he looks down unsympathiz- 
ingly upon their failures. He feels offended if 
all his pupils don't consider him the best teach- 
er they ever had or ever will have. He thinks 
it no more than right that every teaclier 
who precedes or succeeds him in a district 
should be accounted a failure. This is wrong, 
but it is so common that it has passed into a 
proverb that two of a trade can never agree. 

There is another old proverb which says, 
"There is no use crying over spilled milk." 
John Smith is (figuratively speaking) bathed in 
continual tears over slips which he cannot pre- 
vent, over the lack of cream in this one, or be- 
cause the butter of this class won't gather 
((uickly enough under his vigorous churning, or 
because another class has turned to clabber 
under his mistaken management. It is not 

The Wool Trade of 1883. 

The following is the wool report of George 
Abbot, of the San Francisco Wool Exchange, for 
the year ending 188.S : 

Active demand during January and February 
reduced the large stock on hand, so that when 
spring wools began to arrive the amount of 
wool in warehouse was not much larger than 
usual. The history of the spring wool market 
would be simply a repetition of the reports of 
the last three years. Eastern manufacturers in 

person or through their agents opened the mar 

work but worry that wears out many a teacher i ket at rates^ above the expectaJ;ion of receivers, 

Very few teachers are perfectly . honest with 
school supplies. If one could have exact sta- 
tistics it might surprise school trustees to learn 
the very small amount of paper, pens, pencils 

ink, etc., our teachers purchase for private use. 
We go after public othcials for stealing, but 
how many of us are guiltless? And why 
should one teacher use twice or thrice as many 
slate pencils as another, to say nothing of other 
school supplies? Waste of property entrusted 
to our care is as bad as stealing. And some 
even steal time. As a Ventura teacher told 
me, "The teacher rings the bell just at nine 
and it is five minutes before he begins school. 
Recesses are two or three minutes longer than 
the twenty minutes the law allows. Noon is 
an hour and five minutes, and the pupils are 
dismissed a little before four o'clock." 
Teachers should keep a daily record of the 
exact number of hours and minutes taught each 
(lay, and if they have not averaged full time 
their wages should be docked. 

\'ery few teachers keep record of their ex- 
perience, though I do not know of a business 
which more strongly demands it. A good bee- 
man will tell you the date hive No. 104 
swarmed; whether the queen is purely mated; 
how many pounds of honey it produced, how 
long it took to draw out a frame of foundation 
and have it full of brood and honey; for he 
keeps a record book of every colony in his 
apiary. But who keeps a record of his pupils 
and of their advancement lesson by lesson; how 
long it took this one to comprehend simple sub- 
traction, or to learn to spell so many words V 
Does he pu/.zle over the reason why the table of 
sixes is more difficult to rcinembe)' that nine 
times, or why the child knows that 6 + 7=^13 
because (i H (i - 12, but remembers that 7 + 8=15 
because 8 + 8 = lli, instead of remembering it 
from 7 I 7 as he logically should do? .lohn 
Smith has Lis pupils begin with 2 ■ 1 and learn 
the tables iu their order up to 10 x 10 or 12 • 12, 
without any regaid to the comparative difficulty 
of remembering the d.iVerent tables, and all the 
school arithmetics I know of are made by John 
Smith's first cousins. I say emphatically that 
a teacher who does not continually experiment 
in the school-room and keep a record of such 
experiments is not a teacher, but an imitator of 
other teachers, or else aii educational guesser. 

But I must not weary you with this enumera 
tion of my faults and those of John Smith. A 
complete catalogue might re(iuire a ([uarto vol- 
ume for their full description, and so I will 
close by asking you to forgive J. Smith for his 
faults, and forget my faults, which I am sin 
cerely endeavoring to mend. I sometimes think 
faults are like lice; it is a misfortune to have 
them, a shame to keep them without trying to 
get rid of them, and a sin to charge them to an 
innocent man's door. Let us use a searching 
fine-tooth comb ourselves before we blame our 
neighbors overmuch. 

A.MERicAN CuTLKRV.- A Correspondent of a 
London paper, in a recent issue, says: "About 
the only advantage English cutlers can claim 
over American competitors is that which at- 
taches to the traditional reputation. It is a 
mistaken notion that the former have an ad- 
vantage over the latter in the matter of steel. 
American steel made for cutlery and tool pur- 
poses is as good as any steel made iu (Jreat 
Britain, and it would be folly to (pestion the 
fact. The art of steel-making has been brought 
to great perfection in Pittsburgh; and while it 
is true that some old houses consuming steel 
prefer and use the English, it is as much be- 
cause they are unwilling to make any change 
in material and methods as because they con- 
sider English steel really better." While thus 
admitting the excellence of our material, this 
writer says that in "finish" our best specimens 
of cutlery are certainly unsurpassed by the 
choicest goods of Sheffield. 


A Norwegian plant geographer. Professor 
Schubeler, called attention a short time ago to 
the remarkable fact that most plants in high 
li|titudcs produce much larger and heavier seeds 
than in warmer regions near the equator — an 
effect which he ascribes to a prolonged influence 
of sunliglit during the long summer days of the 
high latitudes. In some oases the dwarf beans 
taken from Christiania to Drontheim, — less 
than four degrees further north — gr.ined more 
than sixty per cent in weight, and thyme from 
Lyons, when planted in Drontheim, showed a 
gain of seventy -one per cent. The leaves also 
of most plants are larger and more deeply col- 
ored in higher latitudes, as was first noticed by 
(Iriesbach and Martins. The same is true of 
flowers, and many which are white in southern 
climates become violet in the north. 

and until this consumptive demand was sup 
plied sales were large, but at constantly lower 
rates. From the opening of the season to the 
present time prices have steadily declined, and 
with the exception of short periods of activity 
the market has been quiet. Stocks have 
always been large, and will probably continue 
so long as so much wool is scoured here. The 
scourers make a continued demand, which on 
many classes of wool (especially fall clip) pre- 
vents prices reaching the point which would 
enable shippers in the grease to handle them. 
The market on fall wools has been more steady 
than on spring, as Eastern buyers pay less at- 
tention to fall clips. Eastern manufacturers, 
as formerly, have taken a large portion of the 
spring clip. Scourers here have handled most 
of the fall wools and a large portion of the 
Oregon wool product. 

Prices are to-day lower than have ruled for 
several years, but as shrinkage has increased 
and l)urs and seeds become very general, the 
decline is apparently greater than it actually is. 

Spring Clip. — The clip from the middle and 
southern counties was better than was ex 
pected, and was as good as that of the previous 
year. Northern wools were better in growth 
and condition, the production is larger than 
that of last year and will pr,obabty show a fur 
ther increase during the coming season. Owing 
to low prices ruling for fall wools, shearing has 
not been so general, and the proportion of 
wools, of year's growth will be greater. These 
wools are less desirable than fi to 8 months 
clips as they contain more dust, seed and burr. 


Vhou-K Northern, (IfiniibDlclt & Mendocinu) 2;i to24.i 

Uocid Northeni (Keel liliifT, Cdlusa, etc.) 20 to 2:i 

Defective 17 to 20 

Choice San Joa(iuiii 19 to 21 

Kair tii jfood San Joaquin 10 to 18 

Heavy, San .loaquln 11 to 13 

Fair. San Joaquin, 12 months' y^rowth l.'ito 1*5 

Siiuthern coast, ^ood stapled H> to 17 

Southern (■oa>t, average stajiled 12 to Ift 

Fall Clip. — This clip isabout the samein condi 
tion as usual but is growing more defective each 
year. Receipts of very heavy and defective 
wools are smaller, because growers sheared only 
lambs in the south and San Joa(|uin. Opening 
prices were the highest, but the variation has 
been small. Local scourers have been the chief 
buyers. Shipments in the grease are the 
smallest ever made in proportion to the 


Choice Northern Irt to IS 

(Joort Northern 14 to 1 

San .loaquin !) to 1^' 

Souttiern Coast St' 

Oregon. — The receipts from Oregon have 
been larger than in 1882, but as condition was 
better than for several years previously the 
wools have met with ready sale, and stocks are 
much smaller to-day than they were a year ago. 
Growers in Eastern Oregon are improving the 
([uality of their fleeces; but valley Oregons re 
main coarse and undesirable. Prices on the 
latter class have touched the lowest point seen 
for many years. 


Clioii e Valley (Roseburg) 2:i to i 

Choice Valley 20 to 2.'i 

Oidinarv Valley 18 to 22 

Choice Eastern 20 to 2:5 

Good Eastern 17 to 20 

Fair to heavy Eastern 14 to 16 

Stocks — The stock on hand comprised heavy 
Eastern Oregon, heavy or defective fall and 
defective northern, but are materially less than 
a year ago. 

I'\eights — During the spring season overland 
were 2;( cents per pound. For the past four 
months on wools costing over 18 cents per 
pound, 2 cents per pound; costing between 12 
and 18 cents per pound, 1,: cents per pound; 
under 12 cents, 1.]. cents per pound. By ship 
from 1 cent to 1.J cents per pound. As usual, 
manufacturers have been the largest shippers by 

Wool Production. 


On hand December 31, 1882, about 10,000,000 

Received from Oregon, 30,860 bags 9,258,000 

Foreign wool received, 4,381 bales 1,310,000 

Grand total 62,49.5,460 


Domestic, Foreign, Pulled and Scoured: Pounds. 
Per rail, inclusive of shipments from the in- 
terior :34,229,30.'i 

Per steamer, inclusive of shipments from the 

coast 89,888 

PersaU 7,589,155 

Total shipments 41,908,348 

Value of exports §8,000,000 

On hand December 31, 1883, about 6,500,000 

Diff'erence between receipts and exports arises 
from consumption of local mills and wool on 
hand awaiting shipment in the grease or 
scoured. The difference is more marked than 
formerly on account of the increased amount of 
wool scoured. Foreign wool is chiefly from 
Australia in transit to Eastern markets. The 
weights of receipts and exports are gross. The 
usual tare on bags received is about '^ pounds 
each; on pressed bales shipped, 14 to Hi pounds 

Production of California Wool. 


18.54 175,000 

1855 :wo,ooo 

1850 600,000 

18.57 1,100,000 

18.58 1,428,351 

1859 2,378,2.50 

1860 3,055,325 

1801 3,721,998 

1862 5,990,300 

1803 6,268,480 

1864 7,923,670 

1865 8,949,931 

1866 8,532,047 

1867 10,288.600 

1S68 14,232,05' 


1869 15,413,970 

1870 20,072,6(10 

1871 22,187,188 

1872 24,25.5,488 

1873 32,155,169 

1874 39,350,781 

1875 43,532,223 

1876 .50,.5.50,970 

1877 .53,110,742 

1878 40,862,091 

1879 40,903,300 

1880 46,074,154 

1881 45,076,6:^!) 

1882 40,527,119 

1883 . 40,848,690 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



January, Fall 1882.. 1,672 

February, FalU882.. 1,.597 

March 3,320 

April 13,047 

May 18,252 

June 15,719 

J\dv 11,432 


August 4,565 

September 8,S37 

October 18,268 

November 10,277 

December 1,513 

Total 108,508 


of which there was spring wool, 66,344 bagu, 

weighing 20,566,640 

Spring wool shipped direct from the interior. . . 2,799,805 

Total spring production 

Tliere was fall wool rei'ei\ed, 38,895 bags, 

weighing 13,613,250 

Fall wool shipped direct frohi the interior 2,36S,9;i5 

Total fleece wool 39,348,090 

Pulled wool shipped direct from San Francisco. 1,500,000 

About Tulare County. 

Indui cmentg to Einlgfrants. 

Tulare county is one of the largest counties in 
California, and is situated in the great San Joaquin 
valley, 240 miles south of San Francisco. The 
county is comparatively new as an agricultural 
county, her immense plains having been used as the 
pasture for innumerable herds of cattle until the last 
six or seven years, when the capabilities of our soil 
for farming was demonstrated, and since that time 
our county has increased in population and general 
resources, until now she ranks as one of the foremost 
agricultural counties of Southern California. Her 
population is about i.) The valuation of the 
property, as appears on the last .Assessment KoU is 
$10,000,000. The tax rate is $1.65 per $100. This is 
for State and county taxes. 

I'he four principal towns are X'isalia, the largest 
town and county seat; Tulare, located on the main 
line of the S. P. R. R.; Hanford and Lemoore, 
situated in the Mussel Slough district, al)out 20 miles 
east of the county seat. 

The Artesian Wells, 

I'ulare county lias developed many wonderful 
enterprises in the last few years. The artesian wells 
of this county are the largest in the State and the 
practical results accomplished is simply wonderful. 
There are now .about 200 flowing artesian wells in 
Tulare county at the present time. A great many 
ask the question: What can be accomplished with 
these wells ? How many acres will one well irrigate ? 
In an.swer to these varied questions we would state 
that every man who has a well is making a hand 
sonic living on 40 acres of his land, and it is claimed 
by people who know and have wells, that an average 
well will irrigate i6o acres of land. 

Much is being accomplished with these artesian 
wells, and the future of this section of Tulare county 
bids fair to rival the Riverside section of .San Bernar- 
dino county. A system of irrigating ditches and 
canals is now in a fair way to be consummated, and 
when this is done the water c|uestion will be forever 

A great deal has been said about the unhealthiness 
o( Tulare county, and has been exaggerated in many 
instances. The facts are about as follows: 'I'ulare 
county is troubled .slightl\ with malaria, but not more 
so than many other irrigated farming sections. 
Tulaie county has about 100 school districts and 
employs about 120 teachers. We have about 14 
churches in the county, and a large number of 
church societies. Tulare county society is generally 
good; her people are law-abiding citizens who have 
the interest of the State at heart. 

We want immigrants who can come with some 
means, and to such as these Tulare county offers 
better inducements than any other county in Cali- 
fornia. We offer cheaper lands for the quality than 
any other county of California. There yet remains a 
great deal of vacant government land that can be 
located. Ons^.RVER. 

Conglia, Hoarsfnesg, Sore Throat, etc., 
(cuickly relieved by Biiow.x's Bkoxcmiai, Thociies. A sim- 
ple and effectual remedy, superior to all other articles 
for the same purpose. Sold onli/ in boxes. 

Reno, Nev., expects to have smelting works 
similar to those at Denver. 


New Spring Grains 

(iKOUNDS. The originators of the Defiance wheat, Snow - 
flake potatoes, etc., offer the following: 

"Pringle's Green Mountain" wheat, bald light chaff, 
berry medium size, light amber, \ ery productive; first 
offered in packets last spring; a cross between "Dcliance" 
and "Lost Nation." "Pringle's Grandee," largest of his 
new wheats, heads often over 7 inches long, bald, light 
chaff, berry large; now first offered; will do wonders in 
California. "Horsford's Imperial Barley," a true hybrid, 
rowed, heads 4 to 7 inches long exclusive of beard, often 
with over 100 kernels per head, and prodncing 40 to 60 
heads per plant; has yielded as high as 1,300 fold the past 
.season; 11 ( bushels have been grown from one pound of 
Eeed; valnable for hay; offered last spring by the 
pound and packet. Prices of either of the three above 
named varieties by mail, 2 pounds, SI; §5 per peck; by 
express or freight, not prepaid, IJ2.50 per peck; *8 per 
bushel. "Pringle's American Triumph'' oats; first of- 
fered last spring by the packet; remarkably free from 
rust, grow over 6 feet high, very (jroductive and vaUiabht 
for hay; straw and grain light yellow. Price by mail, 70 
cents per pound; ^'i.ii't per jicck. By express or freight, 
not prepaid, .•S-'.50 per pc k; .S8 per bushel. One peck of 
either of the above, sown in drills and cultivated, suHi- 
cient seed for an acre. 


Charlotte, "Vermont. 

UKMCCI I The eBrlifstnml most 
n H I1 C LL^nlnii'i'e Itii«pl)crrj-, 
Eiirly Harvest Blackberry, 
.\tliintlc nnil I>Biii('l Boone 
straw bcrrlcM ; send fur dctailt. 
The targestand kc^t stork of 


n the United States, including all 
,il,i,il,le r.i.ietir,, new and uld. 
I Itirlifj llhi^trnted Cnl.ntnqne, tellinif 
I uhat to plant. ti:w t,i i,l<int. nnd Ivne 

to i/et rind 'irow Kniit Trvi-" I 

Plniit«, JIUed n illi inlnrmnlion 
on fniit enllurr, frcp. Mdresa, 
J. T. LOVETT, IJltlo silM r, Ni-w Joi-spj . 
hdrodnecr Ctithliert Rai^i'lientl and Mnnrlicsler XtrawheriT/. 


Orders for Ct'TTINdS of these new and excellent 
Pears should be given at as earl^ a day as possible. 
Ha\ ing the largest orchanl of bearing trees of these va- 
rieties in the State, I am prepared to supply all de- 
mands for Scions, during the grafting season— from .fanu- 
ary to March. PRICES - Kiekfer Cuttings, from a foot 
to'l5 inches in length, 10 for *1; Leconte Cuttings, 12 for 
si by mail. Address, 

J. WINCHESTER, Columbia, C.1I. 


Zinfandel and Fitierzagos 

The Fibcrzagos giajie is good botli for wine and raisins. 
It has a thin skin, is very sweet, ripens early, and is won- 
derfully prodncti\e. 


Fresno. ( 'al. 


1,000,000 Muscatel Crape Cuttings, 

Twenty inches long, by OAK SHADE FHl lT COMPANY, 
DaviBviiie, at $3 per Thousand. 

Address WEBSTER TREAT, Manager. 



lEstaliliihed in S 


in 1.^71 1 1. 


Total production of California 40,848,000 

Fall wool of 1SS2, 3,2«) batfs 1,078,770 

This is the leading farming journal on the western half 
of the continent, and second to none in America. It is 
well printcil and illustrated, weeklj . Contains an unusual 
amount of fresh, original farm, household and family cir. 
ide literature. Careful attention is paid to giving full and 
reliable weekly market repi>rts. The following are among 
•tsablv conducted dei artmeiitu; Editorials on agricultu- 
ral and other timely ami important subjects of live inter, 
est to farmers and their families; agricultural and other 
useful and ornaniental illustrations; correspondence from 
various quarters of our new and rich developing fields of 
agriculture in the Pacific ('oast, umbrac'ing n(!W hints and 
ideas from progressive men and wnmeii in all branches of 
rural industry; Hortic-ulture; Floriculture; The Garden; 
The Home Circle; The Grange; Young Folks; Domestic 
Economy; Good Health; Knt<nnological; Sheep and Wool; 
The Dairy ; The Stock Yard; Pimltr.\ Yard; The Swine Yard; 
The Apiary; Sericulture; The Vineyard; Queries and He' 
plies; New Inventions (and illustratic iis of new and im- 
proved nittchinery); .•\gri<'iiltural Notes; Items of Oenera] 
News, etc. Its columns arc studiously filled with chaste, 
interesting, fresh and useful reading, devoid of question" 
able literature for old or young and faiunfully alluring 
(^lap-trap advertisemcntH. Send for sample copies. 

Subscriptions, in atlmncr, si a year. Agents wanted 
on liberal pay. Okwev & Co., I^lblishcrs. 

N.i. 25-J Market St.. S. F.,Cal. 

40,000 UuKSES are bought and sold annually by seven 
teen of the leading dealers of New York and Chicago 
who unanimously declare that the one-half and three 
fourths blood Percheron-Normans have more ntyle 
action, best endurance on pa s eliients, and .sell for more 
money than any other class of horses on the market.— 
Vliicago Trihmie. Nearly 1,400 of this popular breed 
have been imported from France and bred in their purity 
by M. W. Dunham, of Wayne, III. 

Job Press for Sale or Exchange. 

We have just received a new improved Rotary Job 
Printing jiress of approved style and make, which we wil 
sell at a bargain or exchange on favorable terms for a 
Washington hand press. Size of chase inside 7x10 inches. 

Dewkv & Co., publishers. 




D. W. MADDEN, Prop'r, 

Opposite the C. P. R. R. Depot. Established 1878. 

Beautiful Large Cliromo Cards, New and Elegant 
designs. Friendship, Remembrance, \ erse. Motto, 
Birthday, Christmas, New Year's, etc , bi^stquality, 
names on, 10 cts. .CTNA PRINTING CO.. Nort.hford, Ct 

CoBRBSPoNDENCE is Cordially solicited from reliable 
eourcei «9}u all topics of iutereat aod value to our readen< 




[January 5, 1884 

January Fashions. 

There is a sentiment common to all in the 
dawning of a new year, that rouses us to a pe- 
culiar interest in our outward appearance. If 
we are really without need of new garments, 

a skirt of this style. Silks, velvets, cloths, 
cashmeres, Ottoman reps, brocades, plaids, etc., 
are all suitable for such skirts; and the gar- 
niture may be rliftles of the material or of lace 
or embroidery, box or side plaitings, etc. 

The basque fits perfectly, its adjustment 

Lisse ruffs also edge the wrists of the coat 
sleeves, which are each decorated with a cufT 
ornament of surah formed of a narrow, deep 
section that is arranged on the upper side and 
overlaps the ends of a plaited section crossing 
from the under side. The basque is a becoming 

skirt. It Is closed from the neck to a little be- 
low the waist-line, and Its skirt is open below 
the center seam of the back, the open edges be- 
ing hemmed. Uelow the closing the front edges 
flare in harmony with the hemmed edges of the 
back, with a very stylish effect. The fitting is 



we nevertheless procure them, provided we are 
able to justify the expenditure; if not, we 
crave all the same fresh and becoming habili- 
ments, iu which to array ourselves to greet the 
new epoch. If outward transformations are 
possible to ourselves, we may at least enjoy the 
graceful toilettes of those who are more fortu- 
nate—that is, if we be sufficiently unselfish for 
such enjoyment. 

Kor January there are several charming nov- 
elties in styles, which cannot fail to win ad- 
miration whether one requires new raiment or 

Ladies' Toilette. 

Brocaded Ottoman silk and plain surali of a 
heavy (juality are combined iu the sumptuous 
toilette represented in Fig. 1 . The skirt is of 
the round, four-gored style, and is trimmed at 
the foot with a tiny knife-plaiting and a deeper 
nide-plaiting. These plaitings are repeated 
with pretty effect upon the skirt between the 
llaring edges of the front-draperies, and are of 
the plain surah. The draperies are of the bro- 
caded Ottoman, and are full and deep. A 
broad panel is arranged uiwii the right side of 
the skirt, and over its upper part droops a full 
drapery, that is fitted smoothly at the belt by 
darts and is draped iu an irregular fashion by 
plaits bunched close together in its front edge, 
and spi-ead in fan fashion towaid the back edge, 
where they are securely tacked. The left front 
drapery is softly draped by plaits in its' back 
edge, the plaits raising it slightly higher at the 
back edge than at the front edge, where it 
reaches aboutthe same distancedowuonthepan- 
el. It meets .ind joins the upper drapery at the 
right side, and then Hares gracefully from the 
p.anel to exhibit the trimming in an attractive 
fan-outline. A chenille ornament, with two 
full tassel-pendants, is fastened over the meet- 
ing of the upper part of the draperies, to 
highten the cKaborateness of the etlect. The 
back-drapery is deep and full, its bouffiintdrap- 
iug being the result of deep, downward turn- 
ing plaits in ti e side eilyes and a looping at the 
center. The edges of all the draperiesarc plain- 
ly finished. Compilations of two or more v.i- 
rieties of materials are especially pleasing in 

being made by double bust darts, narrow under- 
arm and side-back gores, and a curving center 
scum that terminates in an under-folded double 
box plait below the waist line. At each side 

fashion for all kinds of dress materials, and 
may be elaborated with lace or embroidery or 
with vest, collar and cuff facings of contrasting 
goods. The neck may be cut out in Pompadour 

N -1 


edge of the back skirt is an under folded side 
plait, and over the end of the center seam is 
attached an ornamental arrangement of the 
brocade, shirred at tlie center and tacked to 
the ba.«^(iue to produce a bouffant, wing-like 
appearance. The side edges of the ornament 
are tacked in revers. The front of the basque 
is pointed, the sides are arched high, and the 
back falls deep and square in postilion outline 
between the ends of the added ornament. A 
standing collar is at the neck, and a lisse luff 
and a jabot of pretty lace are worn as lingerie. 


fashion or turned under in \' shape, as pre- 
ferred; and the sleeves may \ye shortened to 
please the fancy. 

Street ToJlette. 

A beautiful street toilette of heavy surah 
and illuminated cloth is portrayed in Fig. 2. 
The skirt is of the surah and has three tiny 
knife-plaitings about the foot, the upper plait- 
ing being set on to form its own beading. 

The overdress is like a deep coat, closely 
fitted and reaching nearly to the foot of the 

S'nooth and handsome, .ind is accomplished by 
bust and under arm darts, siile back gores and 
the center seam mentioned, and the drapery 
falls with severe, coat-like elegance. A row of 
broad chenille galloon is arranged about the 
neck, down each front hem, about the lower 
edge of the overdress, and up the hems of the 
back. Deep, round cuff facings of surah trim 
the closely fitted sleeves, and the tan-colored 
kid gloves have their loose wrists slightly 
tucked under the wrists. 

Very elegant costumes of this style have the 
skirt of plain velvet or Ottoman silk and the 
overdress of broca<led velvet or brocaded Otto- 
man, or vice versa. Velvet skirts, with plain, 
Ottoman or mixed cloth over.lresses, are also 
elegant for street costumes. Fur, cascades of 
lace, fringe, braid, flat contrasting bands, or a 
perfectly plain finish, will form a stylisli com- 
pletion for overdresses fashioned in this way, and 
plaitings, ruttles, ruches, or any garniture de- 
sired, may be added to the skirt. The front of 
the skirt, lietween the open edges of the over- 
dress, 111 ly be elaborately trimmed, if desired. 

The felt hat has its rolled brim smoothly 
faced with velvet, and is trimmed with ostrich 

Miases' Cloak. 

One of the handsomest street wraps for the 
miss is illustrated in Fig. .S. It is developed iu 
a heav^ mixed cloaking, showing an arti.stic 
blending of colors that produce the fashionable 
illuminated effect. The cloak is closely fitted 
to the figure by single bust and under arm 
darts, toncther with low side form seams rfnd 
a center seam that terminate below the waist- 
line at the top of under-foldeil plaits, the latter 
giving the back skirt the appearance of being 
folded in two box-plaits. The front is double- 
bre.isted, closing all the way down in true 
double-breasted fashion with buttonho'cs and 
large horn buttons, and is sloped slightly low at 
the neck. A shawl collar of rich fur imparts a 
luxurious completion to the neck, and deep, 
round cuffs are simulated with fur at the wrists 
of the coat sleeves. A large, heavy silk hand- 
kerchief of becoming hue is carelessly arranged the neck under the cloak. Openings to 

January 5, 1884,] 


handy pockets are arranged in the sides of the 
front, and a perfectly plain finish is preserved 
on all the edges. 

Such cloaks are made of plush, velvet, plain 
and fancj' cloths of all kinds, tricot, kersey, 
cheviot, and all kinds of cloakings and coatings. 

The muff is of fur like that trimming the 
wrap and a cat's head is added to it for orna- 
ment. It is lined with surah, and is of a fashion- 
able and pretty size. All materials appropriate 
for wraps and costumes may be made into such 
muEFa, and the finish may be entirely plain or 

and a sash of wide satin ribbon. The skirt is 
tucked nearly to the belt, to which it is gath- 
ered all around. It is finished at the bottom 
with a deep hem, and about the top is draped 
the sash, which is tied in a large bow at the 
left side of the front, the bascjue falling stylish- 

machine stitched, if preferred. The basque 
is deep and round, and its lower 
edge is cut in deep, oval talis all the way 
around. It is buttoned at the back and has 
under arm and side-back seams to shape it to 
the figure. The sleeves are long and close fit- 

Pig. 3.-MISSEi' CLOAK. 

If the material is light ia weight, the cloak is 
luxuriously lined with quilted silk or satin 
thinly wadded, or less expensively lined with 
tlanuel, or some eijually warm fabric. The col- 
lar and cutt' facings miy be of any variety of 
fur, or of velvet or plush, or any contrasting 
fabric, or they may be like the cloak. 

The jaunty hat is of fine felt, and is trimmed 
with a soft scarf of silk, a cluster of ostrich 
tips and an aigrette. 

Ladies' Outdoor Toilette. 

One of the newest modes in long wraps is 
illustrated in Figure 4. It extends to within a 
short distance of the foot of the dress, which 
may be of any style pr^;ferred and may have a 
deep, double, box-plaited flounce of its material 
for trimming, or many little ruffles or plaitings, or 
any preferred garniture. The wrap is developed 
in brocaded velvet of a rich quality and pattern, 
illustrating one of the most elegant selections of 
the season. It is lined with lirocaded ottoman, for 
which heavy surah, plush, rhadames, xa/i>i mcr- 
vcilleux or any similar fal)ric may be substituted. 
The fronts of the garment are loose, deeply 
shirred at the neck, and closed all the way 
down with hooks- and loops. The back is folded 
in deep plaits from the neck down, the plaits 
being arranged so as to conform the back to a 
smoothly fitted lining, that extends only a little 
below the waist-line, thus curving the wrap 
gracefully to the form. The sleeves are wide 
and curve over the shoulders in dolman style, 
and are slightly gathered to stand fashionably 
high at tlie shoulders. They are also hand- 
somely shirred to fall in pretty ruffs about the 
hands and are as becoming as they are quaint 
and stylish in construction. The ruH's are un- 
derfaccd witli surah, and a standing collar is at 
the neck. A broad band of handsome fur bor- 
ders the lower edge of the garment. Rich tex- 
tures, such as plain and brocaded velvets, otto- 
mans, silks, etc., are especially adapted to a 
wrap of this style; but cloths, tricots, cash- 
meres, camel's-hairs, and all soft woolens that 
may be shirred and plaited are also suitable and 
stylish. Fur, chenille fringe or galloon may 
decorate the bottom of the wrap; and, if de- 
sired, a band of fur or a fur collar may be worn 
at the neck. Ribbon ties or a metal clasp may 
perform the closing at the throat. 



some simple ornament may b^ added, as pre- 

The boiniet is of velvet, with two lovely 

ly over it. The sash is merely an ornamental 
feature of the costume and does not form part 
of the pattern. It may bj of any variety of 


doves for gai'niture, and soft ribbons for tics. 

Girls' Costume. 

The charming little costume, Fig. 5, com- 
prises a basque of .Jersey goods, a skirt of cloth 

ribbon desired and of any preferred width 
This skirt may be made up in cashmeres, cloths, 
silks, flannels and soft ^voolens of all kinds, 
and requires no decoration. The tucks and 
h(m are usually blind sewed, but they may be 

ting, and little rufFs of white lace peep from be- 
neath the wrists. A similar ruff stands about 
the neck insiile the little standing collar. 
\Vhile the pattern to this bascjue is especially 
adapted to stockinets and other .lersey goods, 
in may be appropriately developed in cash- 
mere, silk, cloth and soft dres.s woolens of 
all kinds. The talu may be piped, bound or 
lined; and braid may be applied in fancy de- 
signs on the tabs and sleeves, and down the 
front at each side of the center. 

Hats and Bonnets. 

The feathered tribe continue to be the most 
popular ornaments for hats and bonnets. They 
are liked in contrast with any material, and ex- 
(juisitely colored humming birds are considered 
in good taste for white lace evening bonnets. 
(,'lusters of tips, short but full, are in more gen- 
eral use than they were a month ago, but their 
admirers do not rival those of the smaller birds' 
feathers. Contrasts are approved, but not vio- 
lent ones; for when positively opposite tones are 
selected, thoy are usually in the darkest grade. 

\'elvet is the material oftenest seen on bon- 
nets, cloth lieing next in favor; while for hats, 
velvet, cloth or felt may be selected, a thought 
being given to tlie custome with which the 
chapeau is to be worn. 

Scalloped Trimming. 

The neatly dressed lady on this page, exhibits 
on her costume, the newly brought-out scal- 
loped tiiinming, as it is made by a "scalloper" 
attached to a sewing machine. Mark Sheldon, 
of i> to 1 1 First street, S. F., is the sole agent for 
the ".-cnlloper" for the Pacifii; Coast. Of all the 
varieties of fancy work made on sewing ma- 
chines, the scalloped plaited trimming takes the 
lead .as the most beautiful and useful yet pro- 
duced; and being made automatically, is the 
more desirabl;;, as no expert operatijr is re- 
(|uired. . livery lady owning a sewing machine 
can .nake her own trimming in endless variety. 
It is very handsome and practical for all kinds 
of dresses, children's clothing, underwear, 
aprons, etc. It will wear for years, and holds 
its shape perfectly in washing. 



[January 5, 1884 

New Publications. 

Honorable Success. 

To Iiave acliicved niarki-d business success in any 
honorable business pursuit is a cause for congratula- 
tion; but to have done this in the single line of pub- 
lishing good literature is especially deserving of 
favorable notice. As the result of patient, persistent 
adherence to a worthy policy, success of the ch.iracter 
indicated has been won by the house of D. Lothrop 
& Co., which from modest beginnings has grown to 
become one of the most important publishing houses 
in the United States. The magnitude of their 
undertakings is suggested by the fact that more 
than $30,000 was eNpended upon the illustrations of 
their holiday books for the present season. Our 
readers will be interested in the following notes 
relating to some of their 

Recent Publications, 
fulled from the "American Bookseller" and other 

"A ilistory of the American People," by Arthur 
Oilman, M. A. Concise, authentic, philosophical, 
impartial and thoroughly interesting, this is pro- 
nounced by competent reviewers the best one volume 
history of the United States yet published. I'rofusely 
illustrated. i2mo, cloth, $1.50. 

'•Life of Washington," by E. li. Brown, author of 
"Life of James Garfield," "Life of Oliver Wendell 
Holmes," etc. This is far more than a compilation 
from previous works. Besides containing much new 
matter, essential facts arc presented in new lights, 
and valuable information is given in a terse and 
graphic st)le. It is a model of biographical writing. 
i2mo, illi'strated, 

"Self Giving," by Wm. V. Bainbridge, under the 
veil of fiction, presents chapters in the real life of 
some of the most honored of our .American mission- 
aries. The story is as interesting as any romaiici', 
and will deserve the attention it is sure to rccei .e. 
lanio, $1.50. 

"How the Rain-Sprites were Kreed" is a story of 
two little children in search of "the store-house of thi- 
rain." The conceit is prettily wrought out, and the 
book is worthy of comparison with some of the talcs 
of .\ndersen and Grimm. With its lithographic 
illustrations and illuminated covers, it is a choice 
gift book for young readers. 4to, $1.00. 

"C hild Lore: its Classics, Traditions and Jingles." 
by Clara Doty Bates, will prove a mine of treasure-, 
to the boys and girls fortunate enough to possess it. 
German, Italian, Norse as well as Knglish folk-lore 
have furnished its material, and choice illustrations 
by the best artists give it added value. 4to, elegantly 
bound, $4. 

"Field, Wood and Meadow Rambles," and "Wild 
Flowers, and Where They Grow," by Amanda B. 
Harris, are two books whose pages are full of interest, 
and whose illustrations are admirable in design and 
execution. Mothers, in reading them to or with 
their little ones, will repeat the unalloyed happiness 
which came to them in the midst of field and wood- 
land Howers, in days which will not return. "Wild 
Flowers," 8vo, extra cloth, gilt edges, $3; "Field, 
Wood," etc., 4to, $2. 

"From the Hudson to the Neva," by David Ker, 
is a narrative unusually tnie to nature, in which the 
author recounts for the benefit of the boys the slorv 
of travels and adventures in Northern l Airope and 
the Malay islands, izmo, $1.25. 

"Their Club and Ours," a story by John Preston 
True, was received with great enthusiasm while run- 
ning through the p.ages of IF/i/f AmUc, and will 
find equal favor with a wider public as presented in 
attractive book form. i2mo, $1.25. 

"The Wedding Day Book" is dedicated to a 
sentiment which is expected to find its proper ex- 
pression, sooner or later, in the exchange of vows, 
with the accompaniment of wedding belU, orange 
blossoms, etc. With dainty selections from the best 
poets, set opposite blank pages, it provides a register 
for these red letter days. 4to, $2. 

"Daisy Green." F'ond mothers love to recall the 
quaint sayings and mischievous pranks of their little 
ones, but few have opportunity to keep such a record 
of them as Mrs. Susie A. Bisbee presents in this 
volume. They will smile as they recognize many of 
the odd sayings and doings of their own boys and 
girls. It is a book which will be received with favor. 
i2mo, 80 cents. 

"Cambridge Sermons' is a selection from the 
pulpit utterances in theShepard Church, Cambridge 
of Rev. Alexander McKenzie, D. D. , one of the 
most instructive and entertaining of .American 
preachers. lamo, $1.50. 

"Yonge's Histories for Young I'olks," brief, 
graphic, authentic, and intensely interesting, are the 
very best histories of Roms, Greece, F.ngland. 
F'rance and Germany, specially adapted for the 
instruction and entertainment of the young, ever 
published. i2mo, $1.50 each. 

Among new editions of late publications inelegant 
bindings, we note the following: "Our American 
.Artists," in two volumes, by S. G. W. Benjamin, 
American Minister to Persia, which contain sketches 
of the most prominent artists in .America, with views 

of their studios, reproductions of their famous pic- 
tures, etc. ; "Waifs and their .Authors," by A. A. 
Hopkins. -A collection of choice poems, which have 
won their way to fame, regardless of their authors; 
"The Old Oaken Bucket," with drawings by Miss. 
L. B. Humphrey; the series of handsome Birthday 
Books, "Shakespeare, Tennyson," and "The Auto- 
graph;" "The New I-ngland Story Book," with its 
thirty-seven tales, by the most famous of New I-ng- 
land writers, excellent illustrations; "Christmas 
Carols," by .American poets, with illustrations 
by the best American artists, in a new and elegant 
edition, furnishing one of the choicest of gift books; 
"Out of Darkness into Light," with ex()uisite poems 
and drawings by Mary A. Lathbury, illustrative of 
the soul's striving after truth. 

.Among authors who are standard favorities with 
boys and girls. Pansy contributes to the new publi- 
cations of this house ''Ester Ried yet Speaking," a 
story which we will be as welcome as her "Fou"" 
Girls .at Ch.iutauqua," "The Hall in the Grove," etc. 
Margaret Sidney, one of the most popular writers of 
the day, and author of "F'ive Little Peppers," "What 
the Seven Did," etc. , furnishes a book of equal interest 
under the title of "Who Told it to Me," while 
Edward .A. Rand's new book, ".All Aboard for the 
Lakes and Mountains," will be received with enthusi- 
asm by all boys. 

With remarkable unanimity the press notices award 
the highest rank, among juvenile periodicals, to the 
several magazines published by D. Lothrop & Co. 
.Appreciating the difiiculty of adapting one magazine 
to all ages, they have provided for older youth their 
splendidly illustrated lIVi/c /liviike, which well 
deserves its title of "king among juveniles;" for those 
a little younger, the remarkably useful and successful 
magazine, Pamy, which is all and more than is 
suggested by its name in the way of attractiveness, 
and which is edited by Mrs. (i. R. Alden 1 Pansy); 
for re.idcrs still younger, that delight of the nursery, 
Our Link Men and W.^meii; and for the delectation 
of the "bib and tucker folk," the wide-eyed young- 
sters who do more seeing than thinking, the pictorial 
wonder book, liahylaiid. 

Th2 [■ubli>hers, «ho promise to make these maga- 
zines more attractive than ever the coming, will 
send specimen copies of all to any of our readers upon 
receipt of twenty-five cents. 


The Best Uemcdy in use for »-'ol(;Hs, fOl.MS, ASTI1.MA, 
Bronchitis, InHuciiza. I'roup, Incipient ('on.sunii)tioii, 
and all TIIUO.-VT ami Ll'.\(; TKOl.'BLKS. 
Sold by all Iiruggists for 50 cents. 

J. R. GATES & CO., Proprietors, 

417 Sansome St.. S. F. 



Apple, Pear, Peach, 
Plum, Apprioot, Etc. 

Root Gkafts. 
Soedliu^fs, Cuttings, 
Seeds, Etc 


Send us a list of wl at 
you w.iut and wo will 
quote you a price for 
the same, boxed and | 
freight prepaid to 
any of tho principal 
railroad towns in Cal- 
ifornia, Oroijon, and 
Washiuettjn Teiritorv 

t^'If you dim't want ani/lhing this ytar tend for 
J'rirc Lint and f;r( pislal for anidlicr scasi/n. 


. Niagara Nurseries— F.stablished 183H. 



I'liis C'l.ii- is so construrtfd with .1 liolt .md liinfre that 
any f.imu'r i-an iron his own sin:;leor doubletrees or neck- 
.vokes at any time or place « ithout having to take them 
to the slio)). Simple and practicable. Speaks for itself. 
N'ino clips with bolts constitute a complete set; #:{.2fi. It 
is the farmer's friend. Territory for sate in County or 
State riifhts . Address 

T. M. LASH, 

Oiil N Struct. Sacramento, fal.. 
Sole Agents for Pacific Coast. 

Dewey & Co. { m,?,^^^,, } Patent Ag'ts. 


I,oss of Appetite, llpa.laelip. Depres- 
sion, Iiiiligestion and C'onsti|ialion, ISil- 
ioiisnesK, a Sallow Face, Dull Eyes, and 
a ISlotelietl Skin, are among the symptoms 
■which indicate ll.» t the Liver is cryiug for 

Ayer's Pills 

will .stimulate the Liver to projjer action, 
and correct all these troubles. One or more 
of these Pills should be taken daily, until 
health is fully established. Thousands tes- 
tify to their great merit. 

No family can afford to be without A yer's 


D."*. J.C.Ayer iCo., Lowell, Mass. 

Soli oy all Druggists. 


Colonization Co. 

State of New York (Limited). 

Has a lar^e H:rant nf the finest lands in Mexico, StMe 
of CInapas, district known as Soconusco, now opened foi 
Hettlenient. These lands are located on the sIoj eH of the 
Sierra Mailres, facing; the I'acilic ocean, and adjoining the 
celebrated coffee lands of (Juateniala. Being a new dis- 
trict just opened to si-ttlers, will he disposed nf to none 
others but actual settlers, vkkv ciikai*. with ten years to 
complete the pavniont. No better to be found for coffee, 
sugar-cane, corn, tobacco, indigo, rice, orash, and hence 
all kinds of htock, as well as a great variety of fruit, 
vegetables, spices, medicines, etc.; also water. A large 
variety of valuable timber is also to be found in great 
abundance. The climate is healthy and delightful, the 
thermometer varying only from 60 to 8.'> degrees the year 
round. A large colony will leave here, unuer the n»OHt 
favorable conditions, on the Inth of March next. For 
full particulars apply to MEXICAN COLONIZATION 
CO., 506 Battery St, San Francisco, Cal. 



>olut<.|v i-urvd in 30 to 90 
. 8, hv Dr. Pu n-i- K Pulciil 
Magneiic Elastic Truss, 
^amiitu-d tin- ..nly El. ctrieTniaa 
inllu. wiirlil. KMlin'ly.lill.TciiIfruni 
lotliprsi. Perfect Retainer, aiul is wt.rn 
withrnsc uii'i ruiiiiiirt iiiL'litaii d «l:iv. Cun-il 
■tl„. rcl..)V.n.a l>r. .1. Sin.n.« of .Ni'W y..ik. 
^aiiilliilMdr.<ls..t lli.r- N'lW Illuslp.iti-ii puiu- 
nh;,.! fi-ce. r.>iil oiiiiigliill intnniiuli'iti. 

lOi Sacramento St. 

San fracoisoo. Cal 

Annual Meeting 

The regular annual mectin'; of the stockhohlors of the 
Grangers' Bank of California, and the election of Directors 
for the enstiinj; year, will take place at the office of the 
Bank, in the litj of Sun Francisco, State of California, on 
Tuesday, the Sth da\ of Januaiy, 1S84, at 1 o'clock r. M. 


December I, ISfS. Cashier aiul .Maiiaier. 


Tlie iinilcrni^'ncil, owner and patentee of the 


Desiring to extend the growing demand, will ad itit a 
copartner on favorable terms. J*" KKKKRBNChii 

2d Door ftom Post OfiBce, San Jose, Cal. 



Corner Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 

Ai.T. Ktsds Of 

Fmil aud Packing Boxes Mafle to Order 

IS" Communications Promptly Attended to. "SJ 

COOKE <sc soisrs. 

Successors to CoOKK & Grkuort . 



E. A. SCOTT & CO., 

Proprietors for the Pacific, 

P. 0. Box 293, Sacramento, Cal. 

Hayes' Fire TrucK. 

evnimnlars ForwaHnH Frtw to »nv Addrem..Mr 

Premium Pioneer 
Cra-^ ite and 
Marble Works. 

'617 K l'<:t, Wh ami 7tll 
MonuiiieutR, Tinol»rt and 
1 Crave .Stones Mantels, Ta- 
• <To|iK. Wash Stands, etc. 
All kinds of work dou .iu 
Itiiliali and Veriiicmt Mar- 
ble. Scotch (iraiiite Mouu- 
meutx. Martileized Slate 
MantBla. Orders Blled for Buokhoufs Pat. Hot-Air Grate. 

Silos, Reservoirs, Head Gates, 


RVNSOMiC, 402 Uontgomery St., 8. F. Send tor Clrcnl*!- 


T. A. Robinson. 

Life Scholarships, $70. 


^"SKND for t'iRCt'LARS. SKMI FOR C iRCItAR f ."Sli 


la Consequence of the Late Fire, we are 
Temporarily Located at the SYNAGOGUE 
Mason Street, between Post and Geary 
Streets, San Francisco. 

S T O G K X O J> r 

TelG^rapli lostilnte anil Nnal ScW. 

The Practical Hu.^inuss Trainiug School of California fo 
the yoniiK ami iniiliUe-iiKtMl of both ftfies. KxtK'tises are lea 
than one half the usual ratei*. Kxcelleot Ituard iu privat 
families from :f8 to $10 per month. i'oiir>*rs o/ Study -Ful 
Business Courhc. full Nonnal Course, Review Course. Specia 
Courflea. Teachers' <!nunwf. Preparatory Course, Telegraphy 
The "College Jimnial" will be sent, postpaid. U» any address 
F. K. ('LakKK, Principal. Stockton. Cal. P. O. Box 15 

l>.iy School for V'oiini; Men ami Bo.\s, Misi^ion 
St. , San Krancisco. Trepares for Collejjfe and I'niverslt.^ . 
Easter Session oiicns Tliiipiday, .Ian. 4, 1.V4. HeferB to 
Wm. F. Babeock, K8<|., I'ol. E. E. Evre. .losepli PowniiiK, 
Ksq. , Ocn. L. H. Allen, Wm. T. Coleman, Fj«i., Geo. W. 
Cibhs, F>(|. For information, a^ldress, HEW H B. 
SI'ALDINO, lie-tor 


p. 0. Box 490, 

San Jose, Cal. 

First^ilass. Centrally located. Well equippetf. Full 
con'8 0'1'*^cl>ci'^. A" branches 'uelonipng to the modern 
Business College taught. 

Skxd for CiRCtrtAR. Ml 


Berkeley, CaL 

For Catalogues or other information, address S. 8. 
HAliMON, Berkeley, Cal., or E. J. WicKBON, 414 Clay 
Street San Francisco. 


University Ave- (Ik-rkek') Stution), lierkeley, Cal. 

T. S. HOWKNS. A. K., T. C. I> , Principal, for six years 
Head Master Classirs and Kn;rli>»h in a leading; (^'alifomian 
Arademy. Advniitau'eK: firM . lass education with home 
comforts; <fro\vn bojs of nejj^Iected edueatii»n earefullji in- 
structed; preparation for any University ; a Iho a Prepara- 
tory I»epartn>(*nt. Term begins January 2d. Send 
for, rircular. 




French Burrs, Bolt, Smutters, Elevators, &c. 

Portable Corn Mill and Corn Shellers 

For Farmers. 


•T-Skhd for Pauprlet aks Pucb Li3T. 
Established 1811. CINCINNATI, 0. 

i lkndid! Latest Style (hroino cardn, name, lOc Pre 
mium with 3 packs. F. H. PAKDKK, New Uavea, Ct 


January 5, 188 J.] 

pAeiFie f^URAL PRESS. 

Commission Merchants. 

Grangers' Business Association, 


No. 38 California St., - San Francisco. 

Coiisi^-nnieiits of UKAIN. WOOL, DAIRY PRODITCE, 
Uriod Fi"uit, Live Stock, etc., solicited, and liberal ad- 
vances made on the same. 

Careful and prompt attention paid to orders for the 
|)urchasin<jr of (Jrain and Wool Sacks, WaiJ^ons, Ag"ricult- 
nral Implements, I*ro\ islons, Merchandise, and Supplies 
of all kinds. 

Warehouse and Wharf: 

At "THE GRANGERS'," Contra Costa Co. 

(irain received on stora^^e, for shipment for sale on 
consignment. Insurance effected and liberal advances 
made at lowest rates. Farmers may rely on their g'rain 
beinitj closely and carefully weighed, and on having their 
other interests faithfully attended to. 



JAS. 1* Hi'LME. 

(Late Miller & Vt 

Jai'Kson Hart. 

Successors to MILLKR & CO., 
10D<vigSt.. near Market, San Francisco. 

Personal attention given to all sales, and to filling any 
orders for 


And Other Ranch Supplies. 



Importers anil 

Wh.oIesale Grocers, 

Anil licalcrs in 


Front St. Block, but. Clay & Washington, San Krancisco. 
ill? Special attention giv en to conntry traders. 
P. O. Box 1940. 

H. E IVt <3 V A. JL, . 


Commission Mercl:\ants 




Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans, and Potatoes. 

308 and 310 DAVIS ST., 
r. 0. Box 1966. SAN FRANCISCO. 




Grain, Flour, Wool. Eic. 

Menibci'S of tlic San Francisco I'rodnce E.\change. 
211 and 213 Clay Street, S. F. 
/T-^ Liberal advances made on consignments. fSS 



(Successors to .T, \V. CALF, i; CO.) 

Fruit and Senerd Comsiission Mercliants 


And Wlic.l.'sale dealers in California andOrejjon Proilucc. 
Also, drain, Wool, Hides. Beans, Potatoes, Cheese, 
Egj,'s. liiitter and Honey. 

( Nr). 402 Uavis Street and 
'( 120 WAsniNGTOx St., S. F. 
Prompt returns. Advance liberally on Cimsignnients. 

IHJlovon., Tx^olvc aixd Tlxix-tccxx-IT'oot 


Tmjs (IT represents our No. 12 
Seehkr, which consists of a single 
rigid frame, strongly supported by 
'russ braces in front and rear. The 
teeth are attached to two sets of rolls, 
which work independently of each 
other by levers near the" driver's seat. 
The draft is applied the same as on 
he thirteen-foot Seeders, so as to 
overcome all zigzag motion or side 
draft. The giain shafts are driven by 
each wheel independently of the other 
Where small machines are nf>t wanted 
this size can not be recommended too 

The No. 11 consists of two No. 8's, 
each five and one-half feet in width, 
coupled exactly like the thirteen 



When not wanted as a Seeiler, the lioppers are readily detached, and yon ha\e a perfect < 'nlti\ator or Harrow, wdiich works e(iually well on dry, hard suninier-fallow, \olan- 
ing, or in winter work. We have watched the workings of other standard machines, noted their weak points and overcome them, so that wc to-day claim to have the VJtKY 
^'1' nEN;i>EU DtADiC, and are free to say to any responsible party, "Take one on trial into yonr fields, and if not satisfactory, return it." Our best proof of their worth 
ic evidence i>f our customers who liavc bought and arc using them. Send for dcscrintive cirrular and iirice list. 

BAT6HELOR & WYLIE, 37 Market Street, San Francisco. 




'The judicious use of an 
implement like the 'Acme' 
I'uherizing Harrow, Clod 
Crusher and I.,eveler, in 
the preparation of the soil, 
before sowing Winter grain, 
will increase the yield from 
$5 to SIO per acre." 

Brick Stores: 


Commission Merchants 


No. 75 Warren St., - - - New York 

Rekehkni Es: Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y.; El 
A\anger;c B.'irry, Rochester, N. Y.; C. W. Heed, .Sacramento 
Cal ; A. Lusk & Co , San Francisco, Cal. 


And is by far the most efl'ective tool on earth for preparing land for grain, as well as for covering the seed, and for use in the orchards and 
vineyards. Being made almost entirely of Wrouglit Iron and Steel it is practically indestructible. 

tfST Send for Pamphlkts containing hundreds of Testimonials from forty-six different States and Territories. 




Geoecie Bull & Co., 21 and 23 Main St., San Franciscc; G. B. Au.vms & Son, San Gabriel, Cal.: Stavek & Walker, Portland, 

Oregon; and George A. Lowe, Salt Lake City, Utah Territory. 

N. CURRY & BRO, 113 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal., 


Firearms, Ammunition and 


W. W. Greener, Coll, Remiiiglon,, ail Parker 

Breech-Loading Shot Cuns. 

Repeating Rifles. 

Colt's Ne'e? Magazine Rifle 25i-inch Barrel 44 C. F., 15 Shots, Taking 
Model 1873 Cartridge. 



Till- iiiilyri'lialilciiistnniu'littor 
ti slin;; (K tuctivi- vision. 

135 Montgomery, n'rBush 

Opp. Occidental Hotel. 

Xif Orders liy Mail or Express 
promptly attciulcd to. 


Remington and Ballard Sporting Rifles, Colt's and Smith & Wesson Pistols. Metallic Cartridges, Brass and Paper Shot Gun Shells. ^1 
Tradk Supplied on Liberal Terms. 

March and Sept., each 
year: -J 113 pages, Sv;xll| 
iiK'hcs, with over tJ,«iUU 
illustnitions— a -vvhole pic- 
tnre gallery. (1 ive.s ^v hole- 
Bale prices direct to covaumcrs on all 
for personal or family use. It-lLs how 
to order, and gives exact cost of every- 
thiuf; you use, cat, drinU, "Nvear, or liavc 
fun wi"th. These invahiahle books con- 
tain information gleaned from the mar- 
kets of the world. We will mail a copy 
Free to any address upon receipt ol the 
posta.'e-7 cents. Let us Lear from you. 


t«7 Si 'i'*^ WebBnh Avenac GhicsKo. lit 


Orchard Force Pump. 

'fliK CHEAPE'*T AM) 
BEST Puinp in Oiu VVoOd: 

tf'i? Ksiieeiall.v .adajitcd for sprayiii!; 
Fruit Trees. Will throw a steady 
stream O fr Send for Catalogue. 
risco, Cal. 

Wc will sciiil von awatch orachaln 
(MUM ill' 1 l,c 1.1 r.- paying any money 
rviiil 1 r not s.iusi i. tor'y, returned at 
ourexpi'iise. ^Ve inauufncture all 
our wa'-'.iea and save you 'X> per 
cent. i.'atalOKUe of 'Mil styles free. 
KvEiir -Wati n WiiiiiANfKi,. AnnuKss 




The only Reliable Trap in existence. Defies all compo 
tition. I'RicKs— Plain traps per dozen, .?4; plain trap 
apieee, JO cents; safety traps per dozen, $!>; safety trap 
apiece, M cents. For sale by I. J. HATTABACGH, 
Han Jose. <'al. 

4Sr Also bt All Hardwark Dralkrs."®! 



65,000 II 

StoraL'C at lowest rate; 


CHARLE:^ H. SI.>ICL.AIR, 8apt. 
lAI,. 0ltV wot K CO., I'roplrs-Offlcc 31S Col. St., mi. 


PAeiFie f^URAL p>RESS. 

[January 5, 1884 



limbracing Anaheim, 
Westminster, Aktesia, 
Garden Gkovk, etc. Thir- 
teen miles soutlieast of Los 
Angeles City, uilhin the Ar- 
tesian Well Bdl. Hun- 
dreds of flowing pipe wells. 
Water near the surface. 
Rivers on two sides: ever- 
flowiug creek runs through 
the tract. Froiiln on the 
Ocean. Transportation and 
passage by Steamships or 
Railroad. Southern I'acific 
Railroad through the tract. 
Twenty-one hours from San 
Francisco. The unsold laml 
for sale or lease in sections 
or fractions. Apply to Trus- 
tee A. ROBINSON, ."118 3 
California street. San Fran- 
cisco; or to ROBERT .J. 
NORTH AM, Anaheim,Cal., 
or concerning Westminster 
Colony, to Rev. RDBKK l' 
STRONG, Westminster. 
Cal. /O" Terms, one-lifth 
cash: balance on interest at 
10 per cent per annum. 
X-^r Send for Cireulai-s and 




Authorized Capital. - - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $531,200. 

Keserred Fund and Paid uu Ktofk, $21, lis. 

JOHN LEWEU..I.VG President 

A. P. LOGAN Vice-President 

ALBKIU' MONTPEI.LIEK Cashier and Manafrer 

FKANK McUL'LLEN Secretary- 


JOHN I.EWELLING, President Napa County 

J. H. GAKUINEK Kio Vista, Cal 

T. E. TVXAN. Stanislaus County 

I'RIAH WOOD Santa Clara County 

.1. C. MEUVKIEM) Solano County 

H. M. LARUE Volo County 

L C. STEELE San Mateo County 

THOMAS Mit'ONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CKESSEY Merced County 

SENECA EWEll Napa County 

A. V>. LOGAN Colusa County 

Cl'RUENT ACCOUNTS arc opened and conducted in the 

usual way, bank books balanced up, and statements of 

accounts rcndi.Ted eyery montli. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 
I'OLLECTIONS tlirouKhout the Co'uitry are made 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
GOLD aihi SILVER deposits receiyed. 
('ERTII'IC.VTKS of DEPOSIT issueil payable on demand 
BILLS OF E.KCHAXGE of the .-Vtlautic States bought 

and sidd. 


Cashier and Manager. 
San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1882. 



Gems of English Song. :;^t';;;^^s"r 

MNi d, iiil:,r;;u.l and licsf .■.illi-cii"n~ of the kind. 

Minstrel Songs, Old and New. Uwt 

JIusic Size pages. All the old-time, world-famous 
Minstrel and Plantation Sonjjs. 

Musical Favorite. I j^gcs!'''A'rcccnt coUec* 

tioii uf X\n: lii-st Piano pieces. 

UCIII9 Ul Oil aU&d. ^ p..,„pg. Acknowlcdt'cd to 
lic tlie most brilliant nuisic in the world. 

Guitar at Home. ;SLnuen^r 

PRICES of cyi li of the aho\c book.'*, *i in boards, 
■ii.'M in clotli, and j:! in gilt. 


Ritters History of Music, 2 yds., each .*l..'>ii: .Mendels- 
sohn's beautiful Letters, 2 vols , each Sl.T.S; Mozart's Let- 
ters, 2 vols., each $L 50. Li,'e8 of Beethoyen, $2; Gotts- 
chalk, 8L.TO; (.ho,.in, Handel, *2; Meiidelsshon, 

SI. 50; Rossini, ?1 "5: Von Weber, 2 vols., each !<1.50; 
Schumann, 81.50; Pidko's Sketches, $1.50; L'rbino's 
Kiot'raphical Sketi hes, il.75. 


C. H. DITSON « CO., 

Stir Uroadway, New York' 

GEUsh in .advance. 

Our terms are cash in advance for this paper 
.Vew NAMES will not be entered on our print^ 
until payment is made. Feb. i, 1889. 


^ -s 


r- ^ - 


PRIVATE ASYLUM fof U Care and Treatieiit of Mental and Nervons Diseases, 

The Proprietary Institution called THE P.\( iFI(' .ASYLl'.M, >yhere the insane of the State of Nevada have betn 
kept for several years, was opened as a PRIVATE ASYLl'M for the care and treatment of .Mental and Nervous 
Diseases, on the 10th of Auffust, 1HS2, the Nevada patients having.' been removed to the new State Asylum at Reno. 
The buildinj^s art caiMcions and comfortable, ha\'injt been constnicted for the acconunodation of over 200 patients, 
and they arc jileasantly sitnateil in the suburbs of Stockton, and are surrounded V)y attractive (tronnds of 40 acres in 
extent, with cultivated trardens and pleasant walks. Its advantages over public institutions in Licility of admission 
and procurinjT extra acconuuodat ions, it required, are obvious. For terms and other i>articulars apply to the pro- 
prietor and Superintendent, DR. ASA CLARK, Pacific Asyli'm, Stockton, Cal. A*(A CLAlHK, M. U. 

KEKKRB.NCK8— Dr. L. C. Lane, San Francisco; Dr. 0. A. Shurtlifl, Stockton, Superintendent State Insane Asylum. 



„\iteWs\ M.\MF.\0TUUEI1S riF 

Carry Engines and Boilers in Sto:k for Immediate Delivery. 
H. P. GREGORY & CO., Agents, San Francisco, Cal. 

T. H. Cook & Co., 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers and Iniportcrsof 


We Make Country Orders a Spe- 
cialty in our Business. 

tS'Owt Prick List is the only (juideyou need in trad 
Dg with U8. Send and get one. Address 

Cor. Eighth and J Streets, Sacramento, Cal. 





c| 9 Geary St. \t 

£| SAN FRANC ISCO, Cal.|j 
t XCS 6. » 


Leffel's Iron Wind Mill. 

Mano&ctured by 

E. C. 
& CO., 

Springfield, OMo. 

I Slate 'Where you saw tbe AdvertiBement 
'"Send for Cataloeue and Prices. "w 




(Wetmolth I'atest.) 

"'OTt* "'•BO." 

at Uelbourne EzhlbltloD. 1880 
■\\'us auiirdi'd tlK' t^vr^^ iir4*iniuiii 

at till' International Kxhiliiti.'ii 
in i'hiUidflnhia in 1*^76, and ae- 
H'l'trd l»y the .ludfts m 
K.MFK l.N t'»E. 

If.«th. ni-ST KNIFE intliK 
»".r/./ t<) i-\ltnnr/rril from bale, to 
ClU down ntO'ror «r(lfA-,toCUt rorn, 
f'ltlk.^ frjr feed, to out J'ral, or f«'>r 

ditehiOK in iiiiirF^heK, itinl has no 
(ijual for enitmtf i-nHilaKe from 
the silo. TUY IT. 


JIuiiufaflnrc'l ouly by 

HIRAM HOLT & CO/V.'e"M>:'!i.";: 

^or sale by Hanhmre Merchants dt the tradt yenerally 

Friend & Terry 

Poultry and Stock Book. 

Nlloa' new tnaonal and reference hook on subjects conned 
e<l «ith 8ucceR5fid Poidtry and Htock KaisiiiK on the Paoilic 
Coast A New Edition, over 100 pages, iirofnnely illustrated 
with handBonie. life like illustrations of thedltTeront»arietie' 
of Piiidtry and Live Stock. Price |uiatpaid, 50 eta. Addref 8 
PACIFIC RUKAL I'KEbS Office, Sun Francisco, CbL 

ESTABLtallKD 1>,t3. 


At Wholesale and Retail, and 
Mannfactu red to Order at the Blllla of the 

Also, DooKii, Wikdows, But.vos, Sihkks, Snmans, Bolts 



No. 1310 Second Street, near M. 


Comer Twelfth and J Streets, 


W. W. Montague & Co. 


309, 311, 313, 315, 317 


«5'"Stoves, Ranges, Metals, Mantels, 
Grates, Tiles, Etc."*! 

Jandary 5, 1884,] 








27 28 29,30, 

sl'i '5 c' 

24 25 20 27 

2l'3 '4 '5 

11 12 
25 26 


'c '7 

27 28 

25 26 



7 28 29 


i 29:30 

5 6 7 

26 27 28129 30,31 



2! 3 


6 7 

20 21' 
27 28 














' ■ 











1 0. 
































1 n 



































■ ■ 











1 c 









22 23 






29 30 






















2425:26 27 




















26 27 



an 31 


Artesian Belt Land. 

There is great activity about land matters at 
TuUre City, and. in fact from Mussel Slough on 
the north to Deer ereek and beyond into Kern 
county on the south, in the well established 
line of artesian wells west of Tulare Lake. Some 
weeks ago a party of land seekers from Santa 
Rosa went down and took, under the State law, 
a considerable quantity of rich swamp lands, 
which they propose to improve right away. 
Still later we learn that some extensive farmers 
near Tulare are following suit and securing pos- 
session of large quantities of similar land. How- 
ever prospectively good these rich swamp lands 
may be, they do not bear a comparison with the 
present desirability of lands in most of the 
earlier settled portions of the belt. The rail- 
road and government lands in and near the belt 
have been rapiilly taken during the last three 
months. Hut for the easy obtainability (until re- 
cently) of these last nameil lands, the price of in the locality would already have greatly 
raised in price, an occurrence now likely to soon 
take ])lace. The outlook for prolitable farming 
and fruit raising by men of means in Tulare 
county, from present appearances, is not else- 
where surpassed in the United States. 

Hitherto there has been little disposition to 
sell lands in small quantities in this county. 
Now good land in the artesian belt c.ia be had 
in quantities to suit. It is offered for !|P20 per 
acre, and there is likely to be a quick march of 
progress in the most desirable parts for colonies, 
tor small fruit and alfalfa farm settlements. The 
occupation of land by sin ill farmers, forming a 
thick settlement, at once immensely increases 
the value of land that has a rich and durable 
soil, as most of this artesian belt has. 

A ride recently over 160 acres, five miles south- 
east of Tulare City, which Mr. J. M. Creigh- 
tou offers for sale in this paper, satisfied the 
writer that the land is of even quality, smooth 
surface, and easy of irrigation and perfect culti- 
vation. Parts of it still show evidences of hav- 
ing been a portion of a rich swamp bittom. 
Such is the character and abundance of good 
land now offered that any purchaser who will 
visit and make due examination c.n secure 
plenty of good land to their special liking, at 
reasonable rates, in the locality named. Mr. 
Croighton was a pioneer settler, and has con- 
stantly resided on land selected by him over 
fifteen years ago. 

The records of the San I'^rancisco Police De- 
partment show that during the year 18S3 there 
were recorded at the Central Police Station 24,- 
700 arrests. The records of the clei ks of the 
Police Courts show that the aggregate amount 
«f fines and forfeitures collected from those 
arrested for crime was .'5(5(),277. 

It "Will Cost You Nothing 

To get ail honest medical opinion in your ease, it you are 
suffering from any chronic disease, as Consvimption, Neu- 
ralgia. Khouinatisni, (Jatarrh, etc., from Drs. Staiikky * 
I'ALKN, 110!) Girard street, Phi!udel|jhia, who arc makiny 
wonderful cures with a new treatnierit for chronic dis- 
eases. Write to them and give a clear statement of your 
ease. The.^• will answer proinjitly as to 3 our chances of 
relief under their new Vitalizing Treatment. It will cost 
you nothing, as no charge is made for consultation. If, 
however, you do not wish to consult them at present, 
drop a postal card asking for their jiamphlet, in which 
you will get a history of the discovery, nature and action 
of their new remedy, and a large record of cases treated 
Mucces«fully. Among these you may find some exactly 
resenihling your own. 

AU'orders for the Compound Oxygen Home Treatment 
dirctted to II. E. Mathews, 000 Montgomery street, Han 
Francisco, will ho filled on the same terms as if sent di- 
rectly to Ui in Philadelphia. 

L.\N(;sH.ANS. — In a little note from Mrs. J. 
Kaynor in last week's Pkkss, the printers made 
the writer claim that all birds which took pre- 
miums were of her breeding. She wrote all 
male birds. She does not wish to claim any- 
thing to which she is not entitled. Mrs. Ray- 
nor took the special premiums on Langshana 
and on Rouen ducks. 

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Jai'.^nese Pl.^nt.s. — The United States is 
constantly receiving accessions to its wealth of 
trees, shrubs and flowers from the treasures of 
the Japanese horticulturists. H. H. Berger & 
Co., of this city, whose advertisement may be 
found in the Prk.s.m, are leading importers of 
these giowths, and have now on hand a large 
and varied stock of .Japanese plants, seeds and 
bulbs which should be examined by all in search 
of desirable things for ornamental planting. 
Messrs. Berger & Co. issue a neat circular and 
price list which can be had on application. 

The styles illustrated in these colun iis are 
obtained from Butterick's latest designs, and 
ladies wishing to order them can do so by giv- 
ing the number which accompanies each cut. 
The agent for these patterns on this coast is 
Mr. H. A, Ueming, 124 Post St., San Francisco. 

Joyful News Co-opekator.— This is the 
name of a new journal by Isaac B. Rumford and 
Sara W. Huniford, of Joyful, Kern county, Cal., 
and devoted to their dietetic and other reforms. 
Sample copies can doubtless be had from the 

Our Seed Offering for 1884. 



There should he more gardens planted on this Coast. 
It would add i)leasure and health to many, and enhance 
the vahe and attraction of their homesteads. To en- 
courage the planting of seeds, and to extend the circula- 
tion of our progressive journal, we offer, till Mar. 1, 18S4, 
and while tkis notice remainx in our columns, to furnish, 
PO.sT-rAiD, to snhscribers, the following seeds, from Cali- 
fornia dealers, on the favorable terms named below : 
SEEDS, Etc. 


1. E.nrly Blood Turnip 

Beet 10 

2. Early Long Dark 

Blood Beet 10 

3. Early York Cabbage 10 

4. Early French Ox- 

heart Cabb.-'-ge . . . 

5. Large Late Drum- 

head Cabbage. ... 

6. Red Dutch (for pick- 

ling) Cabbage 

7. White Solid Celery.. 

8. Early Paris Cauli- 


9. Early Horn Carrot 

10. While Belgian Car- 


1 1 . Early Frame Cucum- 


12. Long Green Cucum- 

ber ; 

13. English Gherkin for 

pickles 1 

14. Victoria Cabbage 

Lettuce V 

15. Ice Drumhead Let- 

tuce 1 

16. Simpson's Early 

Curled Lettuce. ... 1 

17. Large Yellow Cante- 

loupe Melon 10 

18. Extra Fine Nutmeg 

.Melon II 

19. Casaba Melon (new) 15 

20. Mountain Sweet 

Watermelon 10 

21. Black Spanish W'tV- 

melon IC 

22. White Imperial, or 

Lodi Melon 1.5 

23. Early Red Onion... 1( 

24. White Portugal, or 

Silver Skin Onion. 1 

25. Yellow Danvers, On- 

ion 10 

23. White Dutch Parsnip l> 

27. New Early Round 

Parsnip 10 

28. Early Scarlet Turnip 

Radish 6 

29. Black Spanish 

Winter Radish.... 10 

30. Early Scollop Bush 

Squash 6 

31. Early Summer Crook 

Neck Squash 5 

32 Boston Marrow Win- 
ter Squash 10 

33. New Hubbard W 

ter .Squash 10 

34. Early Red Smooth 


35 Trophy Tomato ... 10 
33. Canada Victor (earl 

est variety) Tom'to 10 
37. Early White Flat 

Dutch Turnip, 5 
38 Long White French 

Turnip 1 

39. Improved Late Ruta- 
baga 5 

40 Kohlrabi 10 

41. Scotch Kale 10 

42 Curled Parsley 5 

43. Spinach !i 

44. Sage IC 

45 Thyme 10 

46. Tobacco •2.1 

47 Blue Gum 2b 

48. Monterey Cypress.. 2.5 

49. Black German Wax 

Beans 1 

50 Refugee Beans 10 

51. Red Valentine Beans 10 
Extra Early Peas. . . 10 
Ch.iniplon of Eng 

land Peas 10 

Yorkshire Hero Peas 10 
Queen of Dwarf? 
Peas 10 

60. Antirrhinum Majus, 
finest mixed 5 

61. Cacalia Coccinea 
(Tassel flower) 5 

62. Campanula Specu- 
lum (Venus' Look- 
ing Glass) 

63. Candytuft, white 
fragrant 5 

64. Centaurea C y n u s 
(Batchelor's Button) .5 

65. Clarkia, fine mixed . . 5 

66. Convolvulus (Morn- 
ing Glory) mixed. . 5 

67- FoxgU>ve, mixed. .. . 5 

68. Gilia, mixed 5 

69. Globe Amaranthus. . 6 
70 (_»ypsop hila Elegans. 5 
■71. Hibiscus Africanus. . 5 

72 Ice Plant 5 

73. Larkspur, finest 
mixed 5 

74. Linum Grandiflora 
(Flax).... 5 

75. Love-in-a-mist 6 

76. Marigold, double 
French 5 

77. Mignonette, Sv/eet.. 5 

78. Nasturtium 5 




56 .^cro* linium 

57. Alonsoa, Grandiflor.a 

58. Alyssum, Sweet 

59. Amaranthus Cauda- 

tus (Love -lies- bleed- 


79. Nol 

80. Portulaca, mixed ... 5 

81. Poppy, double mixed 5 
82 Rocket, Sweet 5 

83. Scabiosa, D w a r t , 
mixed .5 

84. .Sensative Plant 5 

85. .Sweet Peas, mixed. 5 
Sweet William, 

mixed 5 

87. Sunflower, Califor- 
nia, double 5 

88 Adlumina Cirrhosa 
(Moimtain Fringe) 

89. Althea (Hollyhock) 
fine mixed 10 

90. Aster, mixed China. 10 

91. .Australian Vine 10 

92. lials.T^n (L Slipper) 

93. Ball.... I, \ inr 10 

94. Bro«.ilh.i 1 ir.mdiflora 10 

95. Canna (Indian Shot). 10 
Celosia Cristat.'i(L'ox 

comb), fine mixed, 

97. Chrysanthemum Al 
bum , 

98. Datura, fine mixed.. 

99. Evening Primrose. . 

100. Four O'clock, m'x'd 

101. Forget-me-not. 

102. Geranium Zona 
103 Godetia (TheBride) 10 

104. Gourds (Hercules' 10 

105. Ipomoea (Cypress 
Vine) 10 

106. Indian Pink, dou- 
ble mixed 10 

Lobelia, Blue 10 

Musk Plant 10 

Nierembergia Gra- 
cilis 10 

Pansy, fine mixed . 10 
Petunia, fine mixed 10 
Phlox Drummondii, 
fine mixed 10 

113. Pyrethrum .'Vureum 

(Golden Feather) 10 

114. Salpiglossis, mixed 10 
115 Stock (Ten Week). 10 

116. Wallflower, fine 

mixed 10 

117. Zitmia. fine mixed. 10 

118. Belles Per e n u i s 

(Daisy), single. . . 15 

119. Campanula Med- 

ium (Cantebury 
Belle) 15 

120 Canary Bird Fl'w'r 15 

121 Thunbergia, mixed 15 
122. .Vquilegia Alpina 

(Columbine) .... 20 
123 Hcliotropium, D'rk, 

mixed 20 

124. Verbena, choice 

mixed 20 

125. Violet, Blue 20 

126 Balsam Camellia, 

flowered 20 

127. Carnation, fine 

mixed 20 

1 28. Dealers' catalogue, 

of seeds, etc.. free. 



[Prkmr:ms 1 AND 2. 1 

Two Dollars for $1. 
Any patron of the Rural Pruss who has or will pay 
subscription in advance of this date, can order $2 worth 
of seeds for SI, or a less amount at the same rate. 
[Prkmutm 3.) 
Over $2 for $1.00. . 

To NKW st b.scribkrs we will furinsh si.x select hack 
Nos. of the Ri RAb Prkss, and three months' subscription 
in advance, with one dollar's worth of seeds, for •'Jl. 

[I'RKMIt'M 4. 1 

Over Two Dollars for 50 Cents. 

To entirely new subscribers we will send the Ui'Ral 
Privsh one .\'ear in ad\ancc antl 12 back Nos. with ^2 
worth of seeds for $4; with 12 back numbers and ^l worth 
of seeds, for .s'i.OO. 

Free Packages. 

We will send the following free on receipt of amounts 
indicated for postage: Winter Wheat, postage required 
on two pounds, S2 cents; Golden Millet seed, half pound, 
8 cents; Turnip, "Mississippi Giant," and Rutabaga, 
"American Purple Top," two packages, 5 cents. N. IJ 
Postage for these free packages must be in addition to 
price of iireniiums. 

All oHiiURH must be written on a sheet separate from 
other business matters, and accompanied with a remit- 

tance of cash or postage stamps, vvith the name and ad- 
DRKss plainly written. State the number of the premium 
you send for. 

Write the number (without the name) of each package 
of seeds ordered. The seeds can, of course, be distributed 
among friends of those who order more than they per- 
sonall.v need. 

The seeds will be promptly forwarded from some one or 
more of our leading and reliable California seedsmen, 
whose name wi'l accompany the package, with brief 
directions for oulti\'ating. 

For other kinds of seeds, or for seeds in larger packages, 
patrons are referred to reliable seedsmen advertising in 
this paper. 

We arc not going to embark in the regular seed busi- 
ness, and have not time to investigate or answer many 
i|uestions of private interest only, nor respond to orders 
received without remittances. 

Subscribers will phase notify neighbors, who do not 
take this paper, of these offers and the merits of the 

In writing correspondence, items of information, or on 
other business, please use a separate sheet. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 

Dec. 15, 18S.{. 252 Market St., San Francisco. 

Newspaper Agents Wanted. 

Extra inducements will be offered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal and our other first-class popu- 
lar newspapers. Apply soon, or address 
this ofifice, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. 

Dewey & Co., Publishers, 

No. 252 Market St., S. F. 

John E. Moore, a large rancher near Stockton, and a 
Director of the San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Fair, 
says: "Burnham's Abictene, or Extract of Fir Balsam, is a 
general remedy on my ranch; am never without it. I use 
it both internally and externally. It is an excellent lini- 
ment. I've cured the sweeny with it. It is my remedy 
for rheumatism, neuralgia, brtiises, sprains, fresh cuts, 
inflamed eyes, etc. When my horses have the colic or 
kidney troubles, or my cows tiie nulk fever, I cure them 
with Abietene. I gu e them at a dose two ounces, or half 
of ai'.d-cent bottle. I use it for kidney troubles, 
colic, rrouj), sore throat, etc. I look upon it as one of 
nature s rcini dics, and one that should he in every house. 
I hardly know how to do without it." Abietene is sold by 
dealers generally. Price 50 cents and $1 per bottle. 

Our Agents. 

Our Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 

cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging fa\ors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 
Jared C Hoao— California. 

B. W. Crowell — Nevada. 

1. M. Leiuy— San Bernardino and San Diego counties. 

J. J. BARTELL—Sacraniento county. 

C. E. Curtis— Kern and Fresno counties. 

A. S. Den.vis— San M.atco and Santa Cruz counties. 
A. C Knox— Colusa, Tehama and Y'olo counties. 
Wm. R. McQuiDDY— Tulare county. 

L.IPORTANT additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walled with aquaria is 
constantly receivi jg accessions of new fish and other marine 
life. The number of sea lions is increased, and there is a 
better chance to study their actions Thj pavilion has new 
,rarieties of performances. The floral department is replete, 
and the wild animals in good vigor. A day at Woodward's 
Gardens is a dav well snent. 

Don't FaU to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
does not want it, or beyond the time they intend to pay 
for it, let them not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We 
will not knowingl.v send the paper to anyone who does 
not wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of 
the subscriber to notify us to discontinue it, or some 
irresponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand payment for the time it is st nt. 




Made of tlu' be st .if St. cl Uiic.|naU(l in the imirket. 
I*rl<'<'. lii'iO. Farmers and Ort;li:u (lists are invited to ex- 
amine it. .Manufactured and foi sale by .MIOADOR i 
SI.MONDS, corner Fourth and St. .I..I111 Sts,, San .lose, Cal. 
it<.'* .Send for circular. 



I'tiblislied under aulhnrity of the Frkxcii Govkrn.mkxt, 
b.\' the Socicte ilippitine I'erclieroiine, a gi'cat and power- 
ful organization, i-oinposed of all the pronunent breeders 
and stallioners of La Perche, where for more than a 
thousand years have been bred this admirable race. This 
volume contains nuich valuable historical information; 
also records of the breeding of such ►tallioiis and marcs 
whose I'erchcron birth and origin has been established to 
the satisfaction of twenty directors and controllers of 

This book will be of valuable service to all Americans 
who are desirous of procuring (Uily the finest and purest 
bred sj cciuiciis of French horses with established pedi- 
grees. A translation of the introduction will accompany 
the work, which is printed in good style and neatly bound. 
Price, postpaid, *2. On sale at this olHce after tebruary 
1st. Address the Pacific Rural Press, San Francisco. 

DUROC SWINE for sale by F. P. Ueverly, Mountain 
\ iew, Sautu Clara Co., (,'al. 


pAeiFie R.URAL f RESS. 


[jAxn.UiY 5, 1884 t 

Lands lor Sale and To Let ! myer'S IMPROVED GANG PLOW 


The Model Settlement of 


Headth, Climate and Choice Fruits. 

M»I> d rritt »nJ 

ru!t : ' 
of t' 
A! . 

• Kjitirio Frnit Gr'»er stnt 

; Mitt < ".:>aTeiiti(>ii c: 
' Ari^- H V. iT'^inj; profits o" 

■ rniition, sent on rt. . 

m Ko. «, Sdmnncker 


Ontario, Cal. 

Artesian Belt Stock RaDch for Sale. 

I n-.K -c^^ • "• 'T' fi'' tTj^'iv tin-;- t:v k nr,'-h 
of poiue i.'Mj xM\-». r^icv-tfi U-iorc 1\. 
ixr was sealed, Mxl thereJore fTe»^y - 
cr»IitT of large xneis now in matsei 
Tiil»ri Mid iJ from 'npton Staaons, CI. ■ - - i- 

Th« Uod lie* eiitir»iT vitiiui the Art*=i»ii Btit, ubcr* 
(in addition to ditrf>» and rti«uii») » ooi«»i« sup|il.T of 

, ■ ' ' • -'.'i-- oist on the 

iud - ratiooa. I 

^ 1 1 \ h » 1 K t^aiicfa, em- 

braci:- ■ ' 

thorou^iibrcu i^a ^.t^mh. 
JocalrlT. and has bees 

• . R \ IN. * I.>-' V I - A 1 N ; I li 1 i 1 

Fifth Strrei ears 
;«aB th« Worto 

^Trrr t\v mirjote* 

Every Fruit-firower His Own Cafmer! 

^ The only Plow that ever 
received the $100 PEE MIXJM 
at the State Fair. 



are a 

repU^ - 

^ AlT Bottoms. CoUinf Best C^axt CmK 
•hiHl Sbarf Bottom? 't with extn 

if these pton. 

Ib orderinc Ex- 
tras BB Sl-BB to 
girt DQBbcr of 




Wheeler's Patent Cannery, 

Fruits, Jellies, 

Jams, Vegetables, 

Meats and Fish. 

AJ Well u to LiTse Cuiena. 

It imparts SuBerior Flavor ! 
It is Economical of Labor and Fnel . 
Its Productions will Bear Stronger Tests 

T!!A\ THAT m I F ET AM vTliUl 


TO TU&K wr. 

Challenge Contradiction. 


No Proceadng Eequired to be Learned ! 

Manit'tn.i:!;: vvtrvtiitlv; cai. i-^ itD^iarte^l by i 
few izuiiult.:s' instrut-ticn. 


We ittlect the names of a few fnas tha aanf oiiiic th 


■ ° C Perkin*. Uletoa. Sacrazut^ ■ - .r-r. Cd.; Geo. D. 
f. '^■■ef. N'ewcaistle, Placer o n woaatla Frait- 

eK' Aasooation. PUcer e -n B. Bedlnt- 



varieties: situated four miles, 
■a Clara Countr; trees are foor 

.alth: thi; 

is first-c lass, auU 
can be seen at oC 


SM acres Tinetani Ui. 
foreign grape vines, t» 
fram Madeira Railroa.. 
propertT is offered cheaj.. 
three years. Price aOMM. 

■* fniit sold lor ■ 
.rells. Thispr..i' 

Frait saioplesi I 

Nos. 52-60 Biuxome Streat, San Francisco Cal. 


S97 acres near V ., 
(mit, line or er 
tiinber and „* 
stoatcd; )..- 



The most delightfally situkted colony ic 
Southern Cilifornia. 

Remarkably healthy, being 2,00 feet above 
the sea level. 

Wholly devoted to fruit culture, and espe- 
cially adapted to oranges and raiains. 

Advantages of church, school, store, depot, 
hotel, stage line, telegraph and telephone. 

Illustrated Circulars on Application 




I ri'iirat l<iii , 

■r ..f ■ '.'(i;>/i.ri:ij« /.'-.i! 
: .J 'A reliable inforaation on 

Fr— ■ ■ . ■:■ ■■■ 
dini&tc - . 

Adteas. "EXCHAKUE AND StABT,' Santa Cmz. CaL 



-A-T" ^ -R A Ttr^ A TT> J I 


ito Couiitv, CaL, which took Itie first 


At the late ^U'u l».r. ii c!fereJ for s^ii at a bargain 


Brighton, Sacramento Co., CaL 



"*,000 IJSr XJSE! 

Single and Snlky Plows, Seed Sowers, Harrows, Etc. 


S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave.. San Francisco. 

^pr«e ooacti to and from the Hocee J. W. B£CiL£S.. Proprietor 

International Patent Bureau, 


ITM. A. BELL., Manatrer. 

Uacramento Street, cor. Montgomery, 


the L . S. , Canada and Europe, 
:ii?n A^ncy Olfi>c of Internationa 
Patent Bureau. 
G. DITTMAR, Civil Engineer, Berlin, Gennanv. 



Kfp Clovk 
- pre 
- cure 
J all 
- . .inpure 
It aill also 
^ion of al t 
- . eto. Is a 

sure cure for Conrtipation, 
Piles and many other diseases. 
Is both laxative and tonic. For full particulars, address 
Gilt Edge Cards, elcpmUy printed, 10 cents. VAS ; W. C. NEEKH.Vii, Box 422, San Jose, CaL BesideDce 
BUSSU* & CO., 79 Nassau St, New York, N. T. , SSTThird Street, 

I. '■. H'-.r: -vJatM eovnty. 

.M Bteke. Ta»- 
-Jiade rrait Oo.^ OMisTiae. 
!{ H. BI«rio«, f1«»Miil: T 
- .'1: I 'rrnUt. UliMiida 
l.i .tj-ii . r. Gijsu lille: 

iriUe; L ..aaaat Vallej, 

W J Pleasai \' alter. Soiaoo 

stU. FVata'. ■ .ao ooostj: N. 

. . :>alai>oeo- .: bs. .'acaTiOe. 

ScDtt. Vaca W* XcAlUa- 

i3co; G. W.t,..v . . T C.Stewart. 

. .lioK. Ucarslert < in.-i. . W H. Jessap, 
Alameda eoontj: J. O Loxeji'T. Tulaie Citr; 
tie. Menlo Park. Sao Mateo coontjr. C. R. Beal, 
. . I.,.. :...Testnra; T^kir Braa.. Bjron; K. S. C a mph tfl . 
> ...^ VaUer; Hon. Wm. Johnston. Richland. iiacniBsnta 
.i.ty; B. Nathan. aMcfcton; I> K Perkins a Gibj. OpiUr 
I'jj^oi^ Ca. Oronlle; Mrs. E. Lo<e)oy. Tnlare coantf. And 
manj others lirinc in rariuua parts of the State. 

-. San Praodseo 
• ... : John W. St- . 
_r. SoJano cimt.' 
. J W Nor. 
» lUatiek, Alan., 
county ; H. J Ruih: 
Geo. BroQ^ham, V 



Sr.: . 

Sole on this Coa»t for the 



F.wT o(T.-r" T - Hive always on band Hn 

- ~ ; r • . Peach, Apple, and Pear 

r- ; . --and, in fact, ererything 

T. A. MUDGE. Agent, 

414 Sacramento St . - San Francisco. 




Till BCST. 

Work ut. a.1 tuniu^i auii run m .iujust 
able babbitted boxes. 

Positively S£ii-Regulating. 

With T!.. r-.iil ^i.rii,L'«. -r -i'nr..~- . • 


GENE1:AL i>KKU E and sri'PLrES(»* al«aj^ beforeX 

San Francisco Agency - LINPORTH, RICE 
& CO.. 32S & 325 Marlcet St.. S. F. 

»» all kinds of PumiiiiiT Maihiiierr built to otd«. 

81 Beale St., ) p m FDnPU?. Pfl J Patentees 
SanFran'co. ) 1 , W . LuUuIl it UU. (SolePropr. 

EXCELSIOR WINE PUMP. expressly for the purpose. 


Comer MaSket and Beale Sts., . - San Francicco. 



-V... C , ., CAnr... J. 


234 Montgoaiery Street 
:^.^N KlUNCISt.V. 

January 5, 1884.] 


Six lines or less in this Directory at oOc. a line per month. 


ROBERT BECK, San Francisco. Breeder of Thor- 
ou^'hbred Jersey Cattle. Herd took six premiums of the 
eleven offered at State Fair, loSl, and six of 12 in 1S83. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, lor past twelve years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

MRS. M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal. Breedei 
of recorded thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for sale. 

SYLVESTER SCOTT, Cloverdale, Sonoma Co., Cal. 
Breeder of recorded Thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle. 
Jacks and Jennets for sale at reasonable figures. 

T. SKILLMAN, Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal., Breeder 
and Importer of Xornian Horses, Tornado standing at 
the head of his stud; took all first premiums at fairs 
for lS4i2 and 1S63. Horses of all grades for sale. 

Station, S. F. « N. P. K. K. P. O., Penn's Grove 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

GEORGE BEMBNT, Redwood Citj', San Mateo Co., 
Cal. Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle, Southdown Sheep and 
Berkshire Hogs. All kinds of stock for sale. 

P. J. SHAP rER, Olema, Cal. Breeder of fine Jerseys 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal. Breeder of 
registered Thoroughbred Devons; fine roadsters and 
draft horses. 

R. J MSRKELEY, Sacramento, breeder Short Horns, 
Percheron-Norman Horses and Berkshire Swine. 

Berry & Place Machine Gompanv, 

PARKE <S( LACY Proprietors. 
No. 8 California Street, . . - - . San Francisco, Cal 

Importers and Dealers in every Variety ol 


Stationary, Portable and Hoisting Engines and BoilerH. 


Sblngle Mills, amery Grinders and Emery Wheels, Gardner Governors, Leacbei 
and Rubber Belting and Packing, together with a general line 
of Mining and Mill Supplies. 

Gatalofirnefi and Price Lists fTimlflhfid on aopticatlon 



JULIUS WE Y AND, Goat Breeder. Postoffice ad- 
dress. Little Stony, Colusa Co., Cal. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird s Landing, Solano Co., Cal. Breeder 
and importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes for 
sale. Also cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Red Duroc 
and Berkshire Sn ine. High graded Rams for sale. 

E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. importers and breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City otiice, No. 418 California 
street, S. F. 


T. L). MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embden 
lieese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

L H. GUTTING, Stockton, Cal., breeder and imiiorter 
of vV\andottes, Langshans, White, Brown, Rose t'onii 
W. and B. Leghorns, B., Silver Penciled and Golilcn 
Penciled Haniburgs, W. F. B. Spanish, W. C. B., S. B. 
and U. B. Polish, Silver-Gray Dorking, S. L. S. B. and 
G L. Seabright B.ints. Eggs for hatching from abo\e 
varieties that took first premium at Caliifornia Poultry 
Association's E-\hibition. Send for Circulars. 

fit K SWEET, Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co. 
mas a specialty. Eggs for sale during 
slierwooU Egg I'ood receipt for sale. 

O. J- ALBEE, Santa Clara, Cal., Poultry Fancier. 
Irish B. B. R. Game, McDougall Pitt Game, B. Leghorns 
and Langshans (Croad's strain). Box 229. 


Is pronounced by Horse and Turf men. Stockfeeders ami 
Breeders to be the greatest tliscoverj' of this century with re- 
gard to the improved treatment of animals. 

The object of this Food is to prevent disease, to put and 
maintain animals in a healthy condition, and to economize 
f >od. It is a source of HEALTH; acts as a relish, promotes 
raastication and digestion, and, containing no mineral poi- 
sons, supersedes the so-called "Condition Powders." This 
Food contains nothing but what is nutritious and beneficial, 
aud is XUT A MEDICINE, but a seasouer. a nutritious and 
invigorating spiced food, that should be used regularly. Its 
regular use on Horses improves the wind, increases the appe- 
tite, gives a smooth and glossy skin, and transforms the 
miseraV»le skeleton into a fine-looking spirited horse. 

Cows will give more and richer milk, while all the unpleas- 
ant flavor caused by feetUng turnips, etc., will be removed. 
It ha^ been proven by actual experience to increase the 
quaotity of mUk and cream 20 i»er cent , and makes butter 
firm and sweet. In fattening cattle, it gives them an appe- 
tite, loosens their hide and makes them thrivK much faster. 

It prevents ricoc R in Calves, aud them to thrive 
amazingly. It will make pigs happy and fatten them in half 
the usual time. Its properties are astonishing upon all young 
animals. Trial 2-tt'. package only 50 cents; 10 lbs. s2. 

CO., 8 Hew Mofltgomery St., S, F, 

Sac. I Batchelder Co., Marysville. 


Hall, Luhrs Co. , 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Purebred 
Fancy Poultry". White and Brow*n Leghorns, Pljinoutb 
Rocks, Langshans and Houdans. Eggs and Fowls. 

IMPROVED EGG FOOD.— 1 lb., 40c.; 3 lbs., $1; 10 
tbs., $2.50; 25 !bs., go. B. F. Wellington, 425 Washing- 
ton St., S. F. Also agentfor Perfect Hatcher Co., of N. Y. 

J. N. LUND (P. O. Box 116), cor. Webster and Booth 
Sts., near Mt. View Cemetery, Oakland. Breeder of 
Poultry, Plymouth Rocks, Brown Leghorns, Light 
Brahmas, Langshans and B. B. R. Game Bantams, 
Jacobin Pigeons & Guinea Fowls. Eggsi Fowls for sale. 



$1.40 per Gallop. 

Imjierial gallon^ one-fifth 
greater than American. 

Twenty gallons of fluid 
mixed with cold water will 
make 1,200 gallons of Dip, 
It is superior to all l>i\n and Dressings for Scab in 
Sheep; is certain in effect; is easily mixed, and is applied 
in a cold state; it improves the charatter of the Wool and 
promotes its growth; is of great healing qualities in all 
cases of Sores and Bruises; is a protection against blow- 
(l.\ in Bucks; is death to Maggots, Lice, Ants and all 
Vennin. Apply to 


(Patented Dec, 31, 1882.) 

Manufactiu-ed in four sizes at the 

Oakland Poultry Yards, 

Cor. 17th & Castro Sts., 


No. Price. 

0— 100 Eggs capacity .s30 

1— 200 Eggs capacity 45 

2— COO Eggs ca])acity 63 

3— 600 Eggs capacity 90 

Any required size manufactured 
to order. Also for sale (this sea- 
.soa's hatchl. Brahmas. Cochins, 
Langshans. Leghorns, etc., in great 
variety, from ->"12 to .^20 per trio 
1, send 3-cent stamp for Ilhustrated 



Positively the Best for Hatching 
All Kinds of Eggs. 

The following record pro\'e3 our assertion: 

l^Sl, FIRST PKEMR .M over Axkords Xatioxal Ix- 
ti H.KTOR at Sonoma and Marin District Fair, the hatch 
averaging !)0 per cent. 

1882, SILVER MEDAL over Perkect HiTciiER at State 
Fair, hatching 370 chicks out of 405 eggs, after moving 
the machine 150 miles during the second week of in- 

1S8:J, GOLD MEDAL over the Goldex Gate IxcrBATOR 
at State Fair, the PET.\LI MA hatching 45 more chicks 
out of the same number of eggs; our per cent being S2, 
and that of the Golden Gate 58. 

.\lso eleven other First Premiums at different Fairs. 

ALL SIZES. .ALL PRICES. Electric and non-electric. 
Prices from $12 to $125 

iti^ f>ciid for circulars, Circulars free. 

Address, I. L. DIAS, Petaluma, Cal 








.Send two-cent stamp for Circular and Price List to 
R. G. HEAD, Napa. Cal. 

For furtht 
Circular to 


Importer and Breeder of Blooded Fowls, 
P. O. Box 1771. gan Francisco, Cal. 

N. B.— A few pairs of Yellow Fantail Pigeons. Turl)i'.- 
and Carriers (Belgian Voyageurs), can be spared at ¥lO per 
pair. They are this year's hatch and from the finest im- 
ported stock. 




From $'/J0 up. Send 
for descriptive price list. 

ThorquKhbi-ed Poultry 
^nd Eggs. 
1011 Broadway, 

Oakland. Cal 

For Sale at our Farm at Mountain View, 

From our Thi»r<'iii,'libre<l Berkshire Bour and Sow. which we 
iinijorttd from England in I8S0. Pigs ftfjio Imported Boar 
and Sow .•<25 each; from Imported Boar and Thorotighbred 
.Sow, -<10 to .S20. Our Imported Pigs :-re ;is uice pigs a.s there 
are in the State. Address. I. .1. TI!UJI.\N. S;in Francisco. 

D. D. BRIGGS, Los Gatos, Cal. Importer and breeder 
of White Dorkings, W. F. Bl. Spanish, Bl. H-mburgs. 
Eggs, $1.50. Langshan eggs, ■^2..50. Authorized so- 
liciting and advertising agent for the West Shore, puu- 
lished at Portland, Ogn. Circulars tree. 

Cal. Thoroughbred Poultry and Eggs for sale. Also 



BELL & CO . 

San Francisco, Cal. 



FLOCK at the State Fair in 

! Choice Rams & Ewes 

tor. SA LE. 
Orders promptly filled. 
FR.VXK BULLARD, Woodland, Yolo Co., Cal. 


Blandlng Ave , bet. Everett and Broadwaj, 

Importer and Breeder o) 
Thoroughbred Fowla Line 
ehans (Croad Strain). Amerlcai 
Sebrights, Plymouth R .oks 
Brown and Whi te Leghorns 
Eggs for hatching. 

CHAS. W. SMITH, Manager 
Address: Brooklyn, Ala 
meda Co., Cal. 




f^ree from Poison. Prepared 

by the Italian Government 

Co. Cures thoroughly the 

remedy known. R'-liable testi- 
annials at our •>ffi le. 

For particulars apply to 


Sole A«enta, 314 Sscramento 


I am now read}' to sell Carp, whi^-h «cre imjiorted by 
me from Germanv in 1S72, in lots to suit. 

.\ddress " .1. A. POPPE, Sonoma, Cal. 

W. D. RUCKER, Santa Clara, Cal., breeder of thor- 
oughbred Poland China Swine. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars free. 

oughbred Berkshlres. 

Breeder of Thor- 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkehire Record. 


J. D. EMAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeder of Pure 
Italian Queens. Comb Foundation, Extractors, etc. 

Calvert'8 Carbolic 


S2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, Is use- 
ful (or preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying t, e vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
S P.. Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 

W. C. DAMON, Xapa, Cai., grows choice Stock Beet 
Seed. Send for Price List and Circular on Beet Culture. 


Hcadipiartcrs for pure L.\XGSIIAXS. 
Finest stock on the Pacific Coast. 

Largest and 

Fowls and Eggs for Sale. 

Fruit Vale, Alameda Co. , Cal. (formerly of San Francisco). 
i^Visitors take horse cars at East Oakland. 


For hatching chickent. Self retrulating, durable, practickl 
and easily understood. This m not a Toy, but a Practical 
Cliifk-n Manu/acturing Machine. Can be run is any 
Tempebatdre. As Fanciers, Amateurs and others are 
ready to use a good, rehable. Self-reguiating Iiicubafcor. 
that can be procured cheap, we now offer one that holds 150 

The Buby Price, «'Send for Circular. 

1. P. CLAEK, Sole Agent for the Pacific Coast. 
630 Howard St., San Francisco. 

ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford Tulare, Co., Cal. 

Bleeder nf piire-bred I'oland China Pigs of the Black 
Beauty, Black Bess, Bisniiirck. and other noted families. 
Imported boars King of Bonny View and CJolil Dust at head 
of the herd. Stuck recorded in A. P. (' R. Pigs sold at 
reasonable rates. Correspondence soliciteil. Address as above. 

If you wish to buy a Reliable 



Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

es and Prices on application to 

Baden Station, 

San Mateo Co. 

Call on us .^ind c\ai 

And our Artikrhi, MoTiifR, or .send for circular. Two 
hiuidrod and eighty eggs; .•JCi: electric or non-elcctric; 
guaranteed. Running constantly, and hatching e\ery 
day. Boats from San Francisco every half hoiir; fare 
15 cents. 

Odd Fellows' Building, Kast Oakland. 

Jersey Cattle for Sale! 


Various ages, all with pedigrees— at Moderate Prices. 

.lersey Farm, San Bruno^ or 8So Howari street, San 




Asthma, • Bronchitis Catarrh. 


— Full SALE liY— 

«<Langley & Michaels, San Francisco^ 


Prof. R. n. IIht.iiiiohk. of iljc Nuii.Miai Normal I'ni- 
versitv. Lel)anon. Ohio, wriws: " Tlie .Vsthma Cure 
I received fnim V"U last Spring a year ago, so coni- 
pletelv cured me of my -\stfima, that I have scarcely 
thought ot it the past lone, hard, winter." 

Prof. .Ioskpu Peabody, Principal of the .Mnody'School, 
L<:>well. Mass. writ<-s : " I liave been nuirh benefited 
by its use. and would advise all pcr^dijs afflicted witli 
Asthma, to try "Knitrhfs .\stlnna Cure.' " 

Rf.v. Cai.vix, F.roadhi ads Bridge, TlstorCo.. 
X. Y., writes : •• It is the most efTcctual remedy I havu 
ever tried, and I recommend it to all " 

DAVin H. Browx, of Tliompsnn. Hrown & Co.. Pub- 
lishers, 2.1 Hawlcy .St., B'l^I'm. Ma~s. . writes : "I have 
tried nearly all known hflps for Astliina. and consider 
' Kniirlil's .Xstliiiia Cure ' Of bfsl. It has cured me of 
the tcrril)!'' (lisrasi-, and I now am obliged to take it 
only occa^ioMjilly wli.-n I lia\<' a cold.*' 

Knight's New Book on Asthma and Hay Fever 

Sent Free. I A kMIRHT 1 E- Third St., 
Addreaa L. H. IMllUn I , ciiK-lniiutl. ». 

f£ MOOEE'S m 


A Non-Poisonous Preparation for the Pre 
vention and Cure of the SCAB. 

Tne General Health and Condition of the 
Sheep Promoted by ltd Use. 

Price Kedured to 9\ per (lallon tn 5-(iallon Fkgs. 
One UalloD makes 00 (lallons of Dip. 

This Specific for Scab ia composfd princ!pa]ly of Sul 
phur and Tobacco, the Sulphur being held in solution by an 
eatire'y nt'W process. It has rone of the objectionable fea 
ture-i ol a Lime and S l[.hur Dip, and i!> i>s use the grower 
has the bcnctit of a Sulphur-Tol acco preparation, without 
the evil tffects conse(|Uent upon the use of lime It is easily 
mixed and applied, requiring no boiliuK) i^* certain in cfl»'Ct; 
la free from poisou; will put the tkin ii a healthy condition 
and will improve the character and growth of the vool. 

S^Vwt up in one-Kallon and tive-Kallon packages. 



(Formerly C. E. Williams k Co.) 

Stockton, - . - CallfornJa, 



[January 6, 1884 

. 155,650 
• 155,750 

16 >,300 

gj g, Market J^jEfOF^T 

Note.— Our quotationsare for Wednesday, not Saturdaj 
the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, Jan. 2, 1884. 

We have another report coming at the time quota- 
tions are of little account because the holiday [sky 
has not yet cleared. Trade was nominally renewed 
to-day but not with much zeal and no one is dis- 
pcsed to invest except for present needs. The 
latest from abroad is the following: 

I.IVEFPOOI., Jan. 2d.— Wheat—California spot 
lots are dull at 8s yd to 8s 6d. Car^'o lots, 43^ '^^ 
for just shipped, 42s 6d for nearly due and 42s for 
off coast. 

The Foreign Review. 

London, Dec. 31.— The Af^iri l.ane lixpress, in 
its weekly review of the British grain trade says: 
I'oggy weather has caused a material loss iit the con- 
dition of the grain marketed here, but there was no 
actual change in values. The trade in foreign wheat 
off stands quiet and retail in character. B.irley very 
quiet; flour dull; maize cheaper, mixed .\mencan 
brought 273 cx ship. Eight wheat cargoes airived, 
two were withdrawn and three remained. Sales of 
English wheat for the week 56,819 quarters at 39s per 
quarter, against 43,^x0 at 40s i id for the corresiiond- 
ing period last year. 

Freights and Charters. 

The following is a summary of the engaged and 
disengaged tonnage at this and adjacent ports, and 
on the way to this port yesterday morning: 


Engaged tons in port 65,810 

Disengaged • 

On the way 

Total 3".210 SU,3C4 

Increase <55,i6) ..... 

Tons under engagement to load Wheat.. 63,250 4»,,1,>) 

Decrease '■''^U 

' Includes 1,770 tons for Wilmington, ajfainst 5,l,(.0 tons 
last year. 

There were 36 vessels under engagement at this 
port to load Wheat, and two at neighboring ports. 
There are 104 disengaged vessels at this port and one 
at neighboring ports. The engaged and disengaged 
tonnage, as above, has a wheat-carrying capacity 
for 321,000 short tons, against a capacity for 217,400 
tons on the corresponding date last year, being an 
increase of 103,800 tons. The bid and asking rates 
for Wheat cargoes were reported as follows: 

Bid. Asked. 

Iron— X.iveiT)Ool direct 259 Od 

Iron— Cork for orders to United Kingdom '.i/s 6d 

Iron— Cork or Continent 

Wood— Liverpool direct • ■ •.■ ■ ■ 

Wood— Cork for orders to United Kingdom ^omlnal 

Wood— Cork or Continent Nominal 

New York Hop Trade. 

New York, Doc. 31.— Shippers continue to pick 
up moderate quantities of common goods at i8fe30C 
and occasionally touch up a first-class article, for 
which they find it ticcessary to pay first-class prices. 
Otherwise very little is doing and all hands are living 
in hopes— some that prices will weaken and others 
th.1t there will be a turn the other way. As it is, 
prices are greatly nominal on other than common 
goods, with the latter ranging trom 20 cents down. 
Pacific coast, fair to prime, 2oCn 25 cents 

Eaatem Grain and Provision Markets. 

Chicago, Dee. 31.— R>e, quiet; 59. Barley, dull; 
64(065. Pork, higher; $13.80 December. Lard, 
firmer; $8,65(88.70 Deccmbe"-. Bulk meats in fair 
demand; shoulders, $6.10; short ribs, $7.15; short 
clear, $7.45- 

Eastetn Wool Market. 
New York, Dec. 31.— The general volunme of 
business has been light and irregular, though proba- 
bly no more so than was expected during the finnl 
week of the year, and neither buyers nor sellers at- 
tempt to draw conclusions from the present condition 
of the market. In a general way the views of the 
trade remain about as before and all really 
and attractive wools have well maintained their posi- 
tion. Indeed, anything not positively faulty appears 
to be carried with a fair degree of confidence and 
owners make no special effort to display samples. It 
is expected that two or three anufacturers will he 1 
in want of stock after the first of the year, though not [ 
enough to give them any very hberal acuimulation. 
Advices from abroad are about as before and contain 
little of special interest. Sales include 11,000 pounds 
California on private terms. 

BA(iS— Calcutta (irain Bags are cjuiet at 7fe7Hc. 
B.^RI.EY— Feed Barley has shaded off a little, 
and brewing is strong at the 'advance last week. It 
seems to be in request at $i.i5(2'$i.i7''i ctl. On 
Call there was some spirit and debate on brewing. 
At last, one sale was made of a buyer season con- 
tract at $1.14, .and subsequently lapid buying .sent 
the figure up to $1.15, when offerings become so lib- 
eral that prices weakened to $1.14 closing some- 
what easy. About 3,000 tons No, i Feed changed 
hands .is follows; May — 100 tons, $1.10. :->eller 
season — 100 tons, $1.04^. Buyer se.ison— 100 tons, 
$1.14; 200, $1.14}^; 700, $1.1413; 700, $1.14";; 100, 
$1. 145^' ; 900, $1.15 ^ ctl. 

BEANS — There is no change, except that Red 
Beans are a little more plentiful and some sell at 
$3.75 1? ctl. 

CORN — Corn has improved .ind is advanced to 
$i.6o(S!r.65 for Yellow, while White in some cases 
brings $1.70. 

DAIRY PRODUCE- Butter has shaded down 
another point, and the best fancy now goes at 35c, 
and much sells below that. Cheese is a little un- 
settled, and some sells lower, tmt favorite brands 
reach 19c. 

EGGS— Eggs have also dropped this week, the 
best ranch going at 36c. Eggs are dull and quiet. 

FEED — Bran is lower. H<iy is dull and abundant, 
and the best wheat is rated at $14.50 per ton. 

FRESH MEAT— Beef is now quotable at 9c for 
the best. Mutton is lower. Lamb is taking on 
spring prices. Pork is firmer, both live and dead, 
and higher. 

FRUIT— Prices are about the same as last week. 
New oranges are still selling up to $5 per box for the 

HOP.S— The range is I7(<' 22!,4 according to qual- 

OATS— Oats are still low but an improvement is 
expected. Prices are unchanged. 

ONIONS— The range is the same and the quality 
extremely various. 

POTATOES.— Prices are generally unchanged ex- 
cept that Peerless are rated higher this week. 

POULTRY .\ND GAME- Turkeys and Fowls 
have improved considerably, standing as well to-day 
as they did at Christmas. 

PROX'ISION'S— There is no change. 
VEGET.ABLES— Marrow Fat Squash shows the 
only fluctuation this week and it has gone down 
again to $i2.oo(a $15.00. 

WHEAT— Wheat is quite dumpish thfs week and 
is rated down to $1.80 and little selling e.xcept an oc- 
casional lot to a miiler. 

WOOL— Wool is dull and unchanged. The 
Wool report for the year may be found in another 

General Merchandise. 


Domestic Produce. 


Bayo.ctI 3 40 (* 3 50 

Butter 3 20 3 25 

Castor 4n0(* — 

Pea 3 00 3 10 

Red 3 75 (g 4 00 

Piuk 3 25 <* 3 35 

Large White.... 3 00 C"? - 
Umall White.... 3 00 tai 3 10 

Lima 3 12^'? - 

F id Peas.hlk eye 1 5C (S 1 73 

do grcon 2 50 (!^ — 


Southern 3 @ 3i 

Northern km 6 


Califoruia 4 @ 4i 

German 7 



Cat. fresh roU,tb. 23 @ 3» 
do Fancy br'nUs 35 «* 

Pickle roll 27 (ff 28 

Firkin, new 24 la 26 

Eastern 17 (« 20 

New York — (S* — 


Cheese, Cal .tb.. 15 @ 19 

Cal.. ranch, doz.. 40 @ — 

do, store 30 W 36 

Dncks iim 40 

Oregon 26 @ 27! 

Eastern, by e\.. 274(« 37] 

Pickled here ... — <SS — , 

Utah 30 ® 32j 


Bran, ton 15 00 @15 50 

Commeal 34 00 

.Ian. 2, 1884 
.. 13 ae 
.. 10 W 
.. 14 @ 

8 <st) 


Soft shell... 




Filberts 14 (* 


Early Rose 50 @ 

Petaluma 80 (<* 

Tomales 60 @ 

Humboldt 90 <* 1 00 

do Kidney — @ — 

do Peacliblow. — @ — 

Jersey Blue 75 @ 

Ciifley Cove 87.K<* 1 00 

River, red 40 (<e 50 

Chile 1 00 (« 

do Oregon... — «« 1 35 

Peerlesii 90 ® 1 10 

.Salt Lake — «« - 

.Sweet 3 00 <S 3 75 


Hens, doz 7 00 (g s 

Roosters 6 50 M 8 50 

Broilers 5 00 ((« 6 00 

Ducks, tame ... 9 00 ti* 12 00 

do. Sprig 1 ,50 «t 2 00 

do. Teal 75 1 00 

do. Mallard . . 2 00 (cr 2 50 

Geese, pair 2 25 (rt 2 50 

Wild Gray, doz ** 3 25 
White do... 1 50 (* — 

Turkeys, tb 21 @ 23 

do Dressed.. 22 25 
Turkey Feathers, 

tail and wing.. 10 @ 20 
Suiiie, Eng. , duz. 1 50 @ 
do Coni..ion.. 50 ^ — 

Quail 1 00 1 25 

Rabbits 1 00 @ 1 50 

Crystal Wax.... 15 @ 

Stearic Acid 14 C* — 

Eagle 12 (* — 

ASstd l*ie Fruits, 

2i -111 cans 2 25 (S — 

Table do 3 50 («) — 

Jams and Jellies 75 (tc — 
Pickle.s, hf gal. . 3 25 (<« — 
Sardines, qr box. 1 67 — 
Half boxes. ... 1 90 (a 2 50i 
Merry, Fault & 
Co's Preserved 
Beef, 211>,doz. 3 25 (3 3 00 
do 4 lb, doz... 6 50 C<? 6 00 
Preserve<l Mut- 
ton, 2 lb 3 25 @ 3 50 

Beef Tongue .... 5 75 (* 6 00 
Preserved Ham, 

2-tt,, doz 5 50 C* 5 60 

Deviled Uam, 1 

Ih, doz 3 00 @ 3 50 

do, i lb, doz. . . 2 50 (sc - 
Boneless Piggs 

Feet, 3 lb 3 50 (» 3 75 

2 lb 2 75 irt - - 

Sped Fillets, 2 lb. 3 50 (« — 
Headcheese, 3lti 3 50 (<« — 


Auztralian, ton. 9 00 — 

Coos Bay 7 OC @ 7 50 

Belliugham Bay — (* 

Seattle 8 00 C« - 

Cumberland .... 13 00 (!f — 

Mt. Diablo - (* — 

Lehigh — @ — 

Liverpool — tftt — 

West Hartley... 9 00 @10 00 

.Scotch 10 50 C* — 

Scrauton — @ 

Vancouver Isld. — — 

Wellington .... 10 00 @ — 

Charcoal, sack.. — @ — 

C oke, bu — (a — 


Sandwich Ids, th — @ — 

Costa Rica 12 (a 14 

Guatemala 12 (« 14 

Java 18 20 

Manila 15 @ — 

Ground, in cs... 22l@ 


' ac'to Dry Cod. . 6 @ — 
do in cases. . 7 — 
Eaiitem Cod .... 7 ^ 71 
Sabnon, bbls. ... 7 00 «e 7 50 

Half bbls 3 50 (o! 4 00 

l ib cans 1 12l(* 1 22] 

Pkld Cod, bbls.. - («t — 

Half bbls - (S — 

Mackerel, No. 1, 

Half bbls 8 50 ^* 9 00 

In kits 1 70 (* 1 



Wkd.nesday. Jan. 2, 1884. 

Portland 3 75 @ 4 00 

AKsrtd sizes, keg 3 75 @ 4 00 

Pacific Glue Co's 

Neatsft, No. 1. 1 00 @ — 
Castor, No. 1... 1 05 (!* — 
do No. 2... 95 C« - 
Baker's AA. . . 1 30 I* — 
Olive. Plagnoil. . 5 25 (<s 5 75 

Po.isel 4 75 (» 5 25 

Palm, tb 9 (te - 

l^iuseed, raw, bbl 60 {(* — 

Boiled 65 if/b — 

Cocoanut 60 — 

China Nut, cs. . . 70 — 

Sperm 1 40 @ — 

Coast Whales. . . 35 - - 

Polar — (« — 

Lard 1 00 t* - 

Petroleum, 110°. \i (o, 22 
do 150°. 28 IS5 35 
Piu-e White Lead IW 8 

W biting lR« — 

Putty 4 (g 5 

Chalk " ~ 

Paris White 


Venetian Red... 
Averill mixed 
Paints, white 
and tints, gal.. 2 00 @ — 
Green, blue & 

CbyeUow 3 00 (» 3 50 

Light red 3 00 C* 3 50 

MetaUic roof. . 1 30 (» 1 60 

Cliiua Mixed, tti. 4}(a 5 

Hawaiian 4At<e 5 


Cal. Bay, ton...l4 OO (822 00 

Common 6 50 (a 14 00 

Carmen Isld. . . .14 00 ("22 00 
Liveri>ool, tine . .14 00 (,«20 00 

Castile. lb 10 @ - 

Common brands 4S(g 6 
Fancy brands . . 7 ^ 8 

Cloves, ft 37K* 40 

Cassia 19 C'? 20 

Nutmegs 85 8* 90 

Pepper Grain... 15 ((« 16 

Pimento 16 (<? 17 

Mustard, Cal , \ 

lb, glass 1 25 (3 - 

Cal. Cube, tb.... lOJCS - 

Powdered lOM 

Fine Crushed... lOJC* — 

Granulated 10 (g 10 

Golden C. . 9 S? 9 
Cal. Syrup, kegs 

Hay .... 7 00 ({tl4 50 'Hare 2 00(8250 

MidiiliuKs 19 00 ig23 00 i Venison .... 5 (a S 

( Jil Cake Meal . . 30 00 (S - PROVISIONS. 
.Straw, bale. ... 55 (g 65 Cal. Bacon, 

FLOUR I Heavy, lb 12 (g 

E.Ktra, City Mills 5 75 6 00 I Medium 12 (g 

do Co'utry MiUs 5 00 (g 5 50 ! Light 13 (i* 

.Superfine 3 60 C<? 4 50 Lard 12 

Beef, 1st qual., &> 




Spring Lamb... 
Pork, imdressed. 



5 (g 
4 (* 

7 @ 

8 m 


Cal.SmokedBeef 13X<* 

!< IShoulders 9J(« 

8 'Hams, Cal 16 (a 

5 J do Eastern.. 17 (a 
5i| SEEDS. 

8 AlfaUa 9 ® 

6 \ do Chile — @> 

8 Canary 63@ 

lOi Clover, red 14 @ 

White 45 (* 

do Brewing.. 1 071® 1 17i Flaxseed 

Chevalier 1 30 (tf 1 40 Hemp 

do Coast... 1 12i(se 1 17i Italian RyeGrass 

Buckwheat 2 25 (.a 3 00 1 Perennial 

Corn, White ] 63 @ 1 70 Millet, German.. 

Yellow 1 55 @ 1 65 ' do Common. 

Small Round. — S» — Must:u:d, white.. 

Oats 1 45 (gs 1 65 : Brown 

Milling 1 70 (rt 1 75 Rape 

Rye 1 10 C* 1 35 iKy. Blue Grass.. 

Wheat, No. 1. . . 1 77 (fC 1 80 I 2d quaUty 

do No. 2. . . 1 75 M 1 77 jSweet V. Grass 

Choice milUng 1 82i@ 

Dry 16i(a 

Wet salted 7 (« 


Beeswax, lb 26 (g 

Honey in comb. 10 (^ 
Extracted, Ught. 7K* 
do dark. 6J(g 

Oregon — % 

California 18 @ 

Wash. Ter - @ 

Old Hops — ® 


Red - 1^ 

Silverskiu, new. 25 W 

Oregon — @ 

NUTS Jobbing. 
Wahiuts, 9 (g 
do Chile.. 7i(a 
Almonds, hdshL 8 @ 

Orchard 20 (* 

I Red Top 15 

7 Hungarian 8 (g 

04 1 Lawn 30 C* 

Mesquit 10 

10 Timothy .... 7 @ 
4 1 TALLOW. 

SilCrude, tb IW 

7iRetined ... 10® 


- SPRINU— 1883. 
!24 San Joaqiuu .... 11 @ 

- Calaveras 20 ^ 

- Northern, free.. 21 (£» 
Nortiieru. hurry. 17 
Oregon Eastern. 19 (« 

do valley... 20 (« 

- FALL 1883. 
Mendijciiio and 

10 Humboldt free.. 15 (ft 

8 iMountaUl free.. U (g 

9 :Soutb'u deftive 8 m 


Ex Mess. kits. 3 00 (<* 3 50 Hawaiian Mi 

Pkld Herring, kg 1 75 (^ 2 00 lasses 25 (» 

Boston Smoked "EA. 
Herring. 65 @ — Young Hyson. 

LIME, ETC. I Moyune, etc.. 

Plaster, Golden jCountry packed 

Gate Mills .... 3 00 (9 3 25 Gmipowder & 

LandPlaster.toulO 00 8*12 00 I Imperial 

Lime. S Cruz. bbl 1 25 (« 1 50 Hyson 

Cement, Rosen- Koo Chow O . . . . 

dale 1 75 (ft 2 00 Japan, medium. 


® 66 

35 (3 
35 (<t 
27 iC* 
35 (<* 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

[wholesale. I 

Wednesday, .Ian. ^. 1^4 

Peaches 11 C* i2i 

do pared 15 (« lo 

Pears, shced ... 1 % 8 

do whole 5 8* 6 

Plums 2 (* 3 

do pitted ... 12K<* 13 

Pnmes 11 12 

Raisins, Cal. bx. 1 50 @ 2 00 

do halves ... — ^ — 

do quarters. . — @ — 

do eighths... — (* — 

Zante Currants. 8 (3 10 


Artichokes, doz. 40 (g 60 

Beets, ctl.. .. 75 @ — 

Cabbage, 100 fts. 75 (<» - 

Carrots, sk 30 (* 


Apples, box 50 (ft 2 00 

Bananas, bunch. 2 50 (<* 5 00 
Cocoauuts, 100. . 6 00 <<r 7 00 
Cranberries, bbl. 17 00 («18 00 
Limes, Mcx 1'. 00 («12 00 

do Cal , 100.. - (.» — 
Lemons, Cal .bx 2 00 t<« 2 75 

do Sicily, box. 6 00 (^ 7 00 

do Australian. — @ 
Oranges, Cal.. bx 2 50 @ 5 00 

do Tahiti M . (« 

do Me.xiean...20 00 Crt22 50 

do Panama... — (t* 

Pears, box 50 (a 2 00 

Pineapples, doz. 5 00 @ 6 00 

Strawberrie8.cbt - 8? ~ 1 - - ■ — ^ s , 

Watermelons— 'CaiUiflflwer, doz. 1 00 @ 1 50 

Per 100 .. 4 00 (* 6 00 ICelery, doz 50 @ - 

DRIED FRUIT. Garlic, tb IJtg 2 

Apples, sliced, lb 7 C* 8 'Lettuce, doz — 10 (3 — 
12 Mushrooms, tb... 5 (a 8 
6-1 Okra, cb-y, tb.... 20 (3 25 

12 'Parsnips, lb IJta 

- Peppers, It. 10 (c« 12 

30* Squash, Marrow- 

10 fat, ton 12 00 @15 00 

8 Tomatoes, box.. 60 (g 75 

7 iTuruips. ctl 75 (« 1 00 


do evaporated. 10 @ 

do quartered.. 6 @ 

Apricots ll.i('* 

Rlacklierries . . . . 15(3 

Citron 28 <3 

Dates 9 (3 

Figs, pre.ised 7 (3 

do loose 6 8* 

Nectarines 11 (3 

Retail Groceries, Etc. 

Butter, Califor- 

Dia Choice, tb, 
Cau<Uu8, Adiu'te 


Curu Meal, fti. . . 
Cotf ee, greeu — 
l)rie<l Apples, lb 

Prunes, tier.. 

Figs. Cal 


Flour, extra fam 

Lard. Cal- 

2S ® 


15 @ 


17 8« 


25 (3 




23 8« 


10 («i 




9 (3 


15 85 


00 v< 

9 00 

18 Iff 

20 8t 


50 8* 


O Is, Kerosene.. 
Oysters ,cau doz 2 00 @ 3 00 

Wednesday, Jan. 2, 1884. 

Rice 8 (@ 10 

Sugar, White 

Crushed 12J(3 131 

Light Brown . . 8 (00 91 

Soap, Cal 7 8? 10 

Syrup, S. F. 

Golden 75 8' 1 10 

Tea, tine black. . 50 8» 1 00 

Finest Japan. 65 (« 1 00 
Wines, old Port, 3 50 (a 5 00 
French Claret. . . 1 00 cr 2 60 

Cal doz hot.. 2 00 m 4 50 
Whisky, OK, gal 3 50 8t 5 00 
French Brandy. 4 00 (s? 8 00 
Yeast Powder, 

doz 1 50 (3 2 00 

Bags and Bagging. 


English Stand- 
ard Wheat 

Cal Manufacture 
Hand Sewed, 


20x36 im 

23x40 12 8" 

24.X40 125^ 

Machine Swd, 
22x36 . . 84(3 

Flour sks, halves 9J@ 
Quart.ers 6 (3 

2, 1881 



Wednesdav, .Ian. 


1% Hessian, 60 inch 

45 inch 

40 inch 

- Wool Sacks 38 (3 

8i Standard Giin- 

13 I nies 14 @ 

13} Bean Bags - (« 

Twine, Detrick's 

9 1 A 7 @ 

lOJ; Detrick's AA. 32i@ 



Bough 18 00 (» - 

Surfaced 24 00 («28 00 

Floor and step. .22 00 8J28 00 


Merchantable. . 22 50 <3 — 
Surfaced, No. 1 . 37 50 8' - 
Tongue.<igrooved30 00 <<r37 50 
Pickets, rough 20 00 8f - 
do fancy. . .'.0 00 «» - 
do square .17 60 (3 — 


Wk.dnksday. Jan. 2, 1884. 

Shingles 2 50 (t ■ 

Posts, each 15 (» 171 



Rough 28 00 (a — 

Surfaced 27 00 @28 00 


Rough 22 50 (ft — 

iFlooring 36 50 c«35 00 

I Floor and step. .35 00 (537 00 
Lath 3 75 C« » 

Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San Fr.ANcisfo Week eiidiuK Jan. 1. 1884. 


30 245 



Dec 27 i Dec 28 : Dec 29 

30.095 I 



29.986 1 



Dec 31 1 Jan 1 

30.300 i 









86 1 76.3 I 80.3 I 83.7 I 89 7 I 75.7 I 76.7 




206 i 193 I 121 I 118 I 85 I 163 | 110 


Fair | Fair I Clear 1 Fair : Fair I Fair i Fair 


.01 I .07 1 .01 1 - I .00 I .00 I .00 
Total rainfall durioK season, from July 1, 1883-4, 4 42 inch. 

The Lemmon Herbarium. 

Thi^ llehariuiii has been removed from the Blake 
Himse to a )>cnnani iit i.Iace at 12i>."i Franklin St., near 
Fourteenth St., Oakland, one square east of the i'ost 
OtHcc, where plants of the Pacific Coast, including 
Arizona, iiiav he determined 011 api'lication, and ins'ruc- 
tionKi^en iii botaiiv during the winter. Sets or smg.e 
speeiniciis of the rare and new ferns of the I'acific Coast 
for aale. 


Although much is snid about the impor- 
tance of a bkMHl-purifyinjj; nu'dioinf, it may he 
possible that the subject ha.s never seriously 
claimed your attention. Tfiht/: I'/ 'tt lunr.' 

Almost every person has some ft.>rni of scrof- 
ulous poison latent in his veins. When this 
develops in Scrofulous Sores, Vlrerft, or 
Eruptionri* or in the form of RheumatiHin, 
or Or|*:aiiic DitteaseK, the sutt'ering that en- 
sues is terrible- Hence the gratitude of thosa 
who discover, as thousands yearly do, that 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

■will thoroughly eradicate this evil from the 

As well expeet life witliout air as health 
without pure blooil. Cleanse the blood uitU 
AMEK'a Sausapauilla. 


Dr. J. C. Ayer&Cc, Lowell, Mass. 

Sold by .ill Druggists ; $1, six bottles for $.5. 


The Greatest Importing and Breeding 
Establishment in the World, 


WORTH S2, 500,000.00 

Iipcrtol fr:m Frante, izi Bred siico 137;, 

Wayne, Du Page County, 

Hi we^t of CtiicgOf .a 
C.i ^.-W. K'y. 

390 Imported from France the 
past Three Months 

Consisting onlv of Hie Finest Animals, ^vith Choic- 
est Pedigrees. Registered in the Perchcron Stud 
Book of France, and the Percheron Stud Book o£ 
the United States. 

X'isitors -vil roni!;. Come and see for Yourselves. 

I*ri«'es low for uiialily of stock, and 
evor.v Htallion jf iiaranSecrt n liroeder. 

Carriajje at depot. Telui^raph at Wayne, with 
private telephone connection with Oakhiwn. 

Write for I'Vec llhislrated Catalogue 




WIL, H>'.4BI': A CO. 

Mos. 204 and 206 West Baltimore Streer, 
Baltimore. No. 112 Fifth Avenue, N. 'iT 


^''.^■l California St. , cor. Wehh. 
For the half year ending with Decemhor 31, 1883, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of four and thirty- 
'wo one hundredths (4 :V2-1IX)) per cent, per annum on 
term deposits, and three and six tenths (:j 10) per cent, 
per annum on ordinary deposits, free of taxes, payable 
on and after January 1884. 

LOVKLh WHITE, Cashier. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half .\ ear ending liecember :n , iss:!, the ItoarJ 
of I»irect<.trs of ttio tU-rniali Sa\ ings and Loan .Society has 
declared a dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of four 
and tl.irty-two one hundredths (4 .fi-lOO) per cent, (ler 
annum, an<l on Ordinary- Iiejiosits at the rate of three aiul 
si.v tenths (3 8-10) per cent, per annum, payable on and 
after the 2nil dav of ,)aiiuar> , 1 ^-^4. Hv order, 

(JKO. I.Kri'K, Secretary. 


1 hai'e for sale seed of VU!i> Cali/ornHO , prcjof against 
phylloxera, which I will send at 81 per jiouiid for ' pounds 
or more, or xL.'iii yvr pimiid for less than 1 ounds. 

Vitis Californica Cuttings. $8 per 1.000. 

Freight to be i>aiil by purchasers. 
(1>. O. Box No. 8.) 

Middletown, I.iake County, Cal. 




^ 1310 MARKET ST. S.F. 

January 5, 1884,] 



List of U. S. Patents for Paciffc Coast 

[From the official list of U. S. Patents in Devvtsv & Co.'s 
Scientific Press Patent Agency, 252 Market St., S. F. 

For Week Ending Dec. i8, 1883. 
290,305.— Potato Digger— A. Adam, Reno, 

290,530. — Single Harness— C. W. Burgtorf, 
Petaluma, Cal. 

290,316.— Cooking Stove— Robt. E. Burns, S. F. 

290,629.— Smelting Refractory Orws— J. 
Campbell, S. F. 

290,404. — Hoisting Car — L. D. Davis, Salt 
Lake City, Utah. 

290,410. — DirtScrai'ER — D, A. Faulkner, Sac. 

290,337.— Vapor Lamp Burner — Ludwig & 
Wainwriglit, S. F. 

290,348.— Gangway Ladder — C. Olsen. 

290,603. — Sf.w er Trap— L. A. Pellier, .San Jose, 

290,352. — Portahle Door Fastener — E. F. 
Pfund, Sac. 

290.358. — Edger — Jas. A. Robb, S. F. 

290,481.— Box Cover Attachment- Belle M. 
Sahlein, S. F. 

290,607.— .'Vutomatic Lamp Kxtinguishur and 
Wick Trimmer — Smiley & Stombs, S. F. 

290,653.— Wine an!) Cider Press— Henry 
Tyack, Grass Valley, Cal. 

290,298. — Dumping Car — Geo. J. Wheelock, 
Oakland, Cal. 

290,509. — Gate— J. B. Whiteman, Centerville, 

10,799. — '''rade Mark — Geo. Simmonds, S. F. 
3.774. — Label — Meyer Bros. & Co., .S. F. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents' recently obtained through 
Dbwby & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are wor- 
thy of special mention; 

DiKT Scraper. — .James Porteous, Fresno, 
Gal. No. 289,134. Dated Nov. 27, 1883. These 
improvements in scrapers for leveling land con- 
sist in the means for regulating the dump of the 
bowl. The object in this is to cause the bowl 
to discharge the load more or less quickly by 
regulating the distance of its bit from the ground 
when in the dumped position. In case of a de- 
elded depression in the ground, it becomes 
necessary to discha.fgG the load at once, and 
this is accoinplislied by so regulating the dump 
of the bowl that its bit shall be high enough 
from the ground to let the dirt escape. In case 
but a thin layer need be spread, the bit is raised 
hut little and It aots as a scraper, spreading the 
slowly-discharging earth over a gre-iter surface. 
This result, namely, the limiting of the dump of 
the bowl, has been heretofore accomplished by 
means of a bar set transversely over the top be- 
tween the euda of the bowl, said bar coining in 
contact with the draft rods; but the present 
construction overcomes any objections there 
may be to the previous method. 

Im^URATOK. — Chas. F. Winkler, Bakersfield, 
(Jal. No. 286,756. Dated Oct. 16, 1883. This 
invention relates to certain new and useful im 
provements in that class of incubators employ- 
ing an endless traveling conveyor lor receiving 
and advancing the eggs. The object is to over- 
come certain ditficulties now existing in this 
class of machines. It is so constructed as to 
allow the introduction of a fresh lot of eggs at 
short intervals, and gives to each lot its own 
required temperature. The machine hatches 
the eggs in small batches, removed from the un- 
liatched eggs, so the temperature is not lowered 
In removing thnn, nor are they injured. The 
machine provides for the different temperatures 
necessary to hatch out all kinds of eggs— goose, 
duck, turkey and chicken, giving each its re- 
quired time and temperature. 

SiiHE FOR Grain Separators.— Arthur H. 
Johnson, WoodJ^itd, Yolo Co. No. 289,915. 
Dated Dec. 11, 1883. This shoe is made of 
light pieces set at right angles to each other, 
the ends being on top of the sides in order to 
properly inclose the riddle which is laid on the 
shoe. Attached to the sides of the shoe are 
flexible strips (preferably leather) having Hexi- 
ble tongues by which the shoe can be adjusted 
from tlie outside to any inclination, or to raise or 
lower any corner, or otherwise change its posi- 
tion, according to circumstances. A combina- 
tion of movements is perfected— namely, a side 
motion of the shoe and an end motion of the 
grain board. This is beneficial in its effects. 
It gives a better agitation to the grain than if 
both moved in the same direction, and thus al- 
lows the wind to clean it up thoroughly. 

Desio.n- for Wire Fence.— Gaspar Hunziker, 
Cloverdale, Sonoma Co. No. 14,442. Dated 
Nov. 27, 18S3. The design consists in the com- 
bination of two or more nettings with different 
sized meshes. The leading feature of the design 
consists of a series of parallel honzont^ sec- 
tions of netting, having meshes of different 
sizes, said sections being united at their edges 
so as to form a panel. 

c;an(; Plow.— Henry S. Palmer, Santa Ana, 
Los Angeles Co. No. 288,362. Dated Nov. 13, 
1883 The improvements consist in details of 
construction, and the means for leveling and 
regulating the depth of the plows. The present 
ordinary construction of levers by which the 
"r.inks or crank-axle upon which the wheels are 

mounted or operated renders it often a matter 
of some difficulty to raise the plows out of the 
ground or regulate their depth. It is the ob- 
ject of this invention to render this operation 

Gang Plow — T. L. Grigsby, Yountville, 
Napa Co. Cal. No. 287,536. Dated Oct. 30, 
1883. This invention is applied to that class 
of gang plows which are specially adapted for 
work in vineyards, cotton fields, and in all 
places where rows are planted. The invention 
consists in its means for connecting the plows 
with the frame, whereby they may be adjusted, 
and in a center plow and the means for connect- 
ing it. 

Machine for Shelling Pease. — Alfred 
Swingle, S. F. No. 288,743. Dated Nov. 20, 
1883. This machine for shelling pease consists 
in a combination of a horizontal, perforated 
traveling belt, having projecting teeth, w'th 
another horizontal toothed belt, means for mov- 
ing the latter above the former in the same di- 
rection and at a higher rate of speed, and means 
for imparting a transverse vibratory motion. 

Pump Valve. — Frank Stock, Jr., San Jose, 
Santa Clara Co. No. 286,742. Dated Oct. 
16, 1883. The improvement in pump 
valves consists in a means for permitting and 
accomplishing the rotation of valve, whereby 
it may wear more evenly and free itself of 
sand and grit. 

Two- Wheeled Vehicle. — Jacob Price, San 
Leandro, Cal. No. 286,733. Dated October 
16, 1883. The improvements consist in a novel 
construction of the body of the vehicle and a 
means for leveling the same to suit the height 
of animals of different sizes which may be used. 

Bed Lounge. — J. Rentschler, S. F, No. 
287,165. Dated Oct. 23, 1883. The object of 
this improvement in bed-lounges is to gain an 
extention in the length of the bed when the 
back is let down as a bed, and yet not have too 
high a back as a lounge. 

The Langshan Premiums. 

Editors Press : --In No. 26 Rural Press is an 
article written by Mrs. J. Raynor saying all premi- 
ums taken by Langshans in other people's hands 
"were raised by me." I was awarded first on Lang, 
shan chicks, and first on breeding pen, as you will 
see by reading the list, and 1 beg leave to differ from 
her as to the birds being raised by her. Part of birds 
were raised by me from stock I imported from the 
East two years ago, the rest from Mrs. R. W. Sar- 
gent stock. Mrs. R. seems to be under the impres. 
sion there are no good Langshans on the coast other 
than that she raised or has. While I admit she has 
very fine stock, I claim there is others equally as 
good. As she didn't attend the exhibition, I can 
pardon mistakes in all friendliness. O. J. Albee. 

Santa Clara, Cal. 

occis^aftally sent to parties connected with tils' 
in^^stS Specially represented, in. its columns, 
l^soiiB so deceiving copies are requested to 
cx.lminc its contents, terms of .subscription, and 
give it their own patronage, niul, as far as 
practicable, aid in circulating ihc journal, and 
making its v.aluc more widely known to others, 
and extending its inlhicncc in tlic c.iusc it faitli- 
fully serves. Subscription rate, §3 a ycariiii 
advance. J^xtra copies mailed for JO cents/ if 
ordered soon enough, attention/vlU 
be called. ;to this (as well ns other aiotic^ at 
times^) J;y turning a leaf, 

Wait for the Wagon. — It seema that the 
Studebaker wagon is the vehicle which was 
contemplated in the old song, "Wait for the 
Wagon," and the manufacturers, Studebaker 
Bros., of South Bend, Indiana, have appropri- 
ately issued a handsome sheet of music as a 
Happy New-Year greeting to their thousands 
of friends and patrons. 

Hon. H. J. McKu.sTCK has been re-appointed 
Superintendent of Railway Mail Service for 
this district. His division is the largest in the 
country and includes the States of California, 
Nevada, Oregon and the territories of Arizona, 
Utah, Montana, Idaho, Washington and 

Visalia Notice.— The real estate advertise- 
ment of Miller & Knupp appears new this week. 
Both are young men well and favorably known 
in Tulare county for their promptness and other 
good qualities. 

Will the subscriber holding receipt No. 34,305 tor 
Rural Prkss, given by us at San Jose, about Oct. -Ith, 
oblige by forwardng his name and address to this office, 

Rkmittancbs to thi.s office should be made by postal 
order or registered letter, when practicable. Cost of pos- 
tal order, for $10 or less, 8 cts.; for registered letter, 111 
addition to regular postage (3 cts. per half ouiicel, 10 ctr- 

Over 80,000 Howe Scales Sold.-Hawley 
Bros.' Hardware Co., General Agents, San 

To Kill Flirs and Otiibr Annovino Inskcts— "Buhacli, 
California grown Insect Powder, is a never-failing remedy 
sold by Druggists and Grocers everywherfi 

IJJnonnnn All lkttkrs should be addressed and 
A(l(ir6SSCS. drafts made payable to Dkwbv & Co. 

Anoell's Liver PiUs care rheumatism Bad headacbr. 

About Obtaining Patents. 

Patents are Virtually Contracts 
Between inventors and the public. The consideration flow 
ing from both parties to the contract is cxpiesely fixed by 
statute. The Government requires the following c jnsiuera- 
tion in every case: First, what an applicnt for a patent shall 
disclose a new and useful improvement, of which he is the 
first and origin al inv-entor. .Second, that the invention has 
not been patented, or published in a printed publication 
prior to the date of his ini)c/i.fio?i. Third, that the invtntiun 
has not been in public use, or on sale, more than two years 
prior to his application for a i a'.ent. Fourth, that the in- 
vtntion shall be properly de'?cribed and claimed m the speci- 
fication forming a part of thr patent. Prov'ded an inventor 
complies strictly with theee canditions, the Government 
guarantees that the inventor shall have the exclusive righ*- 
to make, use and sell the thing invented for the term of 
seventeen year^. 

The Patent Law provides that in case a patent, which is 
the evidence of the contract, is not executed iu compliance 
with the requirements ol the law, it may be annvxUed and 
rendered void. Hence, it is of the greatest importance to 
every inventor that his patent or contract be skillfully and 
accurately drafted, that it may afford bim complete protec- 
tion for his invention during the life of his parent. 
Secure a Good Patent. 
Ar inventor should first ascertain whether or not his im- 
provement has b2en patented o another. This requires an 
exhaustive search among all the patents in the class to which 
the invention relates. This question can often be answered 
gratuitously by us, immediately on receiving full information 
of the invention, by reason of our long and extensive prac- 
tice as patent solicitors and editors and publishers of first- 
class, scientific and industrial journals, during the past 20 
years and over. When the question of priority of invention 
is not so readily to be determined, it is generally best to 
make what is termed a "preliminary exam nation," by search- 
ing through the patent ottice reports amoug the patents in 
the class to which the invention relates, and referring to our 
extensive patent library, containing compilations of special 
classes of American ann foreign inventions, mechanical dic- 
tionaries, scientific encyclopedias, files of scientific and me- 
chanical newspapers, and an immense number of patent ap- 
plications by inventors of the Pacific coast, carefully filed by 
ihis office since 1860. 

If, by this "preliminary examination," the improvement Ls 
found to have been previously invented, our clitnt will re- 
ceive, for the small sum of S5 for the cxa TiiLation, a verbal 
or wi-itten report showing definitely whereby his invention 
has been anticipated, thereby saving him further expense 
and perhaps much time, useless delay, anxiety, etc. 

To avoid all unnecessary delay, howeve in securing pat- 
ents at the earliest moment practicable, inventors will do 
well to forward a model, drawing or sketcli, with a plain, 
full and comprehensive description of their invention (stat- 
ing distinctly what the particular points of improvement 
are), with $15 as a first installment of fees. If the im- 
provement appears to us to be novel and patentable, the 
necessary papers for an application ft)ra patent will be pre- 
pared immediately, atd forwarded to the inventor for his 
signature. When the inventor receives the application and 
finds it duly prepared, be will carefully eign and rtturn the 
same plainly addressed to us, with postal money order or ex- 
press receipt for our own fee. The cate will then be 
prompt'y ttled by us in the Patent Office, ano vigorously 
prosecuted to secure the best patent possible. fThis course 
is the most expeditious and patisfactory, as no time is lost 
iu tiansmitting correspondence relative to the preliminary 
steps to be taken. 1 When »he patent is allowed the inventor 
will be duly notified, and on sending the final Government 
fee of .^20 to us, we will order the issue of the patent, and 
forward the same as soon is it ia secured from the Patent 

The payments are thus divided and made easy. We make 
no pretence of doing cheap work, in order to entice custom, 
nor do we afterward make additional charges to bring the 
bill up to a fair compensation. We do our work honestly 
and thoroughly, and we nevtr give a case up as long as there 
8 a chance to obtain a ratent. The Agency charge is from 
$25 to $30, or Bomit'mes more, if the invention is intricate 
complicated, or requires much labor. Draw ngs cost 
fr jm $0 upward, according to thtir numl)er and the time 
employed, and, if a model is sp-nt. the express charges upon 
this and the papers must be added. The total cost, in addi- 
tion to Government fees, rarely exceeds $40. and for this we 
do all we can without appeaMng the case. 

When the iuveoticu consist' of a u'^w article of manufact- 
ure, or a new composition, samples of the separate ingredi- 
ents sufficient to make tho experiment and also of the man- 
ufactured article itself, must be furnished. 

Models and Drawings. 

Models are now seldom required by the Commissioner of 
Patents, and generally only in intricate cases. Perfect 
drawings of practical woi king machines are considered more 
satisfactory to the Patent Office than the old and more 
cumbersome system of stoiing up an immense bulk of al- 
most numberiefs models. 

Drawings or sketches, sufficient to illustrate clearly the 
invention, with a sufficient description to enal-li ua to make 
a full set of perfect drawings for the Patent Otfi.e is all 
that we require. A model will answer our pu-pose as well 
however, in cases where the inventor can more easily fur- 
nish it for our use. 
Tho value and even tho validity of a patent often depends 
1 the character, clearness and sufficiency of its drawings. 
There are thousands of existing patents in which Ihe im- 
provements are but partially or very poorly illustrated in the 
drawings. When au attempt is made to dispose of such j at- 
en's, the vagueness and defects of tl»e drawings often preju- 
dice capitalist'^ and manufacturers agaiust the ibVeutiou, 
wliile in reality it may be of great value, and would meet 
with ready sale had the invention been fully pcjrtr^yed by 
artistic and skillfully executed drawings. Again, when pat- 
ents of this character are brought into court, the uncertainty 
and ambigu ty of the drawings enable the opposing experts 
to mystify the judges as to the construction or combination 
of parts intended to be covered by the natentee. In all 
cases prepared by ua, the drawings are made under our per 
aonal Eupeivision, by skilled draftsmen in our constant em- 
p'oy, and every precaution is taken that the invt-ntion is 
fully and cleaily shown by different views, so that the im- 
provemeLt will bo readily undtrstood by tho Fiamiuers in 
the Patent OUice, and comprehended by the public when 
the patent la grouted. 

In the Patent Ofiflce 

The appHcftt'o" assigned to tbe Examiner having charge 
of the which tbe.fnvention relates. The case must 

then take its turn with others in the order of filing, and In 
due time is carefully examined to test the novelty of the ia 
vention. If the examiner fails to find anything that antici- 
pates the inventi'iu, a patent is immediately allowed, pro- 
vided the specific ition and claims are drafted in proper form. 
Should the Kxaminer find a prior patent whi«.h, in his opin 
ion, anticipates one or more of the claims in the application, 
a Ittter of rejection is sent to the attorney in charge of th 
case; and, if the att-jroey c jincides with the views of the Kx 
amioer, the claims rejecttd are erased. In preparing appli 
cations fur paten's, an attorney should be careful tj fa mil 
iarize himself with the class of iuveutions to which the ap- 
plication pertains, so that the specifi atiou and claimc may 
be drafted as neariy perfe.t in the first, iLstiuce as is pos 
sible. This course saves much time in prosecuting the ap 
plication tj a patent. 

When ' laims are improperly i-ejec«ed on patents which do 
not anticipati the spirit o«- wording of the claims, proper 
steps are immedia'ely taken to convince the Examiner of 
his error. This is done, in most part, by personal arguments 
as the cliff e.-ences in construction, operation, function and 
results are more rea 'ily discovered and appreciated by an 
oral presentation of the facts than can possibly be d me by 
relying solely on written arguments. In order that the 
Patent Office record of the patents shaU be complete, an 
oral argument is generally supplemenved by a manuscript 
brief, that others, in examining the files at any future time, 
may clearly comprehend the position taken by tue Examiner 
and attorney in prosecuting the casa to patent. 

In addition to our own personal attention to the interest 
of our clients here, we have, for ovcr 12 years past, had con 
staotly in association with us iu Washington, one of th? 
soundest legal counselors and ablest of practitioners in pat- 
ent business in this country, who carefully attends in person 
to our business at the Patent Office, ai.d has attained 8Uf> 
cess iu a most marked degree. 

Perfect Claims. 
The value and force of a patent are dependent on ita 
claims. A patent mpy disclose to the public the most im- 
portant and valuable invention, and yet the claim he of 
such meager scope that the patent is actually worthless. 
When the claims of a patent are so loosely drafctd that in- 
fringers can fiood the market with improvements, differing 
from the improvement disclosed by the patent only in sh'ght 
changes in construction and arrangements of parts, such a 
patent ia valueless to the owner, as it fails to afford him 
that exclusive and complete protection guaranteed by the 
Patent Law. Hence it is that the greatest care skill and 
perseverance are required, first, in properly drafting the 
claims in the first instance, and second, in prosecuting the 
application V)efore the Patent Office, and maintaining the 
rights of the inventor to claims as broad and sweeping as 
the invention will warrant. This latter is no easy task. The 
Examiners of the Patent Office lerve in the capacity of at 
torneys guarding the interests of t e public. It is their 
sworn duty to exercise the greatest care and watchfuluefs. 
that patentees do not secure claims of greater scope than 
they are justly entitled to. It is but natural that Examiners 
are sometimes in error as to just what tcopp shou.d be ac- 
credited au invention. Although the Examiners act under 
honest convic-ions in cases where they refuse an inventor 
bis just rights, yet it is tne duty of the attorney to maintain 
the claims of his client, if he is convinced that they are just 
and proper. To succeed in this requires the display of tact 
firmness and ability; and when the Examiner is made to sea 
that the inventor is honestly and fairly entitled to the claims 
which have been rejected, he will almost invariably recede 
from his former action, and allow the case. 

Advantages to Inventors on the Pacific 

The firm of Dkwf.y k Co. (continuously editors and pub- 
lishers of the MiNiNd AND Scientific Press, nearly from 
its early commencement in 1S60) offer comparatively far 
better facilities to the local inventors of the Pacific States 
and Territories than are posessed by any other agents in 
America. Members of the firm give personal attention to 
the applications entrusted to their care. They have been 
longer in practice ia patent soliciting than most agi nts who 
are still personally engaged in the bnsineas. They have 
secured more U. S. and foreign patents in the past 20 years 
(with very few exceptions) than any other firm still existing. 
Their practice has bc:n so successful anO long continued, 
that the greU majority f inventions on this side of tho 
American continent have been patented through their 
agency, thus affording them great and valuable experience, 
by thorough informa-tion of the true principles and points of 
novelty in the invention;^, whether general in character or 
peculiarly local to this coast. 

The extensive Vmainess combination and experience of this 
firm, is undoubtedly one of the most fortunate in existence 
for affording inventors prompt and reliable advice, and the 
best possible facilities for secv-ring their full patent rights 
with safety and dispatch at unifurinly reasonable rates. 

Every patentee of a worthy invention is guaranteed the 
gratuitcua publicat on of a clearly stated and correct de- 
scription of his invention, in one or more of our infiuontial 
and reliable newspajiers. affording just the circulatif)n tbat 
is best calculated to widely inform the class of readers mos 
specially interested iu the .subject of his invention. 
Saving of Time Etc. 

Inventors on this coast will find that owing to our famil- 
iarity with inventions and local atfairs of this coast, we can 
more readily and fully comprehend their wants, and thus 
save much of the time ordinarily consumed in preliminary 
writing back and forth wh' n distant agencies are employed. 


A Caveat is a confidential communication made to the 
Patent Office, and is therefore filed within its secret archives. 
The privilege secured under a caveat is, that it entitles tho 
caveator to receive notice, for a period of one year, of any 
application for a patent subsequently filed, and which is ad 
judged to be novel, and ia like'y to interfere with the in- 
vention described in the caveat, and the caveator ia then re- 
quired to complete his applicatioQ for a patent within three 
months from the date of said notice. Caveat papers should 
be very carefully prepared. Our fee for the service varies 
from .^;10 to $20. The Government fee Is $10 additional. 

To enable ua to prepare caveat papers, we only require a 
sketch and description of the invention 

Rejected Applications. 

Inventors who have rejected cases (prepared either by 
themselves, or for them by other agents), who desire to ascer- 
tain their prospects of success by further effort?, are invited 
to avail themselves of our unrivaled facilities for securing 
favo able results. We have b.'cn huc ce.^sful in securing Let- 
ters Pat' nt in many previously aViandoned cases. Our terms 
are always rfasonablo. 

Inventors who co business with us will be notified of the 
Fta'e of thi ir application in the Patent Office, when it is pos- 
sible for us to do so. 

Patent Solicitors. Office of Mining andScientipio Press, 
252 Market St. Elevator entrance, No. 12 Front St., 8. F. 



pAeiFie f^URAL PRESS. 

[January 5, 1884 

Seeds. Plants, Etc. 


H, M. TOOL. 



(All [.(.■riiliiijr \ Hiictio).), 

ROi>rKI> (iUAIMA IXKS (Spl. St.i. k). 

I'livi.i.Dxr.KA i im; i:i;ai'I.\ inks, 


KKNTISH ( OB l ll.BEliT, 


No Irrigation ! No Insect Pests ! 

Send for C'atalnjruc. 


Napa Citt, 


Make Your Vineyards Permanent. 

Resistant Vines the Only Safety. 

variotii-s of \im's and cuttings, all i,'ro« n in the State, 
fresh ami liealtv: 

RIparia. Elvira, Taylor, Clinton, ni<B8onri 
Rieslinuf and t'hiand, Lenoir. I1erb«- 
mont, Cyntliiana, Norton's Virt;inia. 

Also, rooted \ ines of the followiriic \'inifera varieties: 

Zlnfandol. (^ueen Victoria, li<iN<)ela>i Rote, 
Biacit Burgundy and otiiera. 

Price list and cirenlars sent on aiij>lioation. Address, 

Talciis VixEVARi), Najia, C'al 


Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, 

J2ver\ thinff in the N'ursery line, at the 

Capital Nurseries 


Our stock, esiwcially of Fruit Trees, is umisital]> Iari,'e 
this season, emoraoin^f all the IcwUng- varieties ami quiti- 
a numher <if new kinds known ti> he very valuable. Our 
block lieulth\ and 


And will he sold at rciluued ])rifcs, in lar^'c <ir yinall lots. 

Descriptive Cataio<,nie on apidiciition. X^rf See our stiii;k 
hefore purchasing- elsewhere. We d<> not tliink I'ur stuck 
or prices can be l>eaten on the ctiast. 

^g'Correaponiiencc solicited. Address, 

W. R. STRONG & 00 , 



W. R. STRONG & CO , Sacramento, Cal. 

Our Stock is Fresh and Pure ! 
Our Prices are the Lowest for Equal Quality. 

\\"e«[Ll, SOT SK1.I. (lU I'XllKT.IABLK Skkds. Alfalfa 

and other (-"low ers and Grass Seeds are niatle Specialties, 
and can be furnished in ear-load lots or in small quanti- 
ties, as desired. We arc also ^ivin^ extra attention to 

Small Seeds, Vegetable, Flower, Etc., 

Which \\c are putting up in pai-kt ts liy the ounce and 
pound, and will forward by mail, PKKi'Ain, at our retail 
price list, exeei>t the heavy, coarse varieties, for whieh 
postage will be eharj^ed. 

if*" n\ir Descriptive and Price t'atalo(,'ucs f<ir 1SS4 an- 
now ready, and will be foi-wariled free itn application. 

Fruit and Produce Merchants. 

We make a Specialty in handlinf^ (Jreen and Dried 
Fruits, Nuts, Honey, and General Farm I'roilnee. 


THOMAS' nurseries! 

The Tjargest and Finest Trees in the State of their aj,'e 
by 20%. Warrantwl free of all insects and true to name. 
Don't have to be parboiled in concentrated i)ot.ash before 

Nectarines, Peaches & Apricots a Specialty. 
49" Send for Cataloffue and I'rici' List. 

I. II. TlluMAS, Visalia, Cal. 


Large Ml of Vigorons, Well Grown 

Tilt: i:ir.T VAliiKTlBS. 


Santa Rosa. Cal. 


Established 1858. 
olTerfor s.ale a ircncral a..sortincnt of Fruit Trees, 
grown without irri^'ation, thrifty , and free fr.'ni scale bujfs, 
woolly aphis and .)tlicr fruit tree pests. Also. Ornamental 
Trees, Shmlis, Plants, etc. Blue and Red liums, Monte- 
rey Pine» and Cypress, transjilanttHl in boxes. Standard 
Roses, etc. Prices given on application. 

W. H. PEPPER, Petaluma. 
Petaluma, Cal., August 1, 1S83. 

250,000 ROOTED VINES. 

And also cutting's of the followini; varieties: Matero, 
Grenache, CarrigTian, Carbenet, Chabenau, Trinturicr| 
Trousseau, Grey itiesling, Rurjfer, Sauvi;,'non, Hlano Klbe[ 
Chasaolaa llose, Gordo Blanco, Sultana, Muscat, Kqso 

run, Zinfandel, Malvoisc, and other choice varieties. 

M, PF\if : ■ . Fresno, C»l, 

Wager Peach & Kieflfer Hybrid Pear! 

We offer a lar>,'e stock of the abo% e new frtiits, tosjether with all the leading varieties of 



We are the first to grow the WAGKK and KIEFKER on this Coast. PRICES LOW. 

A....... BELL & McMANAMON, 

Corner Tenth & Jackson Sis. 

Oakland. California. 



GARDEN , , ^ ^ ■ . FLOWER 





New Crop Alfelfa, Grass, and Clover Seeds now Arriving in Lai^e Quantities and 
Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 

Hedge Shears, Pruning and Budding Knives, Green-House Syringes, Etc. Also 

Wilson's Bone and Shell Mills and Hale's Mole Traps. 

SEED WAREHOUSE: 317 Washington St, San Francisco, Cal. 







400,000 TK/EES 

Of 1003-04 


Apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, French and Hungarian 
Prunes, Plums, Figs, and Cherries. Cypress, Gums, Acacias, 
Ornamental Plants and Shrubs, Roses, Green- 
house I'laiits, Etc., Etc. 

All Thrifty. Strong Growth, FREE from Scale or Aphis. 

(STT^n \t»r r«nt . DiMCoant ean be reserved on all orders accompanied by the 
cash received before Ukcembkk Ist. LIBERAL RATES TO UKALEliS. 


P. O. BOX 175. Fresno City, Cal. 






Do You Want Clean, Healthy TREES Without Bugs? 




1 make the raising of stock Beet Seed a si>ei ialt\ . and 
now hav e on hanil a ehoii-e lot of Lonj; lleil Mangel Seed 
(crop of l,ss3), which 1 offer for gale at the following rates: 

Bj mail (postatte paid) .',(> cts. i)er 11.. 

By express (under In Ihs ) 3.') ets. |ier Hi. 

By express (10 ll.s. or more) i'l cts. i>cr Bi. 

My Seed is warranted Krksii, 1>i rk, and Tri K to Namk, 
srown on selected, transplanted and highly culti- 
vated roots. (;alifornia seed is brighter and better 
matured than Eastern, and costs 4ii per cent. less. it does not |«y to seinl l':ast for Seed. I am 
aware that much had seed (volunteer) has been placed 
ufion the market to the detriment of liotli consumers and 
jiroiluocrs. Jly Beet Seed has now been in the maikut 
for four years, and has an established reputation for ex- 
celleiii e throughout the I'aiille States, and to some ex- 
tent in the Western .States. 

I send Ei Li, I'lii.MKn Dirkctionk with every onler, 
telling how to plant and tend the croj.. 

iifsenii for my Circular on Beet Culture, 

mailed free to all. 

Every man who keeps cows or hogs should raise beets; 
theti are llie farmers' liett paying crop, both for milch 
cows and for fattening stock. 

Sums of or less may be sent in stamps (.I or 10 cent) 
.at my risk; larger amounts in ]iostal notes or bv express. 


Napa, Cal. 

Trees! _ Trees! 

Wc offer for the season of lS8:i S4, a LARGE and SU- 
PERJOK stock of 


Of all the Leading Varieties of 
Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Prune, Necta- 
rine, Apricot, Cherries, Etc. 


Shrubs, Plants, Etc. 

No Trees grown from seed of cultivated varieties. We 
offer a limited imniber of Trees of our C'klkbratiid Caii- 
KORNiA Pkacm at *1 each, or S7& per hundred. 

/BT Catalogvies Sent on Application. 

0. W. REED & CO., 

VU)K 161. 


Sacramento, Cal. 

A Large Stock of 1 and 2-year-old PEAR TREES, Besides the usual Assortment, 

Some NEW and RARE Varieties of SPECIAL MERIT. 

Apple, Nectarine, Apricot, Peach, Plum, and Prune in Lots to Suit. 



Address HiDES^V^TIS cfc "R A rtP, 

Fresno, California. 


lESTABLlSllKD I.V LSj-i-.W. ] 

Offers this aca«(m some new and rare Fruit Trees, all well 
grown and healthy, eoniprising .lapan I'lums, Apricots in 
!."> varieties. Pr>ar8 New Hj brid Apricot. "CalilorDla," 
price SV) each. I'ryal e new Peaeh, "Coast Pearl;" Pryal's 
new Pcaeh, "l>r. Uibbons;" Pryal's new Strawberry, 
"Oakland Cadet." Apples. 1 and i year old; Pears, i 
years; Cherry, 1 .\ear, small growth; '.iO,(XiO Kasfiberry 
plants; Lancashire bellow Chamjiagnc Gooselwrry. 
This ( Jooseberrv ne\ er mildews, and bears immense crops 
fruit sold in Oakland the )>ast season at i'l cents per lb. 
2.''>,iKiO Cherries in bud. Farmers and others about to 
plant Apricot orchards will do well to consult the under- 
signed, for he has the varieties best ailapted for market 
and canning pur])08es. Address, A. 1>. PllVAL, North 
Temescal, Alameda Co., C^l. 

I 8th Year, ff^ 

<ti- I 65 Acres 


The Largest and Most Complete Stock on the 
Pacific Coast. 

Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees! 


Clematis and Flowering Plants. Ma(;nol'as, and 
Semi-Tropical Plants, 
small fruits, grapev nes, etc. 

Also, luany New Varieties Kieffer llyhriil, Lef'onte and Sou>enir du ( Cngres Pear, Wager Peaeh, St. Abroise 
Apricot, Silver Prune, Kclsey .lapan Plum, Praj,iarturicn8 (I>warf Prolilie) Walnut, etc. 

Trees arc well grown by e.x|>cricnccd men, on new soil, and arc 


An In.«pection is Solicited. 

itiTAIl those intending to plant trees will find it to their interest to come and exanuiie our stock and inform 
themselves of our prices. 


Will be scut as follows: No. 1 -Fruits, tinipeiino^, Hurries, et •., :!c. .No. 1 Ornameutal Trees, Shruhs,, eti .,:!c 


KelfTer's Hybrid Pear, 

Russian Mulberry. 

The Kuirliest and H.-.t .Market Iterrv. 


As lartre as the Cherry Currant, better (la\ or, anil lice 
tiiiien an jiriMliirtiite. ;f.r S]peeial circular sent frt:c. Write 
for it and for full descriptive illustrated catalO)jrue of lari^ 
and small fruits of all kinds, .\ddrcss, 

C. M. SILVA & SON, Newcastle, California. 

S 1884ft 

tlieir intei-est to plant our Early 
^eed Corn, Potatoes, and (Jar- 
^^^^^^^^^^^^ den S'*cd this eomin;; Sprinff. For 
.''0 cents in *i-cent stamps, wc will 
send to any aililress, by mail prepaid, i |H>unds either 
variety selected seed corn. Mammoth Yellow King, 
Golden Yellow, Chester C.iunt.\' Y'ellow', Lcamini;, Nor- 
mandy White, Cliam|iion White or White Pearl. From 
the above varieties we have received better rc|iorts the 
l>ast two years aiul more first premiums than any house 
in the I'liited States. Price for either variety by express 
or freinhl. purchaser to pay all chartres: 1 puck. 7. S cents; 
1 bushel. SJ.40; •> bushels, ^.M; bushels, .<10; sample 
any variety , 10 cents. Satisfattion tiuarantccil. 

<3^C.\rit,oai K free. 



H\YES & CO., 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 

San jose, 






Timothy, Clc er, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red I ip, 
Blno Gnss, LaT^ Srasc, Cr:h::d Cra:e. Bi:l Scidt, tc. 
.15. "7&"9Kin2ieSi. O^^'", US Kinzie St., 
104,10$, p^a^woMichif^anSt. ^HIQAOQ* ILI., 



A sample box of 100 Blue or Med (aim Trees, 8 to 14 
inches hi^h, will be sent to any addres-s on re<-ci| t of ^il.s.'i 
in stamps, or one 1k)x of Montci-cy Cypress Trees, t> to 10 
inches, trsnsjilanted, for #1.50 in staui|>s. All fresh, 
licalth.f and hardy stock. Cvpress seed at low rates. 

Dwi),'ht W»y I"ark Nursery, East Berkeley. 


Raised at the Layhodie Nurseries, in the foothills, 
without irrigation. Sound and thrifty, and free from 
pests. Frcui-h Prune, Orepon Silver Prime, German 
Prune, Moorpark Apriuot, Bartlett and Winter Nellis 
Pears. In lots to suit. Liberal discount to the trade. 


San Joae, CaL 


Wild Riparia Cuttings 

W.50 and $7.50 per 1,000, 

PPATES A TOOL. Napa C\ty, C()l 

fAeiFie I^URAL f RESS. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

Cuthbert or Queen of the Market 


Best Market Berry KnowQ. 

Laryfc, Finn ami Luscious, stands tra\X'l finely, lioars 
mmcnsfly, anil lias two crops a year. 



Great Rearer and Largest Stra\vl)erry Grown 
Pkicks— Raspberries, 10 cts. each, 20 fur ¥1, S4 per 100. 
Strawberries, 30 cts. tor 10, $2 ))er 100. 

L. U. McCANN. 

Santa Cruz, Gal 

15 TONS 

New Australian Perennial 


NoTK.— This is the Jiiauiext aiid ftnext lot of Perennial 
Hue Grass ever received in tliis niacket, and is rapidly 
being secured by those who have seen it. It is now well 
known by dairymen and lar^'e ranchmen that the Rye 
Grass .<i»y>a».w« eiierii other mrici y for J'ei-iihiij piirpnufs, 
and all should call early and examine this lot, the price 
of which will be unprecedentedly losv until surplus stock 
is reduced. 


Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 

And Proprietor of the 
For Poviltry. 
42.J W.-igliit>(f(on Street, San Francisco. 


Importers, growers of, wholesale aud retriil dealers m 





A Descriptive Price List of Veobtabi.k, Floweu, Field 
and TuEK Sheds. 

607 Sansome St.. - - San Francisco. 

Fruit Trees for Sale. 

A very large and fine stock of FRUIT TREE', embracing all the leading varieties of Apple, Pear, Peach, Apricot 
Prune, Plum, Gherrlee, Small Fru tB, etc., etc. A large assortment of Suade and Ornomantal Trees, Shr.ibberj 
Vines, Plants, et;. All thrifty and well grown. 

The Kelsey Japan Plum and White French Gooseberry our Specialties. 


New Fruits, Roses, Clematis, Etc., on the Pacific Coast. 


DEPOT— Cor. Ninth and CUy StB., Oakland. Send for Ct^taloBUe and .-tIcob to 

W. p. HAMMON & CO., 

864i Broadway, ... - OAKLAND. CAL, 

SHIKTKT eft? CO., 

Niles, Alameda Co. Calitornia, 


A Well-Grown, Healthy Stock of FRUIT, NUT and SHADE TREES. 

/CS" These trees are free from Insect Pests, and have been ^'rown without summer irrigation, .\ddrcss 

SHINN & CO., Nlles, Alameda Co., Cal. 


f. Seed 


In postage stamps or money 
we will send by mail one 
nackaae eaoh of the foUow- 
iug new Seeds: Japanese 
JN t:sr-ji;<iti *jroURi), a beau- 
tiful climbing plant; fruit 
valuable for nest-eggs. 

GOLliKN D \ WN M.\N(JO. 

rao^t beautiful pepper ever 
seen. Osrvit Wilde Sun- 


HON Melon, the tinestand 
.-iv^eetest muskmelou in the 
wiirld. Etemi'Ks Bright Red 
, iM,vMM()TH TMimpkin; seed 
imp jrtedfrom Franee; excel- 
lent for pies. Hklianthi's 
l3oRONH'on>Ks. a beautifid 
foliage plant, literally amass 
1 ill bloom. Two collections for 50 cents. ^^^Our 
ite<l Seed Catalogue free. !«A]I|I'I-:L WIL* 
(Jrower. Mechanicsville, Bucks To., Pa. 

Will Jic mnilcd pppp tO all applicants and to 
ctistomcrs of last rlltL year without ordering it. 
It contains illustrations, prices, descriptions and 
dirrrtion'; for i>!autini; all VcKctabh; and Flower 
Seed-^ I'laiii^ .u iitvaliianie to all. 



Grape Cuttings and Rooted Vines 

Of 250 \'arietic8, for Sale at the 


Sen.! for Cativlos-ijo F. T. BISEN, 



I.Mi'ORTER, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 



Australian Kye Grass, Timt)th_>- and Orchard Crass, Kcntuck}- Blue Grass, Hungarian Millet 

Grass, lied Top, Ktc. , Etc. 
Also a L.are:e an<1 Choice Collection of FRUIT and ORNAItlENT/lL. TREKS. 
Budding and Pruning Knives, Greenhimse Syringes, Hedge and Pole Shears. 
P. O. Box 205!). TBOS. MBHHRIN. 51« Battery St-. San Fran isco. 



J". I^. S^TV^ESEKTESY dfe 00-, 



All Kinds of Field acd Garden Seeds, at Reduced P.- ices, in La^ge Quantities 

Alfalfa, Red and White Clover; Australian, Italian and English Eye Grass; Blue Grass, Lawn, 
Orchard: Mesquite, Red Top and Timothy Seed; California Forest and Evergreen 
Tree Seeds. Also Fruit and Ornamental Trees, at Lowest Prices. 

«^ A Large Quantity of Evergreen Millet Seed on Hand. 


Nos. 409 and 411 Davis St., - - San Francisco, Cal. 

My Vegetable and Flowor Seed Cafaloeriie for 
tlie reMiilt ut* thirty jfurs' vxperleiiec hh a 
Seed <irowep, will l>e Mciit tree to nit who upply. 
All my Seed Im warnniti'd to be trcMh ittid true to 
inline. HO turf hut should it prove otIierwiHef 1 ug^rec 
ta retlll ordrrw j;riLn»>. My folleetloii of vegetable 
Sfi-d, out- of the most t'.\teii»*i vo to hv found in any 
Aiiierkcan Catuloifue, Ih a larffe part of It of in^- 
iiwn erowinir- Af* the orltzhial Introdueer 4»f 
KcHpHe Iteet, Rurl»»nk PotutoeM* Murbleheud 
Karly t'ot-ii, the Hubbard S(|uhmIi, and seoret* of 
new \ ecetuMeM, 1 {ll^ i1ethe putroiiuice of the pub- 
I the irurdenM iiiid on th«- fitriiiN of IIiohi' who plant 
d \\\\\ be found my beHt udvertiHfuient. 

H. GREGORY. Seed Grower. Marblehead. Mass. 



of ,\I,L I'LANTS, for ALT, CROPS, for AI-I, CLl- 
'>IATF,S. All are tested; only the beet scut out. 
<;rniii niul Fnrin Seed J»I mum 1 ; History and best methoasf 
of l ultmo of Grams, Root Cro]>B. Grasses, Fodder Crops, Tr< c « 
PlantiDl-', etc. only lOrtM. Ammal Catalogue and Vrice Lisi cl pQOR SEEDS. 
po\-cr;]l tlionsaiid \arioties, FltEK. _^ . , 




The only csfabliKhnient making a SPECIAL 
for ROSES alone. We deUvi r Strontc Pot Plants, 
BuitaWo for innnediate bloom, Hal'cly by mail, postpaid. 
5 splendid yaric ties, your choice, all labc-leil, forSI; 
|2fors2; l9forS3; 26forS4; 351'orS5; 75for 
CIO: too for 813. Wo GIVE AWAY, in Pre- 
miums and Extras, more ROSES than most cs. 
tablishmcnts (rrow. Our NEW GUIDE, a ,„mplrfe 
Trealiseon lh<-ltosf,iaii\>xlega7ilh/ill>i«lral,,l— /rrr loall 

Bom Glowers, West Grove, Chester Ca.,Fa> 


I offer for sale a general assortment of 


Grown without irrigation, sounil, thrifty and free from all 
pests, consisting of Hoft-Suki.i, WALXUTri, Ai'iilcoTs, 
I'KACiiKS, I'RUNKrt, Nkct.arixks, I'Li sfs, etc. ApHcots for 
eannlng and dryiiiK' and Soft-Shell Walnuts a spcoialtj-. 
Prices itlven on application. Address 

.roSKPH SFA'TON. floleto, t<ftnl'i\ Barbarn Co,, Cal, 


Growers, Importers, Wholesale 
and Retail Dealers in 


FREE TO APPLICANTS -Our Descriptive Illus- 
trated Catalogue of Seeds, Trees, Plants, etc. 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. P. 

H. H. BERGER & CO., 

Importers of ami De.ilers in 


and Seeds, 


Caniplior Trec^s, Persinmions, 
Camellias, Bamboos, 

Ornamental Trees and 
Shrubs, etc., etc. 


317 Washington Street, S. F. 
[p. 0. BOX, 1501.1 



III' TIIH l y-MtlliTTKS : 

Grey Reisling, Fahr Zagoes, Zinfandel, Malvoise, Tros- 
seau. Golden Chasselas, Blou Elba, Burger, 
lilaek Hamburg, Muscatel de 
(lordo Blanco, Malaga. 

itarPriccs LOWER than ever offered for the quality of 
Cu ttings. 

Fresno, Cal. 



A large stock of extra one-yi%ar budded trees, from five 
to ten feet; mostly well branelied, stocky, good rooti 
nicely dug. Root pruned. No Scalk. Embracing the 
best varieties of Apricot, Peach, and Nectarine, for can 
ning and <lryins. Liberal inducements offered to th 
trade. Rates given when ap])lied for. 

W. R. INGHAM & SON. Office address, San Bernardino, San Bernardino 
County, Ca 1. 



100,000 FRUIT TREES. 

Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Prune, Nectarine, Engli... 
Walnut. (Cherry, and Apricot trees; also Orange trees 
rooted Gra])cvines, Evergreens, etc. The above trees akk 
I'RKK FROM DisF.ASKOR lNsi5CT8,and avc well grown. 

1300 BHXE"t ofgood W''rruii ArpyBS for. sal 
Sen'; for Price List and Catalogue. Address , (~. 

_ -JB - .J MItTON THOMAS. Proprietor] 
TP, 0, BoxSH pos Angeles, r>l, 


I am now ready to supply licorice plants at the follow- 
ing prices, sent by mail or express: 

Per dozen plants 5:2 00 

Per ina " P2 00 

Per 1,000 " 100 00 

Florin, Sacramento County, Cal. 


THOS. A. GAREY, Agent, 

Now offer at wtioiesale and retail Prune. Praeh, Necta- 
rine, Apricrit and Jlartlelt /'ear Trent; Oranrie, Lemon 
and hnne Trees; OLIVE TREES AXii cmTNGS; all lirst- 
class trees. We make a specialty- of Senii-Tropie Trees. 
Descriptive catalogue and price list on application, free. 
Address THOS. A. GAREY, Agent, 

(P. O. Box 4.-)2.) Los Angeles. Cal. 

New and Rare Ferns of Arizona. 

.1. G. Lennnnn ajid wife, on their late Botanical Ex. 
ploration of Arizona, succeeded in obtaining li\ e plants 
of se\ eral of the Rare Ferns previonsly discovered by 
them. They offer Strong Growing Plants for SI each. 
Call or address, LEMMON IIERBARUIM, 1205 Franklin 
Street, Oakland, Cal. 



D. W. McLEOD, 

Riverside, Cal. 



Also, Muscatello Gordo Blanco and Zlnfan 
del. Rooted Vines and Cuttings. 

J. Q. A. CLARK. 

Woodland, Cal. 



From the Zinfaii,lel, ( 'linrboru^au, (Jrey Piiiot, Malvoise, 
and Muscat of Alexandria, in lots to suit. These cuttings 
are from a young \ incyard, and arc guaranteed free from 
ilisease and true to n;ime. Addres, 

L. G. BURPEE, 910 Filbert St., Oakland, Cal. 

or J. L. BEARD, Centerville, Cal. 


For Sale at $7.50 per thousand, f. o. b. Send your 
orders soon to the 
\H liCveo street, StocHtop, pM. 



[January 5, 1884 




Can be put on any 
Harrow by any person 
making Harrowing the 
easiest work on the 

Excelsior Harrow Raiser, $3. 

Hard Work Made Easy. 

A> ■ ' ■ ■ ' ■■ I i'iii.' till ilic cord, can 




Rcdiaeil from S'Jlo to M.ailc i ithcr witli liisidf ..r Outside Urake; lio.\ cut 

down in front, as cut ftbi>\c, or made simare. Leather Ifasli, Knameled Cloth 
C\ishions, Lazy Backs on both seats, Drop End tiate, Sarvin Patent Wheels, Neck 
Yoke and Doubletrees. Nicely painted and best farmers' waiton on the (;oast. 


"Milburn" Hollow Iron Wagon. 

Ask your Merchant for it, or Order direct from us. 


Edwards' Lightning Jump-Seat Vehicles. 

Bui^'^'ics of all kinds from !<100 to *100. 

STEAM ENGINES Portable and Stationary. 


AOENTS WANTED in each Cou: ty in 
tlie State, .'-'i s per day made by live Agents. 
We furnish the Hub only. 


And all Other Kinds of 

On HiUid and Made to Order. 




72 5-8 


All Iron and Steel. Takes any-sized Teeth. 


la TiiK 

; Farmer's Favorite Harrow. 

,t<- Sr . t!ii< ll;rrr'J« lu-fon v.M hi -1 ^^^ ■ .1 in r, ■fpt 


.o7—.. I TRUMAN, ISHAM & CO.,! 3. 

' 509 and 511 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO. / 



Wholesale and Commission Dealers in 


Nuts, Honey, Raisins, Oranges and Produce. 


■ rati-d iiiidiT the La«> of f]ii- siiiti- ..f i iilif, 

CAPITAL STOCK, $250,000, in 10,000 SHARES. PAR VALUE, $25 EACH. 

US A portion of this stock been retained for sale among fruit and produce grow crs and driers, insuring to 
them a participation in th,: prolits on tlio ultimate sale of their c"Tisi).'nnicnts, and a full knowlcil),'c of the business. 
Subscriptions to the stock m\y be m.nk- by mail or ;it the olHcc of tin' coin|i.iny, 

408 and 410 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
N. K. MASTEN. Pres t. M. T. BREWER. Manager. C. B. JENNINGS. Treas- 

W. C. BL.\t'KWOuI), Fruit Crower, Haw 
W. W. ('()ZZEX.S, p'ruit (irower, San .los. 
M. T. BKKWEK, late .M. T. Brewer & Co. 
ROBKKT HOWE, late Howe & Hall. 
A. W. BltYAXT, ( hica^'O, III. 


CHAS. H. .IK.NMNtiS, Sail Francisco. 
.lOH.S KLEINHANS, late A. Lusk & Co 
N. K. .MASTE.X. San Francisco, 
c. SAVILLE, New York. 

To Setllers and Land Purchasers, 


The undersigi!ed lias for sale choice land in the celebrated Artesian Belt of Tulare County, 
n 20 acre lots, at 

To parties who will make immediate improvements, four years' credit will be allowed, at a 
comparatively low rate of interest. The land is situated within four to five miles of Tulare City. 
The soil is of a character easily tilled, and of very rich and durable quality. It is of the first 
grade for raising Alfalfa, Fruits, Raisin and Wine firapes, and the location is healthy and de- 
sirable. The land is very level and easy of irri^.ation. Come and see, or address, 

J. M. CREIGHTON, Proprietor, 

Tulare, Tulare County, Cal. 

P. S. — Correspondence is solicited with parties who would like to form neighborly settle- 
ments or colonies, to whom land and artesian water will be furnished in one of the most central 
and desirable sections of the artesian belt, as my land is for sale on the most favorable of terms, 
in quantities of from 20 to 5,000 acrea. 






In order to induce cver>" one to 
ffivc our seeds a trial, we will ecnd 
by tnail, pf)st-i>aid, on rc<'cipt of 
<C1 firi oiii- 1 acka.'e each of the 
>J» I . UU, followins; -N'l;"- Varie- 
ties: Tlie Boas Walermelon, 
till sweetest and best market melon. 
^ Cuban (^mccn Waiermelon, 
;^ the laru'cst VVatcrmtlon prown; 
prize melons have wciu'licd from SO 
to 100 U.S. Leltut't. Yellow 
Seeiletl Butter, anewcabljapteva- 
-- ritty. l.t.i< nee— BIwi'k Heeded 
" S I inpsoii . New Amber Cream 
Sweet Corn, of dcli. Bwcct- 
: iicss: produced I,l-20(;..od ears from 
1- li t hills. Perfect Gem Siiungta, 
yield verj- lar^'C, as ninny as ^4 
' 8(iuashcs hciii;,' produced on"a sinfrle 
vine. Mntikmelon— Bay View. 
American Wonder Peas, the earliest fsweet Wrinkled Pea. Sun FrnntlHCO Market Cauli- 
flower, early: very larjie, pure white heads. I->rly Summer CabhuiTo- t!ii- host lar»e early Cabbaftc. 
Premium Klat Ou'cii t xMt-f;v. thche-t ln;;c, late varietica. fetfrctlon Uearlwell Celery, 
lar'n'e, solid, white, of the finest flavor. Blooms ijile I'earl Union, extra early, pure white. Turnip — 
Enrly Purple Top Itlun.rli. Hollow Crcwn Pargnlp, Ktllpite Ueet, the earliest blood 
turnip Beet. Daiiver'a II:tlf-Ion(; * « ruf, lust market variety. Perfection White Spine 
Cucuml>er. New BI:iyflow>-r T^nnato. Evergreen Millet, ne-.v forage plant. MAIluEO 
FREE— Cox's Seed Annual for 1384, the most complete catalogue ever published. A valu- 
able hook for every l-'armer and tianlcner. It contains desoripti<in and price of Veipetable, Flower, 
Field, Grass. Olover and Tree Seeds; Trci' and Flower Seeds native of the Pacific Coast; Austra- 
lian Tree and Shrub Seeds; Fruit Trees a<id Small Fruits— all the varieties best adapted for the 
P.acirio Caast. Many New and Rare Seels anrl Pinnts from Japan. iJTScnd for Nkw ''atalooi;k. Address- 

THOMAS A. COX & CO., 409 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 




We are offering lands ia 10, 20 and 40-acre Tracts, on EASY 

TERMS. These lands are suitable for Fruit, Alfalfa and other farm- 
ing. We have improved ranches, with and without water right. 
We have land in the Artesian Belt for sale on easy terms. We 
attend to all kinds of Land Business. Address, for full particulars, 

MILLER & KNUPP, Visalia, Cal. 

Sewing Machines. 
Several flrst-clasn styles, good as new, will bo sold a'; 
bujgain. Call on or addiets H. F. D., at thti ofiSce. 


rrlurn malK Full Pr^rrlptloa 
'Woody's New Tailor Atystem of 

Dross Cutting HOUUV * 10, I'IdcIouU, 0, 

Business Offices and Sunny Rooms to Let. 

We have some desirable rooms to let adjoinin(,' the 
olllcesof this paper, which will be rented on favorable 
terms. .Stair entrance, N'o. 2.^2 Slarket St. Elevator, Jio 
12 Front St. Parties wlshinif oUiocB, etc., will do well t. 
call and see them. DEWEY & CO. 


(iood laiHi tnac will raise a crop eveiy 
year, over r2,*K)0 acres for salt: in lots t o 
Miit. Very desirable Frtiit, Vine, Grain, 
Vej,'etable, Hay, and Pasture Land. 
Near Eiailroad and Surraniento river; iili to per acre. 
Wood and water convenient. U. S. Title iicrfeet. Send 
stamp for illustrated circular, to EL»\VAltb KKISBIE, 
Proprietor of Kea*linsr Ranch, Andernon. Shasta Co. .Cal. 

Dewey & Co. { Ma?ke?.t. } Patent Agt's. 

Volume XXVII.] 


[Number 2 

The Silk Interest In California. 

Everything which is likely to direct the at- 
tention of the people of this State to the great 
possibilities which may be derived from the 
general introduction of silk culture within its 
limits is just now deserving of special attention. 
The frequent reports given in these columns 
in regard to the progress and work of the Cali- 
fornia Silk Culture Association and that of its 
sister organization, tiie State Board of Silk 
Culture, furnish most encouraging evidence 
that our people are in earnest in the matter, 
and are taking hold of the industry in the right 
manner. That California has natural advan- 
tages for the production of silk surpassed by 
no country in the world lias been abundantly 
shown and quite generally acknowledged. The 
worms are here stronger and more healthy 
than those produced elsewhere; the cocoon is 
larger, the fiber longer and stronger, and we 
are free from many climatic disturbances which 
are more or less fatal in all other countries. 

Great numbers have actually engaged, exper- 
imentally, in the culture, and we do not know 
of a single person who has thus started in who 
does not propose to engage more extensively in 
the business the present year. The correspond- 
ence of the society indicates that hundreds of 
families will enter upon the culture the coming 
season who have never yet fed a silkworm. 80 
great is the demand for trees that the society 
has made preparation for distributing "20,000 

Silk culture in California may now be consid- 
ered an established fact, and cocooneries will 
soon be found in many hundred households 
scattered throughout nearly every part of the 
State. The establishment by the State Board 
of a filature in this city, having secured a sure 
and steady market for the cocoons produced, 
has been one of the chief factors in giving this 
new impulse to the business. Heretofore dis- 
couragement has met the producer at the out- 
set, from the fact that he could find no market 
for his product. Through the liberality of the 
last Legislature, a State Board of Silk Culture 
was established and provided with funds suffi- 
cient to purchase the stock of cocoons on hand 
and establish a filature where they may be 
reeled and converted into raw silk, in which 
condition our local factories will purchase all 
the silk that can be produced here. This fila- 
ture is also a school, in which, already, fifteen 
young ladies have been, or arc iji the way of 
being trained to become expert reelers, fully 
competent to teach others. 

From present indications the ([uantity of co 
coons produced next year will exceed the pro- 
duction of the present year tenfold; in fact, 
will reach the utmost limit of the feed at hand. 
Furthermore, many thousands of mulberry trees 
will be planted this season, from the leaves of 
which the silk product may be indefinitely in- 
creased in the future. 

Now is the time to send for trees and slips. 
All orders or inquiries addressed to Mrs. S. A. 
Raymond, the Secretary of the State Board of 
Silk Culture, No. 40 California street, will be 
proniptly attended to. A limited number of 
slips and a few trees will be distributed free. 
A small payment will be required for larger 
orders. Full printed instructions in regard to 
re.iring the worms will be sent to all persons de- 
siring such information. 

JfBW York employs 1,000 snow sbovelers, 

Buffalo Grass. 

Several different grasses have in the Rocky 
mountain region received the name of buffalo 
grass, but that to which the name most prop- 
erly applies is the Burhloe darti/hides, which is 
extensively spread over all the region known as 
the "Great Plains." It is a very low grass, grow- 

flowers of one plant all male and those of an- 
other all female. Sometimes, however, both 
kinds of flowers are found on the same plant, 
but in separate parts. The flowering stems of 
the male plant are four to eight or ten inches 
high, generally longer than the radical leaves, 
bearing three or four slender leaves, and at the 
summit two to four contiguous flower spikes. 

BUFFALO GRASS- Buchloo Dactyloldes. 

ing in extensive tufts or patches, and spreading 
largely by means of stolons or ofTshoots similar 
to those of the Bermuda grass (Cynodon dw- 
lijlon), these stolons being sometimes two feet 
long, and with joints every three or four inches, 
frequently fruiting at the joints. The leaves of 
the radical tufts are three to five inches long, 
one o\ one and a half lines wide, smooth, or 
edged with a few Bcattering hairs. The fl.ower- 
ing culms Rre chiefly dimciousi t^hat is, the 

which are half an inch long or less. These 
spikes consist usually of ten to twelve sessile 
spikelet.s, alternate in two rows on the lower 
side of the flattened scabrous rachis. The spike- 
lets are two to three lines long, and mostly two- 
flowered. The empty glumes arc very unecjual 
in size, the upper one being twice as long as the 
lower, ovate, acute, or muTonate, more devel- 
oped on one side than on the other, and about 
fta long the flowering glumes, The flowBring 

glumes and their corresponding palets are nearly 
equal in size and texture, tlic glume lanceolate, 
three-nerved, rather membranous, and, in the 
lower flower, pointed with a short awn or 
mucro. The proper palct is membranous, two- 
nerved, two- keeled, and inclosing the three 

The flowering stalk of the female plant is 
shorter than the leaves, one to two, or sonic- 
times three to four inches high, and sometimes 
almost concealed among the leaves at the joints of 
the stolons. The sheaths of the two or three up- 
permost are dilated, and leaves inclose the spikes 
or clusters of female flowers. Of these spikes 
there are two or three, each consisting of three 
to five spikelcts. The spikelets are single flow- 
ered, and of a somewhat complex structure, the 
parts analogous to those of the male flowers, 
but thickened, indurated and modified. 

It is hardly necessary to recapitulate the vir- 
tues of this widely celebrated grass. It plays 
an important part in the feeding and fattening 
of the vast herds of cattle which have now 
mostly displaced the buff'alo. Whether it can 
successfully be subjected to cultivation remains 
to be determined. 

The Anti-Debris Decision. 

Upon another page of this issue we pubhsh 
an abstract of the decision by .Judge Sawyer in 
a case involving the question of the right of 
hydraulic miners to continue to injure and de- 
stroy valley lands and ri\ crs and harbors by 
the debris resulting from their operations. The 
decision reviews the situation ably, and con- 
cludes that hydraulic mining must stop, unless 
some better method of avoiding its injurious ef- 
fects than any thus far attempted, can be de- 
vised. The decision is practically a stop- 
page of hydraulic mining and this is the 
course which has long been desired by the 
dwellers in the injuicd and threatened districts, 
because they have seen that all present methods 
of avoiding the evil eU'ects have been inade- 
i|uate. The decision takes the broad ground of 
absolute right; that one party has no authority 
for pursuing an industry which injures or im- 
perils the property of another that to deposit 
debris is to commit a trespass, and that one 
might as well claim a right to confiscate the 
property of another as to thus trespass upon 
and destroy it. 

It plainly shows that all claims that implied 
license or authorization to commit such depre- 
datio^i are wrong, because even Congress has 
not the right to encroach upon constitutional 
property rights in that way. The decision 
strikes us as a very strong document. The con. 
elusions are reached after a very full and care- 
ful examination of the subject, and they will 
prove generally s.ntisfactory to all except those 
whose industry is interfered with. We are 
sorry to see any man's productive work stopped, 
but it is plain enough that such work must 
stop when it builds up the prosperity of one by 
destroying the prosperity of another. 

The decision of .Judge Sawyer has been re- 
ceived with natural expressions of satisfaction 
in the parts of the State where the great injury 
has been done, and in other parts where injury 
would certainly be done sooner or later, if 
the throwing down of debris continued. The 
result must be that vast fruitful districts will 
be saved to be a continual source of wealth to 
the State and the homes of happy and prosper 
ous people, 


[January 12, 1884 


Chilean Pepper and Monterey Cypress 

Kditoks I'KEss:— In reply to the iiii|iines of 
"All Amateur," which you liave forwarded to 
rue for answer, respecting the modes of forming 
the "Chilian pepper" for street trees, and also 
the Monterey cypress for hedges, I must say 
that it is hotter to trim the pepper very 
little tlie first year— only enough to give 
a symmetrical form to the head, and rem- 
edy the tendency to a downward growth of the 
limbs. Nature is disposed to shade the stems 
of all trees in our climate, and throws a cur- 
tain of pepper foliage to the very ground. 

A pepper tree in the open ground should be 
allowed to make a leafy tent, but along streets 
the roof must be carried up higher, and as the 
wood is very brittle, the large branches 
be trained so as to strengthen the top and give 
greatest resistance towards the prevailing 
winds. When there is any likelihooil that 
teams will be hitched to the trees they should 
be guarded, for horses are very fond of gnaw- 
ing the pungent bark, as is shown by the ruin 
of some of the avenues in the central portions 
of our village. The pepper is not of much value 
for wood, though it grows so fast as to make 
up in (piantity what it lacks in (|uality. It 
can hardly have too much water, but withstands 
drought Very well wlien the ground is thor- 
oughly cultivated. 

The finest and probably the oldest pepper 
tree in the State is growing near the ruins of 
the Mission San Juan Capostrano. It wasprob 
ably planted by Father Salvadea about tlie year 
1776, and seems to be in perfect vigor, coml)in- 
ing the best forms of live oak and willow in its 
strength and grace. 

Ami now about the 

Monterey Cypress. 

If grown at all for hedges it should lie 
planted not less than three feet apart and left 
uncut until two years old. Then cut otl about 
half tlie stem at the end of the season's growtli, 
forcing that of the next year into the lower and 
lateral branches. The duration of a cypress 
hedge does not average ten years in any part of 
the State where I have observed it. Planted 
eight feet apart cypress will gi'ow on screens 
with only side pruning for a much longer time. 
The beautiful soft-clipped hedges around Oak- 
land are short lived. Usually planted very 
close and clipped back from ten to eight inches, 
and so on in that proportion, making lliin, low 
and more delicate masses of foliage. The Mon- 
terey is a beautiful Irrr, and it is a pity that 
we do not have more of them left to grow 
singly in our grounds. 

Having answered some questions, permit me 
to ask one of the Ri k.m. I'rks.^, viz.: Where 
can the seeds of the California cherry, Cf remit 
or Pnniiix IHii ifoHa, be obtained in i|uantities 
for hedges? Many are in(|uiring for it. 

Pasadena, .Ian. 4, 1S.S4. Jk.^nmk C. (.'.\kk 

On Soils. 

Ki'iniK.s — I was mucli interested in 
reading the article on "Chemical Fertilizers" in 
your valuaV)le paper, especially that in relation 
to the use ot lime, which I know from experi- 
ence to lie valuable on all soils deficient in this 
essential constituent. 

The use of lime in agriculture was not un- 
known to the ancients. Pliny, the naturalist, 
tells us that it was in use for vines, for olive 
trees and for cliei ry trees, the fruit of which is 
thus made more forward. And he spoke of its 
being used on the soil generally in two provinces 
of (laul those of the I'ictones .and .F.dui, whose 
fields it rendered more fruitful. 

The uses of lime, according to M. Puvis, are: 

1. "When a soil contains inert animal or 
vegetable nuatters, their decomposition may be 
promoted, and it Uiivy be rendered tit for the 
food of plants by the addition of caustic lime." 

'2. "If the soil contains acids they may be 
neutralized either by caustic or carbonated lime; 
and liesides, the organic matter, whose decom- 
position may have been prevented by the acid, 
will be permitted to putrefy." 

.3. "Soils containing too much silica, or, in 
other words, those which are sandy, are made 
more retentive of moisture by the addition of 
lime or its carbonate. " 

4. "Clays may be rendered less retentive of 
moisture and more f r'able by the same means. " 

5. "The gases which escape when vegetable 
or animal matter putrify, are retained in the soil 
by means of lime or its carbonate, and thus a 
given quantity of manure, or the original veg- 
etable matter of the soil will retain its efficacy 

0. "Lime and its compounds are absolutely 
necessary, as constituent parts, to the growth 
of many plants. The sulphate is essential to 
the growth of clover, and the phosphate to 
that of wheat. Hence, the eflicacy of plaster 
or gypsum, and crushed bones as manures." 

This assertion of the learned French savant 
seems to conflict with the statement of the au 
thor of the articles in your paper, that "Lime is 
a mere tonic." 

Lime, as has been said before, suits all soils 
which do not contain it already. Especially is 
this the case with soils composed of the debris 
of granite or schistus— almost all sandy soils; 

those which are moist, sour and cold, and those 
containing crude, peaty vegetable matter. On 
such soils from five to twenty-tive busliels of 
air-slacktd lime to the acre, spread broadcast 
over the land and [)lowed in, will be found of 
great value. 

To grow many kinds of fruit to perfection, 
such as the pear, the c|uince, and the Newtown 
Pippin apple, besides those enumerated above, 
requires the application of more or less lime. 
The Newtown Pippen raised to such perfection 
by Richard Pell, in his forty-acre orchard of this 
variety of apple near .\lbany, N. V., and which 
are annually shipped to Kurope in large quanti- 
ties, are thus grown by the application of large 
quantities of lime. 

Farmers and horticulturists of California : 
you have rich mines of wealth in the vast ledges 
of lime rocks in the mountains, in the refuse of 
tan yards and of paper mills, which can be had 
for the iiicie l\;iuliug. Clean out the hair and 
lime fr.iin the tan yards, and the lime and 
str.iw from the paper mills, and thus abate a 
nuisance and enrich yourselves. 

Watsonville, Cal. J. S. Tibbit.s. 


Sheep and Sheep Feed for Arid Lands. 

On the border of the region known as Ned- 
jed, Nejd, in Central Arabia, says the Rural 
Xvw Yorker, there is a peculiar desert called 
Nefud, which is roughly estimated as being 
some 400 miles long by 150 miles wide. It is 
covered for the most part with coarse sand of a 
peculiar bright red color, which is so little af- 
fected by movements of the wind that no small 
amount of useful herabge grows upon it, in 
spite of the absence of springs and streams. 
With the exception of occasional rains and of a 
few deep wells at great distances from one an- 
other, tlie locality affords no water accessible 
for human beings, and is consequently wholly 
unfit for permanent human habitation. Hut 
several kinds of animals have, in the course of 
ages, become so habituated to the lack of liijuid 
water that they live and thrive in spite of its 
al)sence. Hares are plentiful throughout this 
desert, and there is a great white antelope 
{Ori/j- hiatrix) which fre((uents every part of it, 
and which, as the .Arabs l)elieve, never drinks. 
This antelope is found a hundred miles or more 
from any spring, therein difTering markedly 
from the gazelle, which, in spite of his swift- 
ness, haunts only the outskirts of the arid 
tract, and other places where water is accessible. 
The .\rabs have a great, gaunt, long-legged 
sheep also, w ith long silky hair and pendu- 
lous ears, which has a remarkable power of 
living in places whcie 110 water is to 
be had for drinking. Tlurc is really 
no good cause for surprise in all this, 
in view of the well-known abstemiousness 
of the camel. It would appear, indeed, 
that the same causes which, in process of time, 
have endowed the camel with the peculiarities 
which make him so valuable for man, have 
acted in an analogous way upon tlie sheep and 
some others of the animals of the desert, and 
have produced coi respoiuliiig effects. A recent 
Pjiglish traveler. Lady Blunt, from whose book 
entitled "A Pilgrimage ^o Nejed " I havegath 
ered the foregoing particulars, aflirms of the 
Beilouins who live on the outskirts of the Ne- 
fud desert, that in the spring, when the grass 
is green after the rainy season, they care noth- 
ing for water, as their camels are in milk, and 
that they go for weeks without water, wander- 
ing far into the interior of the well-less desert 
of red sand. It is noteworthy th it in spite of 
the general aridity of the place, various bushes 
and grasses which serve as pasture for horses, 
camels and sheep, grow freely in the Nefud 
desert, at least in tlie winter season, and that 
there is one particular kind of forage, called 
Ailr, which appears to be the source whence 
the animals obtain water enough to keep them 
alive. It is said, at all events, that the desert 
sheep are able to live on this Adr for a month 
at a time without needing water. 

Both the plant and sheep which thrive on it 
are assuredly worthy of careful study, with the 
view of determining whether one or both of 
theoi may not perhaps be adapted for the stock- 
ing of other hot, arid regions, such as those of 
Central Australia, or some of our own posses- 
sions at the southwest. 

To Kekp Uilt Goods Bright. — Stationers 
always have more or less loss in gilt goods and 
it is no easy matter to keep these gilt goods 
bright anil clean. The following is a good re- 
cipe): (;ilt articles, if of, ni.ay be cleansed 
by rubbing them gently with a sponije or soft 
brush Tnoisteued with a solution of half an 
ounce of potash, or an ounce of soda, or per- 
haps best, an ounce of l)orax, in a pint of water : 
then rinsing them in clear watjr and drying 
with a soft linen Then luster may be im- 
proved in certain cases by gently heating them, 
and then applying gentle friction with a soft 
rag. .-\ very diluted solution of cyanide of 
potassium will answer the same purpose by ap- 
plying in the same manner as above, washing in 
water and finally drying by gentle friction with 
a linen rag ; but as this substance is very 
poisonous, it is not to be recommended for 
household uses, (iilt frames of mirrors, pic- 
tures, etc., should never be touched with any- 
thing but clean water, gently applied with a 
soft spongue or brush, 

j9CGR'®UbTURAb ^eiENSE. 

University Experiment Station. 

Bulletin No, 1. 
In order to render the results of investigations 
and experiments conducted by the .Agricultural De- 
partment of the L'niversity of California more 
quicl<1y and more available has here- 
tofore been done through the annual or biennial re- 
ports, it is proposed to cmbod\ hereafter, in the form 
of " Rulleiins, " to be issued as often as may seem 
desirable, reports of results, as well as such other 
discussions, information or answers to questions as 
may be of general interest. It is intended to make 
these bulletins, as a rule, short enough for insertion 
in the daily or weekly papers of the St.ite, and 
proof-slips of the same will be regularly mailed on 
application to papers applying therefor. The sub- 
stance of these bulletins will ultimately be embodied 
in a more complete and connected form, in the an- 
nual reports of the College ot Agriculture. 

Examination cf the Water of the San Fer- 
nando Tunnel, Los Angeles County. 

It is well known that a stream of water of 
considerable volume flows from the great tun- 
nel through which tlie .S. P. |{. R. traverses the 
San Fernando range. The water has a decidedly 
mineral taste; but in view of the importance of 
utilizing everj' possible source of water supply 
iu .Southern California, its examination, with a 
view to determining its possible adaptation to 
irrigation was undertaken at the suggestion of 
Messrs. Kingsbury & Denis, of Los Angeles. 

The result of the analysis is given in the fol 
lowing table. 

The water leaves on evaporation a saline 
residue amounting to (17.11 grains per gallon. 
(Ordinary river and well waters contain from 6 
to 12 grains. I Treatment with water resolves 
this residue into an easily soluble and a diffi- 
cultly soluble or "insoluble" portion, as sep- 
arately given below : 

SOLI ULE PART. I"er cent. 

<*raiim of total 

ycv 'r.ill. residue. 

Snlpliatv of potasaiuni S.W 1.202 

Suljiliutu.if m.v„'iiLsiiim(K|i9omsalt) ...14.174 20.074 

Siil|ihatc of calriuinCt'vpsum) 137 .20.3 

Sulphate of sodium ((Jiaiiber's salt) 3.!i78 f>.294 

< Ml loridc of sodium (t-oninioii salt) I.:i44 1.0S9 

* 'arbonate of sodium (comnioti soda).. . . 2.(10?) 3.002 

(ifiiaiiic matter (liy dill.) 4.a72 6.470 

( 'arbonate of iDBgnesia 1.80 \ 2.677 

Oarboiiatc of caU'ium (lime) 6.18 i ^ 9.1.'i.S 

Sulphate of lime (gvi suin) 30.«) ' 4.S.276 

Silica .-. . 2.10 j § 3.076 

Iron oxide utkI alumina. . 07 / .103 

Totiil 67. 2.18 99.524 

The total amount of mineral ingredients in 
this water is far greater than is admissible in 
waters intended for domestic use of any kind. 
But even if the <iuantity were much less, the 
quality of the ingredients— including so large a 
proportion of gypsum and Kpsom salt— renders 
it highly objectionable for ilrinking purposes; 
and it is only by the addition of a considerable 
amount of soda that it could be made to answer 
for washing. 

As regards its fitness for irrigation, it should 
be noted that out of the (in round numbers) ()8 
grains of solid contents nearly 41 belong to the 
"insoluble" clas.s, and are in quality not only 
unobjectionable from the irrigator's point of 
view, but the bulk, being gyp.suni, is actually a 
benefit to mo ;t lands, especially to those afilicted 
witli " black alkali." It is only the remaining 
'11 grains of soluble matters that remain to be 
dealt with. Of these, the four grains of 
"organic matter" need not be considered; and 
of the remainder, the mainly objectionable 
portion is tlie 14 grains of sulphate of mag- 
nesium or Kpsom salt, an accumulation of which 
in the soil would soon become very injurious, 
although small dressings of it in the guise of 
" kicscrite " are used for fertilization in 
Kurope and in the Kast. But in the lower San 
.loac|uin valley it renders considerable tracts 
uncultivatable until it is removed. This can be 
done by the use of quicklime, of which about 
one-half of the amount of sulphate of magnesia 
present is needed for complete removal. Tlie 
outcome of the mutual action of these sub- 
stances is gypsum ami inert magnesia. Apply- 
ing, therefore, 7 grains of lime per gallon of 
the San Fernando water, or say three barrels of 
lime to every million of gallon.s, the alkaline 
salts remaining (about !l grains) would not 
exceed what is found in many of the natural 
irrigation waters of the State. 

AVhether or not such a correction of the 
Mater in question would pay, will have to be 
determined by local circumstances. Where 
land now uncultivatable can be made to produce 
high returns in fruit or grape culture, and from 
?I0 per acre can be made worth .*?ir)0 or more, 
the expenditure re()uired may be not at all 
unreasonable. One million gallons per acre is 
equal to about four inches of rainfall, and this 
with the natural water supply will, in many 
cases, <lo all that is needful for successful and 
profitable culture. 

There is, however, one class of lands upon 
which this water would be an unmixed benefit 
just as it is. This is the alkali lands, such as 
those of Westminster, Anaheim and Orange. 
Here the use of gypsum supplies the natural 
antidote to the carbonate of soda, which is the 
chiefly injurious ingredient of the alkali, but 
which would be active first of all in decom- 
posing the objecti<inable Kpsom salt, leav- 
ing the gypsum in the soil to counteract any 
excess or additional rise of the alkali from be- 
low. If, then, it be feasible, financially, to con- 
vey the Sau Fernando water to the»e landi, it 

could be utilized for a long time at least, with- 
out any correction. 

In using it on non-alkaline lands, also, it 
would probably remain harmless for some 
years on those soils naturally rich in lime. 
Whenever any injurious action is noted, the 
use of lime on the land, or in a reservoir fur- 
nishing the water can be made to correct it. It 
should not be forgotten that the large supply 
of gypsum and lime thjs put on the land acts 
as an efficient fertilizer, and is not, therefore, 
an altogether unremunerative expense in itself. 

It should be mentioned in this connection 
that the examination of alkali spots existing 
on the Baldwin ranch has shown them to con- 
tain the same ingredients as the tunnel water, 
and to need the same corrective. It is there- 
fore probal)le that similar waters would largely 
be obtained by tunneling into the Sierra Madrc 
at other points, and as the supply seems to be 
abundant, the question of their utilization is 
one of wide importance. E. W. HiLiiARb. 

Home Made Incubator. 

KniTORs — I have been requested by 
several persons to give directions through your 
paper for the construction of a home-made in- 
cubator. I think the following is as good as can 
be made, which I clip from a Chicago paper : 
Several desire to know what success has at- 
tended experiments in artificial incubation with 
modern apparatus. Conflicting reports as to 
the latter question, together with the fraudu- 
lent methoils taken by some person.s engaged 
in vending pamphlets that cost the publishers 
not to exceed eight cents per copy, containing 
directions for making apparatus of this sort, at 
the extortionate price of .52, and selhng ready- 
made incubators at exorbitant prices, has made 
caution advisable in treating this subject. Re 
ports received within the past six weeks from 
twenty different persons who haveexperimented 
with incubators, indicate that in about twelve 
cases out of twenty the average success is en- 
couraging, and in the cases of the others the 
average results were (juite discouraging. It is 
very certain th;.t in a climate incident to such 
sudden andex'rcme changes as ours success de- 
mauds skill and constant attention. None but 
absolutely fresh eggs must be selected, a tem- 
perature hardly varying from 103 , and a proper 
degree of moisture must be maintained, with 
sleepless vigilance. Let the eggs be chilled, 
even for a few minutes, and the consequences 
are disastrous. 

For a comparatively inexpensive incuba 
tor make a box 4 feet long, feet 
wide, 6 inches deep, outside measurement, 
with a tight board lid and a zinc bottom — using 
boards 1 j inches thick, nailed or screwed to- 
gether. This is the heater. 

Of the same kind of boards make an egg- 
drawer 4 feet long, "J feet 1 1 \ inches wide, ."> 
inches higli, outside measure, and 4 inches deep 
on the inside, with slats nailed on crosswise 
instead of a board for the bottom. 

The slat.s better be of inch thick lumljer, not 
more than 1 inch wide and set 1 inch apart. 
Over these slats on the inside tack a piece of 
coarse sack the full length and width of the 
box. Draw it tight and t;ick it securely to the 
slats and the ends of the box. Next make a 
frame .1 feet 7 inches long and 'A'l inches wide, 
using inch-Square strips for the end pieces and 
inch-wide strips of \ inch thickness for the 
sides. Strain stout muslin over this frame and 
tack firmly. Lay this muslin side down on the 
coarse cloth in the egg-drawer. This is to 
support the eggs. 

Next, bore "JO half-inch holes in each side of 
the egg-drawer, l )' inches apart, and as close to 
the frame with the muslin bottom as can be 
done and yet allow this frame to slide easily 
underneath "JO slats of half inch square each, 
which must be run through the box from hole 
to hole to keep the eggs in position. Arrange 
the eggs between these slats, resting on the 
muslin of the muslin frame. It will be seen 
that by moving this frame about 2 inches back- 
ward or forward the eggs can be turned half 

Make a box of precisely the sao e length and 
breadth as the heater, but S inches deep instead 
of (i. Nail on a tight bottom of inch flooring 
stuff; bore 1 "2 one-half inch holes in this bottom 
into which insert as many tin tubes of the same 
diameter, seven inches long, for ventilators. 
Fill all the space between the pipes with saw- 
dust to witliin about an inch of their tops. Next 
set the egg diawer im top of this ventilator box 
and set the heater, the first box described, on top 
of tilt egg-drawer. Take common inch boards, 
one foot wide, and nail one on each side, and 
across one end of this pile of boxes, driving the 
nails along the lower edge of each boa'-d into 
the ventilator box, and along the upper edge 
into the heater box; raising the latter off the 
egg-drawer barely enough to let the latter 
slide easily back and forth, between the heater 
and ventilator. As the incubator stands now, 
the egg-drawer is jirotected from cold, under- 
neath, by the ventilator box, with about inches 
of saw dust; but it must be similarly protected 
on the sides and top. .Set this nest of boxes as 
now arranged, on a couple of trestles made of 
pieces of scantling, 4 feet 8 or 10 inches long, 
with short legs 8 inches long, and build another 
box "27 inches high (outside) around them, long 

January is, too < ] 


^^H!® 1'® U bTU R/rb€[NGIJM EER 

Measuring Irrigating Streams. 

Kd. Press : Will you inlorm a surscriber how to 
measure water in inches? For example: A diteh 
company incorporate with loo shares of stock, 25 
inches of water to the share, how can can I reckon 
the amount of water I will get per share? — Ricader, 
San Francisco. 

We cannot very well tell whether the com- 
pany will be able to furnish all the water they 
promise or not. That is a problem which " no 
feller can find out. " We presume our corres- 
pondent wants to find out when he gets the 
number of inches he is entitled to, or, in other 
words, how to measure the inches of water 
running in a ditch. This is a question of much 
importance in irrigated districts, and we give a 
method of water measuring described some 
months ago by the Riverside Press and Horti- 
buUurUf : 

" It has become a matter of great importance 
that interested parties be able to measure the 
water in a stream without the expense and 
troitble of hiring an engineer to do the work. 
The method of measurement is simple, and 
anyone can, with a little care, measure a stream 
as accurately as an expert. The object of this 
article is to give the necessary information for 
making such a measurement. 

The most simple plan is by what is known as 
the weir measurement. Any stream can be 
easily measured where it passes through a gate, 
provided the water stands in a quiet pool above 
the gate and makes a comijlete drop below. 
A\'here there is no gate with such a drop, if 
there is enough fall in the stream so that a 
drop can be obtained, a temporary dam and 
drop can easily be constructed. 

Take a board long enough and wide enough 
to form a complete dam to the stream. In one 
edge of the board cut an opening, say two feet 
long and eight inches wide (or larger or smaller 
according to the size of the stream to be 
measured) leaving the board in the following 
shape : 

Put this board across the stream, completely 
damming it up, so as to force the flow through 
tho opening in the board. This board should 
be made entirely level from end to end. Drive 
a stake in the stream a foot or two above the 
board so that the top of the stake shall be on a 
level with the bottom of the opening in the 
board through which the water passes. The 
stream is now ready for measurement provided 
the water, as it presses over the board, makes a 
complete drop, and provided further, that the 
water is sufficiently dammed to create a pool 
that would be at rest. The opening in the 
board must be large enough to allow all the 
water to pass through the opening, none to run 
over the higher portions of the board on each 
side. Measure the depth of water over the 
stake driven in the stream above the board, 
getting the depth in inches. The table on this 
page will then enable the operator to ascertain 
the number of cubic feet of water per second 
that flows over the weir or spill : 

he can get a drop through a weir, as above de- 

There are other methods of measurement but 
none of them so simple, easy and accurate as 
this one. 

What an Inch of Water Will Do. 

I'eople generally, and Eastern people m par- 
ticular, have a very vague idea regarding an 
inch of water. For the l)enefit of such we pre- 
sent a few facts relative thereto. 

In discussing water rights in Southern Cali- 
fornia it has become customary and convenient 
to speak of an inch of water to a certain num- 
ber of acres of land. For instance. Riverside 
has been using one inch of water to six acres of 
land and wasting as much more through its 
wasteful systems of open ditches. Redlands and 
Etiwanda are using one inch to eight acres. 
Ontario and Pomona one inch to ten acres, 
while Pasadena last season had one inch to Uilj 
acres, but now they have pnt up a pump at a 
cost of §12,000 and are furnishing the settle- 
ment with more water, but have also spread 
their supply over more land. Los Angeles has 
had one inch to from seven to ten acres. 

An inch of water is the quantity which flows 
through an aperture one inch square in a one- 
inch plank, under a four-inch pressure, measur- 
ing from the center of the aperture. 

Fifty inches of water will furnish a cubic foot 
of water per second. 

A stream of water is said to contain a certain 
number of inches of water for irrigating pur- 
poses based upon a measurement in mid-sum- 
mer, say the l.'ith of July or 1st of Augtist. 
The stream will be much larger during April, 
May and June, and the stream will commence 
to increase in volume again by the 1st or 15th 
of September, although no rains may fall for 
several months after those datrs. 

An inch of water flowing 24 hours will fill a 
cubical cistern 10 feet square and 17} feet 

On a basis of one inch of water to eight acres 
of land each eight acre lot would receive 
390,000 gallons of water each month. The av- 
erage number of trees to eight acres is .")76 ; 
therefore the ground surrounding each tree 
would receive ()77 gallons per month, or about 22 
barrels of water in .30 days. 

This basis of one inch of water to eight acres 
of land is equal to a rainfall of one and three- 
quarter inches during the dryest month, 
and from two to three inches per month during 
April, May and June, also during Octolier anc 


The Fig. 

I Editors Pkes.s : — The fig tree is of rapid am 
j quick growth, very productive, and is well 
! adapted to our California climate, but is more 
neglected thaii any other class of fruit. While 
there are many localities that are considered too 
dry for the cultivation of fruit in general, the 
fig grows well on a dry .soil without irrigation, 
producing enormous crops of fruit. 

Many complain of high winds being very in- 
jurious to fruit culture in several of the interior 
counties; but the orchards that are on the 
rivers generally escape the bad efi'ects of the 
high winds, being protected by the timber 


























































.01 no 








. 0285 









. oa-ts 



- 041 1."] 






. 0475 

. 0486 








, 0".4S 









. 0693 







.07 so 





. 0850 


,0^ s 












. llH,"i 

, loHO 

. 1046 



. 1093 


















. 135s 


. v.v.n 







. 1240 






. 158B 








, 1 733 

, 1751 







. 1S40 

. 186S 

. 1X85 





. 1980 


. 2( I2i 


. 2098 







. 2198 







. 2425 







. 2.508 


. 2550 

. 2571 

. 2593 




, 26SI 

, -J74:i 


. 2445 








. 2898 

. 2920 

. 2941 




.3030j .3053 






N<)TE.--Thc e.xtreiiie rij^ht and left hand ])erpendicular columns (if heavy figures in above table represent whole 
inches depth of water nver a weir board, while the top horizontal line of fractions shows parts of an ineh in depth 
over weir. The second horizontal line indicates the number of cubic feet of water fl()win}j per second n^-er a weir 
board for each fractional part of an inch depth, imder which the figures may be fomid; and the third horizontal line 
gi\'es the mmiber of cubic feet per second for one inch, and a fraction f)f inch tlei>th, and so rni. These measure- 
ments are for one inch width of spill. To get the flow of water o\&v a weir, multijil.y the number in the table which 
corresponds to the depth of water by the width of the weir in inches, and this product by 50; tho result will be in 
miners' or statute inches, under four-inch pressure. 

enough and wide enough to form a sawdust 
chamber 8 inches wide along both sides and the 
back end of the incubator, and rising 8 inches 
higher than the top of the heater. Next get 
two tin pipes 12 or 13 inches long and about '2\ 
inches in diameter, seamed together as solder 
melts; also get two such pipes aliout 6 
inches long, and two elbows. Bore a 2i inch 
hole through the sawdust box and the heater 
box, entering the latter about 9 inches from 
the front and 2 inches below the lid, and slide 
one of the longer pipes through these holes. 
Attach one of the elbows and one of the inch 
pipes outside. Put the other pipe into the 
lieater from the opposite side about !l inches 
from the back end of the heater. Two kerosene 
lamps, set on brackets, on the outside of the 
sawdust box, with their chimneys thrust up 
into the short pipes, will supply all the heat 
that is re(|uired for hatching eggs. If the 
lamps smoke, drop them low enough to admit 
a little air to enter between the chimneys and 
the iuside of the pipes. 

Opposite where each of these tin flues enters 
the heater, bore 3 i'-inch holes through the top 
of the heater, 9 or ten inches apart, in a line 
about 3 inches from the side. Slide 6 tin tubes 
of the same diameter, 15 or 10 inches long, 
through these holes to within 5 inch of the zinc 
bottom of the heater. Now fill the sawdust 
chamber around tlie incubator and on top, put 
ting earth instead of sawdust just around the 
hot-ail flues to avoid fire. As the zinc directly 
under where the hot-air flues enter the heater is 
apt to get overheated, it is best before covering 
the heater with sawdust to lay a piece of zinc 
about 1 foot s(juare on the zinc bottom as an 
e(|ualizer of the temperature. Keep a thermom- 
eter in the egg-drawer to test the temperature. 
This drawer w ill hold about 250 eggs. This is 
the incubator; and as the directions are some- 
what lengthy I shall have to close, as usual, 
with " Continued in our next. W. W. Bliss. 

Duarte, December 31, 1883. 

[This is like most other continued stories, it 
breaks ott' just when the reader is most inter- 
ested in knowing what is to become of the hero 
and the heroine. When Mr. Bliss gives us the 
concluding chapter wc would like to have him 
state whether he has ever built such a machine, 
and if so, give us his results with it.-— Eds. 
Press. ] 

A Year's Experience in Poultry Raising. 

Editors; — As chicken reports are in 
order at present, I send mine for the past year. 
I commenced the year 1883 with 45 light 
Brahma chickens — 40 hens and 5 roosters. It 
was so unfavorable looking as regards a prolific 
year, that economy in feed was enjoined upon 
me. AVell, I set my hens and hatched out the 
usual percentage (8 from 12) until I had hatched 
about 2.50 chicks. I had a high fence around 
the individual coops to keep away vermin. One 
day going out to feed as usual, I missed all the 
young chicks that had been placed in one of the 
coops the day before — 12 in all. Where could 
they be ? I looked among the other coops; no 
babies among them, and no dead ones lying 
about. I hunted all around but could not find 
them. For over a month the mysterious dis- 
appearance distracted mo, until going out one 
Sunday morning I heard a biddy, that I had 
turned out of the yard the day before with her 
six-weeks-old chicks, making a dreadful fuss. 
Running to her I found a large wild-house oat 
trying to get a chicken. The mystery was ex- 
plained. Well, we laid in wait for Mr. Cat, 
but never got him, as he never was there when 
we and the gun or the trap or poisoned chicken 
were. Wc are now preparing to hatch more 
chicks, and would give considerable to know 
that he was defunct. Well, we tried an incu- 
bator, too, last year, but only got 60 chicks 
from 200 eggs. Shall try once more and then 
shall cither stick to the hens or get another 
kind of " hen cubator," in spite of the old cat. 
My book tells me that I did pretty well. My 
i-eport is as follows : Commenced 1 883 with 45 
light Brahma chickens; received 1 ,(559 eggs; 
set 515 eggs; sold 587 eggs for ^fl 1.80; used 
557, worth §11 ; sold 129 chickens for |(i0.85 ; 
used 22 chickens, worth §11 ; have 24 extra 
ones, worth J^Pi. Total received from 45 chick- 
ens in one year, §10(i.()5. Total expense, |25, 
leaving §1.()5 — pretty good pay for my season's 
work, besides my housework for a family of 
five. Mrs. J. Hilton. 

Los Alamos, January 2, 1884. 

Pkocress 01' Arizona. — The Star's annual 
trade review of Arizona shows the population of 
the Territory to lie 85,000, having doubled in 
three years. The assessed wealth is .?'24,200,- 
000 against §12,000,000 in 1880. The stock in- 
crease for the year was 50 per cent. The silver 
and gold output for the year was §8,000,000; 
copper bullion output, 28,000,000 pounds. 
Peace with the Indians is at last secured, the 
last of the renegades from Sonora having sur- 
rendered, to the San Carlos Agency last week. 
General secui'ity is felt, and renewed confidence 
in Gen. Crook's control of the Indians. There is 
a general revival of prosperity over the Terri- 
tory. There are now 98 public schools in the 
Territory, with a total of 8,500 pupils. 

Experts in chemistry have estimated that 
the cost of London's winter smoke and fog is 
§25, 000, 000 annually; that is to say, constitu- 
ents of coal to this value escape uncftDsumed, 
and assist in forming the sooty vupor, 

After getting the number of cubic feet per 
second in the stream multiply by fifty and the 
result will be the number of inches of water 
under a four-inch pressure. 

ICxample. — How many inches of water under 
a four-incli pressure in a stream running through 
a weir 24 inches wide and ] inches deep ? 

The depth of 6 j inches is ascertained by tak- 
ing the depth of water over the stake above the 
board. By referring to the table, we find, 
. 1046 of a cubic foot per second runs through a 
weir one inch wide by (Ij inches deep; multiply 
this by 24, the width of the weir, and we have 
—.1046 multiplied by 24, C(|uals 2.5104, which 
shows the numlier of cubic feet of water per 
second; multiply this by 50 and we have 125.52, 
which gives the number of inches under a four 
inch pressure in the stream. 

Any irrigator can by this simple method ascer- 
tain whether he is getting as much water as or- 
dered, provided his stream is so situated that 

thereon. It is now claimed by many of the 
most experienced otchardists, when the high 
and hot winds prevail in summer, that wind- 
l)reaks would be of great value to the fruit in- 
terest, and it is claimed by many that there is 
no tree better adapted for that purpose than the 
fig, on account of its quick growth and spread- 
ing habit, throwing forth large branches with a 
rich and luxuriant foliage. While it excels all 
others in its rapid growth, it would also be very 
profitable for its fruit, as it is considered to 
have more nutViment than any otlier fruit. It 
is claimed by those who have raised the fig 
that a tree twenty years old will produce one 
thousand pounds of dried fruit. We would 
call the attention of fruit growers and those who 
intend going into the basiness to the subject of 
protecting their orchards v-here the high winds 
])r jvail by planting the fig tree as a wind-break, 
as it is second to none in its growth and great 
productiveness. If a tree twenty years old will 

produce 500 pounds of dried fruit, with 40 tree, 
to the acre, it would give the grower $1,000 to 
the acre at five cents per pound. They could 
be planted sixteen feet apart each way, which 
would take 170 trees to the acre, and would 
give good returns in fruit the fourth year after 
planting; they could be thinned out as they 
grew larger. 

In noticing the large ranches in Yolo, Solano, 
Colusa and Tehama which are devoted to grain 
and stock raising, with little improvement ex- 
cept fencing and necessary buiklings, we were 
led to the conclusion that even in stock raising 
it might be made profitable to plant the fig as an 
article of food for hogs. One acre in figs at ten 
years old will produce as much food for hogs as 
ten acres in wheat. We hear some crying out 
that the fruit interest will be overdone ;but it is 
only such as have not given the subject that 
thought which it demands; for there is no moie 
danger of overdoing the production of fruit in 
California than there is in the over-production 
of wheat. P.v.i.vro. 

Flowering Shrubs, 

The pursuit and the enjoyment of the beauti- 
ful constitute one of the greatest delights of 
the dweller in the country. Not that a person 
confined to the limits of a city does not experi- 
ence the same delights when opportunities 
offer, but one who lives in the country has 
abundant facilities for the pursuit, which are 
denied, by his environments, to the dweller in 
a city. And yet we find too frequently that 
the farm or the rural villa has but little of the 
beautiful about it beyond the green grass an<l 
the always attractive trees. At the same time 
one finds that the opportunities of m;.king evtn 
grass and trees more beautiful by arrangement, 
grouping, choice, and culture are too often neg- 
lected, and the homestead is surrounded by an 
uncouth, tangled and unattractive growth, which 
is by the attempt at culture made a libel upon 
nature. Better have a field of potatoes, or a 
simple meadow, or a piece of natural woods in 
front of the dwelling, than abortive attempt at 
a plantation, which may have all the elements 
of beauty in it, but hidden under a rough, ugly 
crust of neglect; as the native brilliance of the 
gem may be hidden in the unattractive appear- 
ance of the rough diamond, or the glitter of the 
gold may be obscured l)y the stony covering of 
the rock in the ore. 

There is beauty in nature — in her wild, errant 
ways, but this is destroyed as soon as man 
comes in and tries to improve it, unless he docs 
this by the exercise of the highest art, and dis- 
places the natural beauty by an entirely differ- 
ent one, which is beautiful because it is wholly 
art. Thus one may penetrate into the wilder- 
ness of the Blue Ridge, and sec there the 
cascade which pours over a ledge of rocks 
one hundred feet above him, breaking into 
spray, and the white foam tumbling over the 
Iirown and gray crags, patched over with tufts 
of grass and waving ferns, and behind these, 
thickets of Rhododendrons forming masses of 
variegated color made up of dark green leaf, 
brown stem, and brilliant white or pink flower, 
and behind these again the nodding hemlocks 
and stiff spruces, with the taller pines and 
magnolias, clothing the sloping hills which shut 
in the valley, and he will have a glimpse of 
some of the beauties of nature. But to try to 
improve upon this by art would spoil it all. In 
contrast to tliis, one may see a smooth green 
lawn bordered by trees, and these flanked by 
flowering shrubs arranged skillfully in groups 
and chosen for their successive periods of flow- 
ering, all these closing in the space and giving 
an appearance of quiet and retirement, which 
is the charm of country life; and besides, here 
and there a mass of color, furnished by bloom- 
ing shrubs, which break up the space into 
vistas, and so give an appearance of extent and 
distance to but a small space of ground, which 
would even appear the smaller were it not thus 
broken up by the use of art, skillfully applied. 
Every farm house or other country dwelling 
might be made attractive in this way at a very 
small expense if the materials could only be 
well chosen. But there is a too general neglect 
of these aids and helps to the enjoyments of a 
moral life. The means are ready but the ways 
arc not known, simply because few know how 
great a variety of flowering shrubs there are to 
choose from, or how to choose so as to have a 
succession of bloom. — Flora/ Cabbiel. 

PiioT()f;R.\PHic' Progress. — Photography is 
one of the miracles of modern times. The art 
has taken strides with seven league boots since 
the time of Dagucrre, who made a picture on a 
metal plate, which had to be turned and twisted 
in every direction before you could find what 
you were looking after. Lately pictures have 
been taken with such rapidity that lightning is 
compelled to strike a faster gait to keep up with 
the process. Dr. Koch tells us that he has 
photographed with a photomicrographic camera 
that most minute filament, the flagelluni of the 
bacteria. One might be satisfied with photo- 
graphing the bacteria as a whole, since it is be- 
yond the reach of naked vision; but to take a 
picture of an insignificant portion of it is like 
getting up among fairy tales. Mr. Rockwood, 
also, has succeeded in getting satisfactory pic- 
tures of the vibrating point in the diaphragm of 
a telephonic instrument while a person was 
speaking at it, and by means of a spark from 
Leyden jars. The work must have been done 
in the one twenty-four thousandtli part of a 



[January 1884 


Corri'^i c on Craii.; ■ princiiilcs ami work and re- 
ports of tr.iii- 1' fi.iiH lif Miii"rilin:ito Unuigcs arc rogpect- 
J\iIIy BolivitiU fi>r tliU ek i^aitment. 

A Pioneer Horticulturist Gone to Rest. 

iWrittun for the Ui'rai, I'bkss. Iij Vi. 11. Jk«sip.| | 
Cliriatmas, which brings so much joy and 
happiness to so many hoinus and hearts, Ijriugs 
grief and mourning to others and easts a | 
i loud of gloom over a comnmnity. Such was ; 
the case on our last bright aixl cheery ('hrist- [ 
inas children joyous over their presents of toys . 
and randies: parents and friends happy over I 
the littlo ones' joys, and feasting on the good] 
things of e.irth in blissful ignorance of the j 
gloom tliat hun>,' over one devoted household, 
ignorant of the fact that one whose hands and 
brain had produced some of the good things 
spread before them, was then lying cold in 
death. In the death of .lohn l.ewelling on i 
Christmas morning, at his lieautiful home near , 
St. Helena, Napa county, the hoi-ticultural in- 
terests of California have met with a great loss. 
He was one of the twelve pillars that support 
the fabric, and one tliat we can illy spare. Mr. 
Lewelling had an attack of serious illness early 
last fall, and we were alarmed to hear of his ] 
(bingeroHs condition. So serious was his illness 
thought to be that his old family physieiau, 
Dr. K. Kimball, of Hay wards, was sent for. On 
the return of the pliysician we were gladdened 
by his report that his patient was out of im- 
mediate danger, which was confirmed by his 
appearance at tlie next meeting of the State 
Horticultural Society, when we had (as we 
thought) the pleasure of congratulating him on 
his recovery. 

But alasl the uncertainty of life. We had not 
heard of his second illness until after his death. 
His last illness was a long and a painful one, 
lasting some twenty days, the patient the 
greater part of the time suffering excruciating 
tortu'-e, but bearing it like a true Chri-stian. 
His death was the result of a severe attack of 
erysipelas, followed by dropsy, first appearing in 
the leg, where he had been alUicted with a 
white swelling when quite a young man, wliich 
came near making a permanent cripple of him. 
.\lthough suflering intense pain in the early 
stages of his last, it was gratifyiug to 
his friends that lii.s last moments were appar- 
ently pairdess, and he passed away without a 

Mr. Jjowelling was born in Kandolph county. 
North Carolina, .Tanuary 10, 1811. From thence ] 
he moved with his parents to Indiana, where 
he settletl in the dense beech and maple 
forests of Henry county, near where subse- 
quently grew up the village of ({reensborough, 
wher<: they went energetically to work, clear- 
ing away the heavy forest, preparatory opening 
a farm and building a home. Here they en- 
gaged in general farnnng and nursery, sutlicient 
for the primitive needs of horticulture in those 
days. Here he ri ccived a common school edu- 
cation in a log school house. Those were not 
the days of paint and plaster. The family re- 
mained here until the summer of 1S37, when 
they removed to Henry county, lon-a, where 
he, with two uncles and his father engaged in 
farming and nursery work. The latter they 
made a specialty, being the pioneers in the 
nursery business, as the Territory of Iowa was 
not regtdarly organized as such until the follow- 
ing year, 1838. 

Like thousands of other hardy pioneers, Mr. 
Lewelling caught the California fever, and 
started on that tedious and tiresome joumey in 
the spring of 18.">0, overland. Arriving in the 
fall cif the same yiar, he engaged in mining for 
a short time, but he very soon discovered that 
mining was not suited to his tastes, and that 
there was a brighter future in store for Califor- 
nia in her agricultural resources than in her 
gold fields. \Vith the coo), farseeing judgment 
that has marked his long and honorable life, he 
foresaw the future possibility of horticulture 
on the Hacific coast, and as Oreiron was at that 
time the only available field in which to obtain 
stock, he left for that Territory in the spring of 
lS.jl,and engaged in tlie nursery business at 
Milwaukee, in that Territory, with a brother 
who had preceded him. Keturning to Califor- 
nia in 18.VJ, he went home for his family, and 
again arrived in San Francisco .lanuary 3, 
1853, being twenty-three days from San .Juan 
to this port, on the old floating coHin .S'. S. Leirix. 
On his arrival iu San Francisco he lost no time 
in looking up a suitable locality to embark in 
his favorite pursuit, that of horticulture. 
Selecting San .Jose Mission, Alameda county, 
as a place oH'ering the best advantages, he 
engaged with the late Captain Beard to start a 
nursery aad plant an orchard, and he, Mr. 
Beard, Meek and Crane, of San Lorenzo, sent 
,m agent East to select stock for a nursery. The 
result of this venture was the making of many 
wealthy men. It was in part the introduction 
of tlie cherry currant that made Alameda 
county famous and wealthy, and raised the 
price of her land from SCO to 5?400 per acre. To 
him, mainly, is due the impetus given to horti- 
culture in California. He always has been (and 
justly too) regarded as authority on horticultu- 
ral matters. He was by tasve and nature a 
horticulturist. His path from the Atlantic to 
the Facitic is lined with fruit trees. His tracks 
from Carolina to California arc- as plain ns the 
footjirints; in the rock. He can justly be 
< illi (1 the father of California horticulture. 

He remained at the Mission of San .Jose 
aliout three years, when he bought 40 ncms of 

land at San Lorenzo of a Mr. Farley, to whom 
he had sold some fruit trees, shortly taking 
possession of his new home and moving his 
nursery stock to it. He subseijuently bought 
the balance of Nlr. Farley's interest, making, 
all told, 117 acres. Subsequently he bought the 
Castro title, F'arley holding only the squatter 
title. This laud he soon set out to orchard, 
realizing a handsome fortune from the proceeds 
iu a very few years. 

After a residence of about ten years in Ala- 
meda county, in consequence of poor health, he 
was forced to seek a cliaiige. Finding the 
mild and genial climate of .Napa valley better 
suited to his condition he bought the place that ' 
has ever since been his home, in I8(i4, contain- ' 
ing about (lOO acres, about "200 acres of which he 
has planted to orchard and vineyard, convert- 
ing a gramtiehl and chaparral into a paradise of 
luxury. j 
His love for liis family and friends would 
sc:in'-ly DUtmeasure his love for his vine and 
fru t tree. Like all lovers of (iod's best works 
he felt at home and happy with them. 

Mr. l.,ewelling was a hard and zealous worker 
in all that he undertook to do, doing whatever 
he dill well and with a will. A man of .sound 
judgment: making money out of all his ventures 
without wronging any one: a zealous (hanger 
who did much to aid that brotherhood and build 
it up, and was a large stockholder in and Presi- 
dent of the (iranger's Bank of California, 
in tliis city. He was also a faithful 
working member of the State Horticultural 
.Society; an active member of the Winegrowers' j 
Asssociatiim, and to his superior judgment, in 
a great measure, is due the reputation and 
standing of the wine industry of Napa valley. ^ 
An atfectiouate husband and father, a kind and i 
hospitable neighbor, and a true friend whose ' 
friendship was deserving. He learued well the j 
lessons of the creed in which he was reared (a I 
Quaker), honesty, peace and good will unto all ' 
men; but in latter years he dropped creed, ap- 
parently in the belief that a man could be a I 
good man and (.'hristian without the influence of 
sects, living in the love (not the fear) of God 
and his good works. 

Mr. Lewelling married Miss Elvy KUiott five 
years before moving to Iowa. Right children 
were born to him, six son? — Kli, Klisha, Silas, 
.Scth, Arthur and Harvey .J. — in the order in 
which they are named. Eli, the eldest, still 
lives on the old hom' stead at San Lorenzo. 
Silas and Seth died at eight to ten years of age; 
I'^lisha died a few years ago. He represented 
Alameda county in the Legislature just before 
his death. Harvey is with his mother on the 
home place at St. llelena. Of the daugliters — 
Sarah and Dclila- the latter died in infancy: 
Sarah lived to womanhood and married a Mr. 
Hobert King, who kept a commission house in 
San Francisco for a number of years. They 
returned to Iowa, mIh rr she died about fifteen 
years ago, leaving three children. 

The elegant marble bust of himself in the 
grounds of his home (emblematical of his life 
and works), was .appropriately draped in 

In accordance with his wishes, he was buried 
at San Lorenzo, Alameda county, showing his 
affection for his old home. His remains were 
bi-ouglit down on Wednesday morning's train 
by his mourning relatives and friends. 
The mourning procession was met at Oakland 
Point by a delegation of old neighbors and 
friends from San Francisco and San Lorenzo, 
who accompanied the remains to their last rest- 
ing place. 

Grange Elections. 

Wkst .loxi^fiN Ck.vxce. — J. M. Ker- 
linger, M.; Rufus Saddlemire, O. : Mrs. .T. M. 
Kerlinger, L.: Alanson P. Stocking, S.: Cyrus 
1). Needham, A. S.; .lacob (^luackenbush, C: 
.James C. Allen, Treas.: H. Burr Needham, 
Sec: .James I.,. Williams, (}. K.: Mrs. R. 
Saddlemire, Pomona; Miss Alice .Saddlemire, 
Flora; Mrs. .1. G. Dean, Ceres; Mrs. .J. L. 
Williams, L. A. .S.; \V. Haynes, Trustee for 
three years. 

Knteri'kisk (Ikanck. - F. A. Tibbitts, M.; 
A. A. Krull, O. (re elected); i. H. Atkins, L.; 
Henry Fay, S,; E. Ames, A. .s. (re-elected); F. 
L. Bell, C; Sister Sarah E. Coy, Treas.: 
-Minnie L. I'luminer, Sec. (re-elected); (Jeorge 
Baker, O. K.; Sister (ieorgia Wilson, Pomona; 
.Sister Emma H. Hass, Flora; Sister Letitia A. 
Hanlon, Ceres; Sister Estella Bell, L. A. S. 

P.\so Rom.Ks (;k.\m!e.— H. W. Rhyne, M.; 
A. N. Rude, O ; P. T. Waggner, L. ; U. V. 
Baley, .S. ; .J. F. Botts, A. S. ; Maggie Hutson, 
C. : P. Klipple, Treas.: Kittie Middleton, Sec; 
F. Rhyne, <;. K. ; VAWa Fortney, Pomona: Ella 
Waggner, Flora ^Lena Waggner, Ceres: Sarah 
Rhyne. L. A. S. ;^.,evi Kxline, D. F. Stockdale, 
P. T. Waggner, Trustees. 

SoiTH Stttek Gk.'V.m;e. — Chas. Brown, M. ; 
R. Mahon, O. ; Cyrus Biiggs, L., -J. W. Jones, 
S. : Michael McNamai-a, A. S. ; Sister .M. Don- 
aldson, C; H. Sankey, Treas. ; Ella M. .(ones. 
Sec: Win. Roberts, C K.; Sister Lottie .Jones, 
Cerci-.; R. A. .Jones, Pomona; Ivatie McNamara, 
Flora; Ann Roberts, L. A. S. ; R. Mahon, 

office. W e are glad to know Inai tne esteemed 
brother has safely returned, and we doubt not 
is ready to {)romote the interests of the Order 
in this .'^tate with his characteristic zeal and de- 

I r is arranged that Eden and Temescal shall 
have a union installation meeting on the third 
.Saturday in .January with Temescal (Jrange, at 
thc(irauge hall in Oakland. 



Stockton Gka.m:k will install its officers on 
.Saturday, the 1 2th. The (irange meets at 10 
\.yi. for regular business; "has a feast at 12 
o'clock; and an instulktion at half-past one, 
All grangers are invited to attend. 

Reti uNKii.— AVehad the honor the other day 
of a call from the \\ . .M. of the State Orange, 
.S. T. Coulter, on his arrival from tha 


Kast, but we were unfortunately absent from the 

EniTiiK.'- PKK^s.s : — The farmers iu this part of 
the county are already discouraged, and have 
quit putting in any more seed until they see 
more rain. The sheep men have great trouble 
in procuring feed for their tlocks, as the old feed 
is nearly all gone and there is little or no green 
grass. W.M. B. F.M'lknek, Midway, .January 

Contra Costa. 

(Jlive Crui RE. — Concord Sun: Mr. .John 
< Garcia, whose handsome ranch is located about 
two miles from Concord, has growing two olive 
trees, which he planted some six years ago. At 
that time they were two years old. They now 
bear about ten gallons of fruit to each tree, and 
will keep on increasing its yield until it attains 
an age of twenty-five or thirty years. Mr. 
t iarcia experiences no ditticulty in their growth. 
We believe the tree, if planted in sufficient 
quantities, would become very profitable to the 
farmer. .Surely many of our farmers would not 
miss an acre of'^and set out in this valuable 
tree, the revenue from which would more than 
twice exceed that of grain including their cost 
and the years they are not ijearing. Beside the 
industry it would open up if generally grown 
would amply repay those whose enterprise 
largely contributed to their growth in this 

Soil, i-ou ( iUAi'Ks. — Mr. .1. C. Rishop, of Napa 
county, appointed by the State Viticultural 
Association to test the soils of gr.apt -growing 
counties of this State, lately visited Contra 
(/Osta, and was much pleased with his trip. On 
closely examining the soils in the fruit belt of 
this county he stated it as his opinion that it 
not only >\as equal to the best in all of the fruit 
counties, but superior to any of them for grape 
purposes. Some of the land he tested was on 
the Cavan.igh ranch, near town, the soil of 
which he declared superior to any he had ex 
amined. It is true that Contra Costa has been 
on the market as a grape growing region but a 
short time, the farmers being unaware until 
very lately of the remarkable bonanza in their 
hands. But that short time has fully demon 
strated the fact of the superiority of the soils of 
Contra Costa for wine production and the 
growth of large v .rieties of fruits. Almost 
everything planted has grown -^uickly and pro- 
duced lavishly. 

El Dorado. 

TiiK.w (Jkai'BS. — Placerville D>-mocrcU, Jan. 
.■); (i. W. Ramsey was over from Coloma a 
few days ago. and in a conversation with our 
editor stated that he had two and a half acres 
of Tokay grapes from which he had realized tliis 
year, delivered in Sacramento, §oOO. And yet 
there are hundreds of acres of just as good land 
as Mr. Ramsey's in El Dorado county tliat can 
be bought for from $3 to-S.") per acre. 


M ine Sale. — Mr. Barton, of the Barton 
viney.nrd. is staking up all his grape vines, ex- 
cept the Muscats, and a few others. Mr. Bar- 
ton has already sold •20,000 gallons of his new 
wine crop to an Eastern house at .">0 cents per 
gallon in bulk, the buyer to pay for casks and 
drayage, .and afterwards was offered 27' cents 
for the balance on the same conditions, and re- 
fused. This price appears to be about 20 per 
cent above the rates current last year, and is 
very profitable to the manufacturer, paying 

I him over .?300 jier acre. 

: Los Angeles. 

I The W.xttle. — //'rnW.' Mr. J. De Barth 
j Shorb has sent to Australia for a package of 
seeds of the wattle tree, a species of the accacia 
' tree, and is now planting ten acres of that im- 
i portant plant. This tree is one of the most im- 
I portant that can be introduced into the .State. 
I The bark of the wattle tree possesses one huu- 
I di ed times the amount of tannic acid that is pos- 
j sessed by the oak, and in addition to pos»essing 
I this valuable property, is also very valuable for 
I timber. The young tree as a sapling is valuable 
' as a hoop pole, and the old tree is valuable 
I for staves for cooperage purposes. At the 
age of five years the tree is old enough to be 
peeled for its bark. The tree is consid- 
ered so immcn.<cly valuable in Australia 
that the government has forbidden its destruc- 
tion and has taken wise and prudent steps to 
promote its cultivation. As a couBccjuence 
! there are now four hundred and ninety tan- 
' y.ards in Australia that use the bark of this in- 
valuable tree, and the millions of pelts and 
hides that were formerly sent out from that 
' great country are now tanned and sent out as 
leather at five times the value of the raw matc- 
' rial. This enterprise that Mr. Shorl. has inau- 
gurated may be of great .advantage to this sec- 
tion of the country. We have an abundance of 
j land for planting the wattle tree, and need all 
the timber it produces, while the number of 

pelts and hides that could be furnished is 
counted by the hundreds of thousands. Mr. 
Shorb has spent a large; sum of money to intro- 
duce this remarkable tree, which seems to be 
just what is needed in this country. It grows 
without irrigation, is valuable as hoop pole 
timber, later as a tree for coojieragc, a good ar- 
ticle for fuel, and the best tree for tannic acid 
known to the world. The introduction of this 
tree may make an important epoch in the his- 
tory of .Southern California. Ifhe tree is al- 
ready growing iu dill'erent parts of the State in 
a small way. -Ens. Pkess.] 

The CiTiiiiEKT Kaspberkv. Times: Mr. 
E. Pollard, of the Alhambra Tract, .San Gabriel, 
has sent to the Timex office some of his luscious 
Cuthbert raspberries, the first crop of which, he 
says, commenced ripening in .lune and contin- 
ued through .August. The second crop comes 
on in December and holds on until the first of 
February. Nothing could be more delicious at 
this time of the year than this beautiful fruit. 
In addition to tlie above Mr. Robert Rensliaw 
has also presented the 'J"tm< s with a box of his 
fine raspberrii s grown on his place in this city, 
the fruit being fully e(|iial to any that is ever 
seen in the markets of this city. 

\'iNE Plantinc. — Mr. R. McPherson, of Or- 
ange, whose raisins are becoming the pride of 
his life, was in the city yesterday on business. 
He reports the probable planting of a million 
more raisin vines this winter in his vicinity, 
while Mr. C. E. White, of Pomona, reports a 
probable planting of .")(X),000 vines at that place. 
The same amount will be planted near Fulton 
Wells. These amounts, with those before men- 
tioned, make an aggregate planting in prospect 
of 5,000,000 vines in Los Angeles county this 
winter. It may exceed that amount, and 
probably will But 5,(WO,000 vines per annum 
can easily be planted in this county for many 
years to come. The great wineries of the world 
will hereafter be situated in this imperial 

San Diego 

Pliiwinc and Sowinc. San Diego I'liioii: 
Sealxirn .S. Stnne, of S.anta Maria, was in town 
yesterday. He represents his section as being 
one of great activity at present, the farmers 
all being busy plowing and sowing. There will 
be put to grain in the Santa Maria valley this 
season over 3,000 acres. 

ClTRi s Furns. - Mr. G. B. Perelli yester- 
day, made his first shipment of citrus fruits 
from this county, to Gulli & Co., of .San Fran- 
cisco, it being some limes from the place of P. 
P. Tomcny, of .Spring Valley. Mr. Perelli ex- 
pects to r«;<-idve 20(7 orange bo.vcs by the next 
steamer, mIicii he will at once commence ship- 
ping orang''3. 

J. .S. Hakvev brought in a load of oranges 
yesterday from his Jamul ranch. They were 
mostly of the Navel and Konah varieties, and 
are the finest we have seen in the market of 
this year's crop. They were purchased ny 
Wolfsheiiiier and Francisco & McKee. Mr. 
Harvey says that while his orange crop the 
present season will be smaller last year, 
the quality is much better. 

San Luis Obispo, 

Si.Ai iMiTKUiNii AND Pai kini;. —Triliiiiti , Jan. 
4: The exten^ive slaughtering and pork pack- 
ing est.ablishment of Hon. (ieo. Steele on the 
Corral de Piedra is worthy of inspection. 
There are broad fields where cattle are grazed 
and ingeniously constructed corrals into which 
they are driven, with gates and lanes leading 
them unconsciously and by their own volition 
and impulse to the narrow passage from which 
there is no return and to their iloom. This 
system of corrals and passages was suggeateil 
by the usual course taken by half-wild cattle on 
being driven to a slaughter house, and now but 
little of the former trouble and danger is en- 
countered. The slaughtering establishment is 
on an elevated piece of land about a quarter of 
a mile west of the residence, and commanding 
an extensive view. This is supplied with all 
the conveniences for carrying on the sanguinary 
business, such as are in use in the great estab- 
lishments of the cities, with boilers for heating 
water v\itli which all expired parts are washed 
daily, thus maintaining the necessary clean- 
liness. Here is prepared tlie greater part of 
the moat used in .'>in Luis Obispo. Besides 
the fresh meats prepared, great numbers of 
swine are killed, and the meat salted and 
smoked. Convenient to the slaughter hoUHe are 
large pens and corrals for hogs where several 
hundred great aniinalK are constantly kept 
and the daily procession to the sticking grounil 
is maintiiined. .\t the time of our visit the 
pork was laying in gn at piles, evenly stacked 
in layers with s.ilt, with near 100,000 pounds 
to a pile, and other pih s of neatly trimmed 
hams and .-liioulders. All this pork was waiting 
its turn in the iriiioke house, which is situated 
about ^nc hundred feet distant. The Smoke 
house is cap.ible of taking in about ten thousand 
pounds at a time, where it is cured by smoke 
from green oak wood. In another house are 
furnaces and cauldrons with vats and presses, 
for the rendering of laid, and many hundred 
tin cans tilled ami piled away show the work 
that has been done. Here as elsewhere are 
seen the maqy little conveniences the inventor 
of modern times has prepared to aid in the 
economical and time-saving work of this busi- 
ness. In packing the pork and curing the hides 
of cattle and pelts of sheep from five to teutons 
of salt is used monthly, being Liverpool and 
Carmen Island salt for the meat and refuse salt 
for the hides. Liverpool salt is bought in San 
Fraiicjaco, »n<| costs itt tlie Rlaughter house 

January 12, 1884 ] 

about .$21 per ton. Carmen Island salt costs 
about ?1 8 per ton, and the salt for the hides 
$5.50 a ton. The establishment is carried on 
under the superintendency of Mr. A. T. Mason, 
but Judge Steele keeps constant watchfulness 
over all. 

EcYPTiAN Wheat. — A sack of wheat was 
left at the ■Tribune office a few days since, and 
attached to it was a box securely tied and 
sealed with wax and bearing a strange and for- 
eign stamp. Opening the box a mass of wheat 
heads, oi' rather one large liead of wheat was 
found. We have since received a letter from 
Mr. Gerhard Leff, well known in San Luis 
Obispo, now of (Juadalupe, Santa Barbara coun- 
tj', saying he sends us a sack of wheat and 
sample of hta s received from his brother, who 
is Consul at Alexandria, Egypt. The Consul 
states that ' this is a hardy wheat, free from 
rust, makes an excellent flour and grows one 
inindred bushels per acre." 

Santa Barbara. 
Poultry Product.^ bv Weight. — Imhpen- 
dent: Markets are to blame for the lack of pat- 
ronage by farmers with poultry breeders. The 
market pays just as much for a dozen Leghorn 
or common fowl eggs as it will for ojie dozen of 
the Asiatic; the carcass of a miserable, impov- 
erished cock or hen is worth just as much in 
this market as the carcass of a well fed mem- 
ber of any of the large breeds of Chinese or 
domestic fowls. This is due to the stupidity of 
any pioneer market. No older State in the 
Union but buys poultry by the pound, and the 
restaurants and hotels of the East are always 
willing to pay more for the eggs of the Asi- 
atics, than they do for the eggs of common 
stock. A thoroughbred cock introduced into 
a flock of common hens increases the size of 
his get or increases the, production of eggs or 
both, depending upon the breed so introduced. 
Now, if by so doing the farmer does not gain 
in all the benefits produced and given the con- 
sumer, he lias a fair argument in his favor for 
not patronizing those engaged in the laudable 
ociupation of benefiting our feathered tribe. 
The villager cannot purchase food and raise 
poultry of high class in small inclosures, at 50 
cents each or .^iO per dozen, with profit. A fowl 
will eat about one bushel of grain a year, be- 
sides scraps, lime, bone, oyster shells, etc. 
lOach bird, after maturity, will cost about ten 
cents per month to keep. The Chinese, the 
largest of all breeds, will obtain six or seven 
pounds in as many months. It will at once 
appear that profit is out of the question, and 
loss quite certain in this market, when these 
giant birds, whose eggs are appraised in other 
markets to be worth much more for their 
greater size and richness, bring in California 
the same the dozen eggs that would weigh 
but half as much upon the scales. New York 
reports quote this month newly laid eggs .35C"'45 
cents; fowls from I0("11 cents per pound. 
There is a bid for specialty and good breeding. 
Here worth is paid lor. Our own markets must 
buy the farmers' produce for what it is worth ; 
then our feathered tribe will feel the stimulus 
of justice. Our butchers would look aghast if 
his customer demanded a leg of mutton for the 
price of a leg of landj, or the ribs of a six 
months' old beef at the price of a two year old. 
Why not accord the same fairness to poultry 
that we do to beef, mutton or porky The con- 
sumer and producer woidd both feel and enjoy 
the justice of buying and selling poultry and 
eggs by the pound. 


Featurks (IK THE Cou.NTY. — /''ariTicr: Sutter 
county is remarkable in many respects, chiefiy 
with regard to its geographical position, its 
wonderful fertility, its many small farms, and 
its industrious and frugal inhabitants. It is the 
only county in the State whose territory touches 
neither Sierra or Coast mountains, being w holly 
situated within the valley of the Sacramento, 
and lying very nearly in thu geographical center 
of it. The Hutte mountains are situated en- 
tirely in this county, in the northwest corner, 
and rise up out of the valley, rocky and abrupt, 
like a huge pile of rocks on a level surface. 
Their hight is about 2,000 feet; two peaks (the 
North and South Butte) stand out in bold relief 
against the sky like huge church spires. All 
around the base of these wonderful mountains 
lie nooks and coves opening out to the great 
valley, of great fertility and romantic beauty, 
each one the home of some thrifty farmer. The 
county is small, and yet within its borders there 
are not les than 1.10,000 acres of land that is not 
arable. This is composed of the Butte niount2 
ains, and the several tule basins which lii 
wholly or partly in the county. The arable 
land is nowhere excelled in fertility, and this 
section being favored with seasonable rains be- 
yond other localities, and which has become a 
distinguishing feature around this monster pile 
of rocks, and by many supposed to be the rod 
that draws the water from the clouds. There 
are no large ranches as in the other valley 
counties and every farm contains at least one 
family and some of them more; hence, school- 
houses and churches are numerous and well 
patronized by an orderly and intelligent people. 
Among such a people the labor problem cuts no 
importmt figure, as they need very little assis- 
tance from the tramp element or the outside 
world. Every acre of arable land is under a 
high state of cultivation, and is yielding to the 
husbandman a profitable return for his labor. 
To set this forth in a tangible form it is only 
necessary to mention the single product of 
wTjeat. It is safe to assume that for the last 
ten years our county has produced at least 

50,000 tons annually, or sufficient to load 50 
1,000-ton ships to feed the people of other 
lands. Herein lies the secret of the prosperity 
of our less than 0,000 peo,ple. But the county 
is also noted for its barley, hay and vegetable 
productions, and for fruits of all kinds it can- 
not be excelled; and the latter is soon to be- 
come (next to wheat) the leading industry. 
This will call for small farms and a dense popu- 
lation, which will insure yet greater prosperity. 
The climate is equable and is largely influenced 
by the periodical trade winds from the Pacific. 
The price of land varies according to quality, 
location and improvements, 'the best of wheat 
lands can be had for from .§30 to !fGO per acre, 
and the best fruit lands from §100 to .§200 per 
aore. Our people are disposed to help them- 
selves in all things. They have combined in 
the construction of grain warehouses at the 
various shipping points on both river and rail 
to hold the entire wheat crop. They have com- 
bined in the construction of a fi'uit cannery, 
which, under the circumstances, cannot fail of 
success. They have combined with their neigh- 
bors to save their river system and their homes 
from destruction by the debris demon, and of 
necessity they must succeed. 

Santa Cruz. 

Farmer's As.sociation. — EnrroRs Press : — 
The associaxion met at Santa Cruz, at the office 
of the Secretary, on Saturday, .Tan. 5, 1884, at 
I o'clock 1'. M., the President, F. A. Hihn, in 
the chair. Minutes of the last regular meeting 
read and approved. F. A. Hihn, from the com- 
mittee on insuring the library, reported that the 
library has been insured for -§200. On motion, 
the report was accepted and adopted, and the 
committee discharged. V. A. Hihn, from the 
committee'on the consolidation of this association 
with the Fair Building Association, submitted 
a written report. On motion, the report was 
received and committee discharged. The re- 
port was then discussed at length by Messrs. 
F. A. Hihn, E. Dakin, K. Conant, M. 
Kinsley and L. K. Baldwin, when, on 
motion further discussion on the report was 
continued till the next meeting. The com- 
mittee appointed to see the trustees of the 
City Library with regard to the library of this 
association report progress, and requested 
further time, which, on motion, was granted. 
On motion the election of officers of this asso- 
ciation was postponed till Saturday, Api-il .">, 
1SS4, and the present officers were continued 
till that time. The report on the consolidation 
of the two societies will be considered by 
Fair Building Association at the annual meet- 
ing in March, 1884, and if adopted by that 
association will be brought before this associa- 
tion for final action at the meeting in April. — 
KocER Conant, Secretary. 

Berries. — Courier- Item: Last year there 
were but 90 acres in the Pajaro valley in berries. 
This year there will be 200. The people of this 
county are waking up to their advantages as a 
fruit-growing section. C' rapes in the mountains, 
berries in the lowlands, and apples everywhere, 
particularly along the foot hill range that 
extends from one boundary of the county to 
the other, and in some localities from the top- 
most mountains to the sea. It is hard to find 
an acre of land in this county that will not 
raise a first-class article of fruit of some variety. 


The 0\a\v..— Signal : For years the Tapo 
and Camulos olives have held a foremost 
place in our local market, as the trees in those 
beautiful nooks thrive wondei'fully, and the 
succulent olive has reached perfection. But 
little if any oil has been made, however, all the 
fruit going into pickle. There are many places 
in Ventura county where the olive might be 
profitably grown; and although slow to attain 
a bearing age — seven years — it is a live-long 
competency, and a rich patrimony to those who 
come after you. 












The Langshan Premiums. 

Editors : — In your last issue Mrs. Raynor, 
of Fruit Vale, claims to liave r.-iised all the Langshan 
fowls that were awarded premiums at our late poultry 
show. I will say Mrs. R. made an excellent display, 
as well as many other breeders, though 1, for one, as 
an exhibitor of that variety, claim she did not raise 
mine, neither did she ever see one of them. I have 
bought fowls from the lady, and have been well 
treated by her. 1 think I have paid as high prices 
for I^angshan fowls, and believe have imported as 
manv as Mrs. Raynor. Our fowls were exhibited at 
State Fair together. She took first on old fowls, and 
second on young. I was awarded second on old 
fowls and first on young. At our late poultry show 
in San Francisco I had only one pen Langshans and 
our premium list will tell how many premiums I re- 
ceived, and the entry list will show how many each 
entered. Mrs. Raynor took first on Rouen ducks, 
and I would like to ask her wlio bred and raised that 
pair of ducks. I don't write this to advertise my 
poultry, but as an act of justice to all parties inter- 
ested. — R. G. Head, Napa, Cal. 

We stated last week that the printer made 
Mrs. Raynor's claim broader than she intended. 
She meant to claim all the male birds were her 
breeding; but even this claim does not seem to 
agree with Mr. Head's views. We wish our 
I)oultry friends would be very careful what they 
claim. They often put us to the trouble of 
printing counter claims, when the whole matter 
might as well have been avoided by a little fore- 
thought on the part of the claimants. We are 
disposed to do all such exact justice that we 
fear we are sometimes, unintentionally no doubt, 
misled by our friends. 

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A Hai'pyNew Year.— Editors Press;— The 
Ri'RAL Press, the best of all papers, has made 
its regular weekly visits for another year, 
bringing with it light, kajuvledge and good 
cheer to each member of the family. It has be- 
come almost a household necessity. We wish 
it a happy and a prosperous New Year. — Ii. 
K. I'ER(;tTsoN', Uncle Sam, Lake Co., Cal. 

Silk Culture Meetings. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Cali- 
fornia Silk Culture Association was held on the 
3d instant at the association's rooms in the 
Grangers' Building, No. 40 California street, 
I'resident W. B. Ewer in the chair. 

The Treastirer, Mrs. S. A. Raymond, reported 
cash on hand December 1, 1883, ii!212.77; re- 
ceipts during the month, .^17.75. Total, .'^220.. 52. 
Disbursements during the month, f?99.80: leav- 
ing a balance on hand, January 1, 1884, of 

Mrs. Hittell read a letter from Belding 
Brothers & Co., of Chicago, thanking the asso- 
ciation for cocoons sent to the firm. The letter 
inclosed a donation of .?15 to the association. 

The subject of the planting and culture of 
mulberry trees, which was under discussion at 
the last meeting was taken up again. 

It was stated that fifty applications for mul- 
berry slips had been received since thepreviou3 

.•\ committee was appointed to nominate 
officer-s for the ensuing year, to be voted for at 
the annual meeting of the association on the 
third Thursday in .January. 

Mrs. M. A. Sheldon reported that she had 
caused fifteen hundred copies of the annual re- 
port of the association lor the year 1SS2 to be 
published, and that she had succeeded in ob- 
taining advertisements, which were printed with 
the report, sufficient to jiay all the expenses of 
publication, besides compensating her for her 
time and trouble. 

On Friday, the 4th instant, the Statu Board 
of Silk ( 'ulture met at the same rooms as above. 
President C. A. Buckboe in the chair. .Mrs. 
Barker, Chairtnan of the Executive Committee, 
submitted a request from that comnuttee for 
consideration by the Board, for money to im- 
port some fine varieties of mulberry trees from 
Italy. 'I'he recommendation was approved, 
with the proviso that the amount to be ad- 
vanced for the trees should not exceed •'?20. The 
relative importance of the .lapanese and French 
or Italian cocoons was discussc'l. It was stated 
that from the first grade of .Japanese cocoons 
the white silk was quite e(jual to the European 
raw silk, but the second variety, of a green 
tinge, was wholly inferior. The necessity of 
examining some very choice silkworm eggs re- 
ceived from Italy, by the aid of experts, was 
discussed and judged desirable. 

It wat- requested that any parties wishing 
silkworm eggs communicate at once with the 
Secretary, Mrs. S. A. Raymond. 

The Treasurer's report showed an aggregate 
of exijcnses of 1388. !)S incurred by the Board 
for the month of December. Among the 
numerous letters read was one from a lad of 
thirteen, who had taken a prize for cocoons of 
his own raising, saying that he meant to go on 
with the industry. A large numlier of other 
letters were read or referred to asking for in- 
structions about silkworm raising and the culti- 
vation of mulberry trees. One of the 
letters was from Philadelphia, expressing in- 
terest in the work of sericulture in California. 
The number of pupils at the filature rose to 
elev'en during the month of December, and six 
pounds eleven and three-eighths ounces of silk 
were reeled. 

It was stated that the water of California 
was liettfer adapted for the preparation of 
cocoons for reeling than the water of any other 
country, on account of its great softness and 
the alisence of alkaline substances in it, two 
qualities important in the production of good 
silk. Upon the question whether the filature 
should be kept open two months longer, in 
order to finish reeling the silk on hand, as it 
impairs the value of the .silk to store the 
cocoons, it was voted to keep the filature open 
for two months more, even though the funds 
for doing so were not all a State Board of ."^ilk 
Culture could wish. Eight more i-eels are 
needed before next season, and good i-eels, which 
are imported from Italy, cost i^liO .apiece. The 
Board is so earnest and the prospect of gradu- 
ating fifteen well-taught teachers of silk reeling 
from the filature so pleasing, that it is deplor- 
able the committees should be cramped for 
money in extending their interesting work. 

Several ladies connected with the public 
schools were present at the meeting. After 
adjournment, the subject of providing and dis- 
tributing mulberry slips was discussed. An 
offer from Mr. Sellers to furnish trees at $5 a 
thousand was appro\ ed, and also an offer from 
Dr. (iibbons to furnish 5,000 trees for nothing 
if the Board would pay for the cutting and 
transportation of the slips. 

The annual meeting of the Silk Culture 
Association will be held on the 1 7th. 

The hop growers of New Y'ork have united 
in an effort to secure the enactment of a law by 
the Legislature recjuiring the brewers and 
dealers to brand each and every bottle of beer, 
ale and porter with the articles from which 
such beverages are made, together with the 
amount of the same, under heavy penalty. 

AVe take pleasure in calling attention to the 
advertisement of the Fancher Creek Nursery, 
of Fresno, wjiich is under the intelligent man- 
agement of Mr. Uustave Eisen. 

Mr. PiEKf'E advertises 
some of his choice cattle, 

in another column 

The Ui'kal and the Hoktici lturists.— I 
have been taking your paper for two years past. 
I find it almost indispensable to me, as I am in- 
terested in fruit culture. I regard your paper 
■as wide awake to the interests of horticulture 
in this State. Continue to give us all the light 
you can on the suliject, and the Ri'RAL will find 
a welcome at the home of every friend of horti- 
culture in the State. — Wm. Ro.s.s, San Jose. 

Corrections. — Readers of the Mendocino hop 
article in the last Rural might wonder how 
"packing" hops could cost eight cents per 
pound. It should have been printed "picking." 
In the article on the Kiellcr pear the week be- 
fore, an individual named "C. A. Honey" was 
mentioned. Of course it should be C. A. Hovey, 
the well known horticulturist. 



[January 12, 1884 

Fairy Love. 

[Written for tlie Ri k.m, I'ltEss, liv Marv KimiKLL Cori.rv. I 

She was slender and fair, with golden hair — 
The sweet wee maiden whom I remember. 

Then it was May and the birds were gay — 
Now it is far in the bleak December. 

The flowers and trees in the summer breeze 
Whispered and gossiped all day together. 

The bees, who knew they had work to do, 
Were blithe and brisk in the fair, bright wiather. 

The child's blue eyes from the smiling skies 
Borrowed the color and light and glory; 

The soul «as lillfd with a tliougiil that thrilled. 
Caught from a wonderful, h ilf-read story. 

So 'mid tlic flowers, througli the fleeting hours. 
She sought for fairies, so deftly hidden; 

She buried her nose in the sweet, red rose. 
And peeped in the lily's heart unbidden. 

She heard a whir, a rustle and stir 

Down in the hollyhock flower so slender; 

But the wee, live thing had a spiteful sting. 
And not the touch of a fairy tender. 

The white pink lent but its sweet, pure scent, 

liut not an echo of fairy laughter; 
The tulip cup in her face looked up. 

And held no secret to follow after. 

With heart and might till the fading light. 
She followed her quest with a growing wonder; 

And went to bed, with her small, wise head 
I'illed with thoughts of a world beyond her. 

.Still, in her nest, with the feet at rest, 
The peace of the night on her fair face falling, 

Silent she lay, the thought of the day 
In magical, mystical dreams recalling. 

And into the deep, fair l e.ilms of sleep. 
There shone sweet eyes in the darkness beaming, 

.And a tender word in the darkness stir ed, 

Whose music echoed through all her dreaming. 

''Sweet be your sleep, while the bright star.s peep 
With glancing eyes through a fleecy curtain; 

And take all things that the glad day brings. 
And sigh no more for a joy uncertain. 

"A day will come when the flowers, now dumb. 
Shall chant their music in fairy numbers. 

And a fine old ear shall clearly hear 
.\s memory wakes from her noon-day slumbers. 

".■\ rose may hold, for a heart grown old, 
.•\ tale of a love in the old time given; 

-And the mignonette, by the night dews wet, 
The smile of a dear child called to Heaven. 

"The fragrance brief, of a fair, green leaf, 
.Shall whisper of girlhood s favored lover; 

And thoughts that How from the long ago 
Shall fairy love to thy heart discover. 

"And the faded eyes with a pleased surprise, 
Seeking the flowers in their summer glory, 

.Shall light on the truth they missed in youth. 
Hid in the heart of the fairy story." 

A Deed of Noble Daring. 

(Written for the Rcral Pkkks, bj Emily P. Collix.s.] 
"^^'hat an awkward fellow tliat Fred. Belden 
is — a regular country greeny!" remarked Ar- 
thur Trumbull, who was quite aristocratic in 
his feelings, and thought that gentility was the 
most desirable and highest possible ac(iuire- 
meut. "He didn't seem to know what to do 
with his hands as he satin the parlor; and when 
we came out to the table I expected to sec him 
drink from his finger-bowl, pour his tea into his 
saucer, and feed liimself with the knife instead 
of the fork." 

"If you expected anything from Fred. Uelden 
contrary to the usages of good society you 
would have been disappointed,'' said Mrs. 
Trumbull, "for though he was evidently much 
embarrassed, having always lived in the coun- 
try and mingled with none but plain, homespun 
people, yet he has a retinod and careful mother, 
who has reared him to observe all the real pro- 
prieties of society. You did not hear him use 
such terms as hiseu, youru or thoirn, for his, 
yours or theirs, or say 'me and Bob brung in 
them apples,' or anything ungramniatieal, for 
his mother taught him to speak correctly when 
a child, as she hei-self spoke." 

"W ell, I wouldn't keep a boy back in the 
country, always, where he never sees anything 
and has no advantages," said Arthur; "for when 
I went down town witli him last evening his 
ignorance was very amusing. When we went 
past I'ieree's saloon, Fred, saw the sign 'Sample 
Room,' and said. 'I suppose they are samples of 
dry goods that are on exhibition there.' 'Not 
exactly,' said I, 'but wet samples for dry cus- 
tomers.' " 

"It is a great pity that some of our city boys 
were not as ignorat as Fred, of such things," re- 
marked Mrs. Trumbull. 

" He went with me into the museum," con- 
tinued Arthur, "and I took him into the room 
where the automatic harlequin is, which I 
thijik is the greatest curiosity in the museum ; 

but he did not seem to care anything about it, 
and wandered into the room of geological speci- 
mens, and pored over those stupid old pieces oT 
rocks along time. Then he became greatly in- 
terested in the specimens of motlis, butterflies 
and beetles and such trifling things. But he 
tried to excuse such childish curiosity, saying 
that he only wanted to see how the different 
insects, that destroyed their crops and fruit, 
looked in the various stages of their existence';" 

"Ho you call that a childish curiosity, Ar- 
thur?" interposed Kate, Arthur's sister, "when 
such men as Agassiz and Harwin devoted al- 
most a lifetime to the study of such trifliiuj 
things, as you call them '; That shows only his 
eagerness to acquire useful knowledge: and 1 
•vnsh tliat you were equally earnest in the pur- 
suit of it. You talk of his being ignorant; I 
have not found a young man in our city as well 
informed upon every subject as he.'' 

" I would like to know how you found it 
out," said Arthur, " for I didn't hear him say 
twenty words.'' 

" Well, he couldn't talk before you, for he 
is very diffident and bashful, and you have 
such a supercilious manner. I showed him 
those ' Art Treasures,' and he knew the 
history of almost every scene or figure that the 
engravings presented, and criticised them like 
an artist. Then I drew him on to talk of 
other subjects, and I was surprised to find him 
possessed of such a wonderful fund of knowl- 
edge, and that he could express his ideas so 
well. I observed, too, that his teeth, uu- 
.stained by tobacco smoke, w'ere pearly white; 
and, (), such lovely eyes as he has — dark chest- 
nut, with long lashes." 

"And face and hands of the same color," 
added Arthur. 

" Of course, his face and hands were browned 
with the sun, as a farmer's should be ; but 
where his forehead had been shaded by his hat, 
it was as clear and white as an infant's." 

" How W'Ould Cl'.arlie Peer like to hear you 
rave over the perfections of that country clod- 

"Arthur," said his mother sternly, "I will 
not hear such a contemptuous term applied to 
the worthy son of one who was my dearest 
friend in my schoolgirl days. Slie married 
( ieorge Belden, a farmer, and a good man, and 
has lived a happy and contented, but a retired 
life, training up her children to be useful 
members of coiiimunit^-, though they have had 
none of the so-called advantages that the city 
might have afforded. But the disadvantages 
that a city presents to our boys far more than 
counterbalances all its advantages." 

Mrs. Trumbull was right; for though in a 
city there are libraries, lyceuins, lectures, and 
schools in which every branch of useful or orna- 
mental learning is taught, yet, there, too, are 
all kinds of amusements, especially for lads who 
are allowed a liberal supply of money to tempt 
them from study; and tliere is dissolute com- 
pany to entice them from the ])aths of purity, 
temperance and rectitude. Ah, happy is the 
mother, who in the (juiet of some rural vale 
can rear her sons to habits of virtue and honest 
industry. Little knows slie of the anxious, 
sleepless hours that many a motlier, though 
clad in richest silks and velvets, within her 
gorgeous city home, endnres for the willful, 
wayward boy, whom all her tearful entreaties 
cannot withhold from the alluretneuts that 
rightly entice him away from the paternal roof. 
And those temptations that destroy her ilearest 
hopes, and render ot no avail all the early 
teachings by which she taught to train her 
infant son aright, are tolerated by public 
officials, or are placed before the tlioughtless, 
yielding boy, by the sanction of law, which she, 
being denied all voice in its framing, is power- 
less to oppose. 

Fred. Belden wa.s now making liis way home- 
ward from the city, where he had staid over 
night, having driven in some twenty miles with 
a load of apples and winter vegetables for Mr. 
Trumbull, a wealthy manufacturer, who pre- 
ferred to buy liis supplies direct from a pro- 
ducer whom he knew to be reliable. Fre<rs 
thoughts alternated between Kate Trumbull, 
witli her flaxen curls and w inning ways, and the 
pleasure he would bestow upon liis mother and 
young sisters by the gift of some rare plants 
that he had bought for the little conservatory 
at home, which was the delight of their leisure 
hours in winter, as their flower garden was in 
the summer time. 

"Well, Fred, how did you like the Trumbull 
family';" inquired his mother, as they sat down 
to tea after his arrival at home. 

"Mrs. Trumbull is a vei-y pleasant lady," re- 
plied Fred, "and wished to be cordially remem- 
bered to you. Arthur, I think, is a conceited 
coxcomb; but Kata#is a real sensible girl, and 
very pretty, without one bit of alVectation.' I 
was very much surprised, for I thought all citv 
girls were silly and frivolous, thinking of noth- 
ing but fashions and frizzes, like that set which 
.spent the summer at Mrs. Cooper's boarding 

':Why, my son, a vain, trifling girl will be 
such whether living in city or country, while 
one of good moral sense and sound mind will be 
the satne in any place. 

As for Kate, she involuntarily found her 
thoughts wandering off to Fred Belden, and 
the low, musical tone of his voice, when he 
looked into her eyes, pressed her hand, and said ; 
"fiood bye. I hope we may meet again," still 
lingered in her ears, with an indescribable thrill 
of pleasure that none of her fashionable admir- 
ers had been able to inspire. "What did it 
mean?" she inquired of her heart. "Was she 
in love with this country boy?" Charley Peer, 

w'orthy and accomplished, was her most favored 
lover, whom slie had al nost decided to accept. 
But why was she haunted by the Memory of 
those beautiful dark eyes that seemed to look 
into the depths of her soul ? 

Fred, too, was thinking of Kate, little imag- 
ining that he filled any place in her mind, and 
mentally upbraided his own folly in allowing 
himself to dream so fondly of one who had 
merely pitied his diffidence, and seeking to 
make him feel at ease h,ad kindly entertained 
him for an hour. But it. was impossible to de- 
tach his thoughts from her, and he felt that he 
must ever worship her as a star in the heavens, 
bright but unattainable. Is there a silent, un- 
conscious telegraphy between kindred spirits 
that makes the heart beat responsive to the 
other's throb ? 

"Hello, Henry, let us go in here. I want to 
speak with you,'' said Charlie Peer to an ele- 
gantly attired young man, whom he had over- 
taken on the street. 

"What is the matter, Charlie ? You look as 
forlorn as a forsaken maiden. Has Xell got an- 
other lover and turned you out into the cold, 
or has your Bucephalous broken his leg ? I tell 
you, old boj', if you are going to marry Kate 
Trumbull so soon, and settle down into a virtu- 
ous Benedict it's time you began to reform." 

"It's right you are, for if she does not make 
up her mind to take me soon I shall do some- 
thing desperate." 

"Is it possible !'' said Harry. "I thought 
your afl'ections had been so promiscuously sowed 
around the country that you had none left to be 

"Affections be dashed !" said Charlie. "But 
I am fervently in love with Kate's shekels, for 
she has quite a pile in her own right, and the 
possession of that would gladden my heart, for 
I am in a deuced tight place just now; and I 
want you to lend me a hundred dollars for a 

Kate had heard some whisperings that Charlie 
was a little fast, a term that charitably covers 
the grossest vices — vices which, if they were 
practiced by a daughter would make her an 
outcast in the eyes of the world, but which are 
winked at in the son, while he is courted and 
cherished still by the best society. But Kate 
had begun to imbibe a new idea, which was that 
men should be amenable to the same code of 
morals to which women are subject. She had 
never been so infatuated by her love for Charlie 
as to render her blind or deaf to his faults; so, 
with rare good sense she had determined to de- 
lay the promise tliat would seal her destiny 
till she could learn the truth with regard to 
Charlie's character. 

Fred Belden was diligently at work in the 
fields, and thinking, even more intensely than 
usual, of Kate and the happiness that never 
could be his, for just heard that she was 
soon to be married: and though he had never 
entertained any hope for himself, the 
thought tiiat she was to be another's seemed 
more than he could endure. Thus gloomily 
brooding, he looked up and saw that a team 
with a heavy load was stalled exa'jtly on the 
railroad crossing; and the horses, though stim- 
ulated to their utmost by the driver's whip, 
were unable to move it. He saw, too, that it 
was a load of gunpowder from the powder mills 
just over the hill, and at the same instant his 
ear caught the distant roar of the approaching 
express train. 

He stopped not to think of his own self sac- 
rifice; he saw only the hiindreils of human be 
ings, instantly torn into fragments, and hurled 
into eternity. Not a moment could be lost; 
with the swiftness of the wild deer he bounded 
toward the death-dealing load, vaulted over 
the fence, wrencliing from it a rail as he p,.ssed, 
which he thrust as a pry under the lialf buried 
wheel; .already the fiery monster ha.l emerged 
from a curve in the, and with a long traui 
of crowded passenger car..*, was speeding to an 
awful fate, at the rate of forty-five miles per 
hour. The engineer saw the peril; recognized 
the deadly nature of the obstacle, instantly 
whistled down brakes, and reversed the engine: 
but too late to stop the headway of the pon- 
derous machine, whose fiery breath Fred al- 
most felt, as with superhuman strength he 
lifted the wheel: the lashed animals sprang 
forward, the wagon moved, and just cleared 
the track as the engine swept by, with the en- 
gineer bravely standing at his post, but with a 
face white and^ rigid as marble. The truin 
came to a stand to take on tlie fireman who had 
jumped for life, when he first saw the danger. 
Then the passengers became ;iware of the hor- 
rible fate which they had so narrowly escape<l; 
and when they fouiul to whom they were in- 
debted for their safety, that he had periled his 
own life to save theirs, the young man 
overwhelmed with their praises; and though 
he blushed like a young girl, yet there was a 
dignity in his manner that forbade the offer of 
money as a compcns.ition; otherwise, it would 
have been showered upon him: but a collection 
was silently made and entrusted to the con- 
ductor to procure some fitting testimonial of 
their gratitude. Among the ladies who were 
crowding forward to take the liand of their 
brave rescuer, there was one, at the sight of 
wliom, Fred's heart gave a bound of joy and then 
stood still with surprise. It was Kate Trum- 
bull. It was a moment of sujireme happiness 
for him, to feel that it was himself who had 
saved the life that was the most precious of 
aught the earth contained. As for Kate, she 
was no less agitated and surprised to find that 
the hero of the hour was the one whose image 

had been so strangely impressed upon her 
thoughts; for she had not been aware that she 
was in the neighborhood of his home. It re- 
quired no great amount of persuasion to induce 
her then and there to leave the cars, to make 
Fred's mother, as the friend of lier own, a visit: 
for Kate had no very definite destination in 
view, .as she was merely Hitting from one place 
to another as her fancy dictated, to pass away 
the time till a confidential friend should 
ascert<iin the truth with regard to the un- 
pleasant rumors as to the kind of life that 
Charlie was leading. 

Well would it be if every young lady would use 
the same caution and good judgment in a matter 
that is to decide her weal or woe for life. Such 
sentimental nonsense as this of Tom .Moore's: 

"1 know not, I care not what guilt's in thy heart, 
I but know that I love thee, whatever thou art, " 

Is ch<irming in poetry and novels only: but when 
carried into real life, is productive of most dis- 
astrous results. 

Kate met with a cordial reception from Fred's 
mother, and found so much in the old farm- 
house and its surroundings to interest Iier, so 
she said, that time passed rapidly and pleas- 
antly. That she did find some attraction was 
evident, for her confidential friend in the city 
soon received a letter from her to the effect that 
it was (juite unneces.sary for him to pursue his 
investigations further, for personally it was quite 
immaterial to her what ('harlie Peer's character 
was, .as slie felt no especial interest in it. Cer- 
tain it is that she found something in rural life 
so fascinating that she decided to adopt it for 
her own. A few weeks glided by and Kate re- 
turned to her home, but not alone, for Fred ac- 
companied her. He was, as ever, modest and un- 
a.ssuming, but had gained sufficient self-posses- 
.sion to appear what he really was, manly and 
intelligent, lacking in neither culture or true re- 
finement. Before he returned he had a private 
interview with .Mr. Trumbull, the nature of 
which we never exactly knew; but we did know- 
that Fred. Belden went home the happiest fel- 
low in the world, and it was soon rumored that 
Kate Trumbull was engaged to some one in the 
country; and it was soon known her affi- 
anced was no other than the hero of the Oak 
Hill crossing, whose noble daring there the 
newspapers had duly chronicled; and as hers 
was one of the lives saved by his bravery, it gave 
a spice of romance to the wedding, which soon 
came off with great eclat, .\mongthe rich gifts 
to the happv pair was a stilid silver dinner set, 
suit.ably inscribed, fioni the railroad company, 
and a gold medal commemorative of his fearless 
devotion to humanity. 

Fred's habits of observation and study of 
geology and metallurgy had led him to believe 
that valuable minerals existeil iu a neighboring 
mountain, and upon thorough investig.iti >ii In- 
found it to be a superior kind of iron ore; and 
securing a title, it proved a very profitable in 
vestment. .-Vs for Kate, she never had reason 
to regret her selection of a husband. 

Village Christmas Trees. 

(Writieri fi)r llic ItrKAl- Prkj.,'* liv I II | 

.So ungracious is the ofBoe of fault-finder 
that one naturally shrinks from being found in 
it; yet there .arc times and occasions when it 
seems desirable tliat some voico shouKl give ex- 
pression to a common feeling of discontent. 
For myself, I have long realized that the festi- 
val of the Christmas tree, as it is commonly ob- 
served in our California villages, is open to 
grave objections; but while I was alone in my 
opinion it was best to keep it to myself. Of 
late, hort'cver, from so many sources I have 
heard the echo of the same sentiment that I feel 
justified in asking thoughtful men and women 
to give tlie matter their attenticm. 

Christmas time is so eniphati.; iPy the season 
of good will, of kindly feeling, of generous 
deeds, that one instinctively recoils from any- 
thing which may introduce a disturbing ele- 
ment, or cause a discord iu the music of its 
heavenly song. Then, if ever, should be ignored 
the class distinctions w hich separate us, that 
we may meet upon a common level (or shall I 
not say upon a common liight?) as children of 
one Father rejoicing in his unspeakable gift. 

But is it so? Only a few days since a gentle- 
man said in my hearing, "I will never go to a 
Christmas tree again. I felt so pained, so 
mortified by what I witnessed on Christmas 
eve ; some of the children lo.ided down with 
handsome presents, while other poor little crea- 
tures did not receive so much as a bag of candy 
or pop-corn. 

Ytt this was supposed to be a Sunday school 
f 'hri.stmas tree 1 .Supposed, I say, for in reality 
the children of the Sunday school form luit a 
small portion of the assembly. Ostensibly it is 
prepared for them; but from far and near come 
people who have nothing to do with either 
church or Sunday school, bringing their jirivate 
presents for their own relatives which they hang 
upon the tree, for no earthly reason that any- 
one can imagine unless it be for the satisfaction 
of presenting them in public, an idea which 
it would seem needs only to be suggested to be 
repelled. For surely all the beauty, the tender- 
ness of feeling coiiiieeted with the ( hristmas 
gifts of the household, are rudely brushed away 
when they are thus paraded liefore the admiring 
gaze of the public, even aUhough that public 
consists of the small population of a country vil- 
lage. The evils to which tliis custom gives rise 

January 12, 1884.] 


are too manifest to need description. Is it pos- 
sible that comparisons can be avoided that 
children and young people who receive little or 
nothing in the grand distribution can help feel- 
ing envious of their more fortunate companions ? 
Does not our kijowledge of human natui'e con- 
vince us that this publicity must incite one to 
vie with another in the number and value of 
the gifts presented '! In a neighboring State 
some years ago the Sunday school Christmas 
tree was made the occasion of such ostentatious 
dis()lay on tne part of the wealthy inhabitants 
of a mining town that in self-defense tl'e clergy- 
man prohibited it altogether. And although in 
our country villages there may not be the same 
amount of effort to outdo our neighbors, who 
can venture to say the unchristian feeling is ab- 
sent ? 

To obj ct to the existing order of things 
without suggesting something, is to leave one's 
work half done, and in this case the better way 
is easily pointed out. It is simply to return to 
the original Sunday-school Christmas festival, 
as it is observed in hundreds and thousands of 
places all over the land. 

From a fund contrilmtcd by members of the 
congregation let some simple little gifts of equal 
value be purchased for all the children, and be- 
sides a reasonable amouut of the "goodies" in- 
separably connected « ith childish ideas of 
Christmas. Then decor.ite the tree, .nake it as 
beautiful as possible, and all being ready, 
gather the little ones together — gather them 
while the daylight lasts, darken the windows, 
and light the tapers. Let the children sing 
their songs, let some one who has the rare gift 
of being able to talk to them, tell them in a few 
words of the Holy Child whose birthday is their 
brightest festival, distribute the simple gifts, 
and, oh, dear friends, do not, in your prepara- 
tion count too closely; let there be a few books, 
a few toys, a few pretty bags of candy over 
and above, that if any little outsidei'S should 
chance to stray in they may be made as happy 
as your own most favored darlings. 

But do not mar the beauty of the children's 
tree by loading its branches with your own 
personal gifts to them or to anyone else. Keep 
such things for the privacy of your own homes, 
where they by right belong. For Christmas is 
essentially a home festival. The Sunday school 
celebration ought not to swallow it up. When 
that is over, there is still time for much merri- 
ment and gladness of heart. Hang up the 
stockings; hide in them the treasures you have 
prepared. I pity the man or woman who has 
no memory of awaking in the dark early on 
Christmas day and feeling for the stocking 
hanging by the bed. Oh, the exquisite sense 
of mystery as the strangely- shaped packages 
were fingered, the delight of guessing; the long- 
ing for (1 lylight to disclose the hidden treasures! 
It all comes back in the after years with tender 
thoughts of dear ones who are keeping their 
Christmas in the Father's house on high, and 
every such memory is a blessing and an inspira- 

I am not pleading for a selfish observance of 
Christmas: far from it. No one has the right 
to its enjoyment who has not opened his heart 
and his hand, and according to his ability, en- 
deavored to make it a day of gladness for 
others, .loin in every effort to make the season 
a time of social happiness; visit your neighbors, 
open your own doors with a hearty welcome 
for all who come. W-e are. too much isolated; 
and it may be that the fashion 
of public Christmas trees arose from a laudable 
desire to correct the evil. If so it must still 
be acknowledged that it has led to great 
abuses, and should give way to something more 
in accordance with the spirit of the day. lor 
surely if one little child goes out from such a 
celebration with a wounded and aching heart 
there is something seriously wrong, something 
that needs to be entirely altered before we can 
ask for His approval whose coming amongst us 
we celel)rate on Christmas day. 

Walnut Creek. 

[This is a matter of much importance, and we 
trust it will be remembered until next Decem- 
ber. We suppose all managers of Sunday 
school Christmas trees have sense enough to e. - 
elude the private gifts from the general tree, 
but if some have not yet done so, by all means 
do it next year. The suggestion that the chil- 
dren's tree should be had in the day time is a 
good one, or if held in the evening it should be 
all over by half past eight o'clock at latest. 
We know of Sunday schools where they have 
evening Christmas trees preceded by literary 
exercises a couple of hours long, and then sev- 
eral of the poor little children are generally 
fast asleep before the tree is reached at all, and 
the exercises do not conclude until nearly 1 1 
o'clock. This is a ridiculous arrangement, and 
dangerous as well. We hope all will improve 
their methods before another year.— Ed. Press.] 

A FIRST CLASS violin has .seventy separate 
parts. Two form the back, two the belly, six the 
blocks, six the sides, twelve the lining, twenty- 
four the purHing, and there is the tail-pin, its 
pegs and fastening, the tail-piece, the bass-bar 
and sound-post, the bridge, nut, head and 
scroll, the finger-board, and the four pegs and 
four strings. The body weighs about half a 
pound, with the neck and scroll about twenty 
ounces, and when tuned to pitch the pressure 
on the bridge is over ninety pounds. 

"^OUJ^G ]E{0LKS' C(0LUjV!N. 

Our Ptizzle Box. 

Hidden Flowers. 

1. Jessy, ring a bell for the footman. 

2. The baronet was seated at a game of faro, 
serene and indifferent. 

3. I hear the notes of Philomel. I, lying on the 
ground, at the foot of the oak, on which the bird sings, 
am filled with rapture. 

4. "Friend idi, I lack nothing," answered the 
quaker. R. 

Hour Glass. 

1. Perfumery. 

2. A gem. 

3. A metal in its crude state. 

4. A letter. 

5. A unit. 

6. To subdue. 

7. Carrying. 

Centrals, read downwards, a dncal crown. 


My I, 2 and 4 is to fix the sails of a vessel. 
My 4, 2 and 3 is a liquor. 

My I, 2, 3 and 4 is a circle. R. 


1. The author of — 

"The little window where the sun 
Came peeping in at morn." 

2. The author of — 

"Don't you remember sweet .Mice. Hen Bolt? " 

3. The author of — 

"Oft in the stilly night, when slumber's chains have 
bound me." 

4. The author of — 

"I know not if those lips confess. 
Your magic is your tenderness." 

5. The author of — 

"They say thou art the favored guest." 

6. The author of — 

"The rose is fairest when 'tis budding new." 
The initials of these authors form the name of the 
author of — 

"I come! 1 come! Ve have called me long!" 


1. Curtail a building for hay and leave a bolt. 

2. Curtail a penalty and leave part of a fish. 

3. Curtail a vegetable and leave an insect. 

4. Curtail a companion and leave a rug. 

5. Curtail a game of cards and leave distant. 

.Aunt S.araii. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

NtiMKKiCAL — Rule Brittania. 

Wok 11 Sun ARK. — BOLD 

SvNCOi'AllONS. — I. Point, pint. 2. Cold, cod. 

3. Chair, char. 4. Cast, cat. 
Charadk. — Will-o'-the-wisp. 

Blanks. — I. Day, a. 2. Got, o. 3. Lamb, am. 

4. Sails, ail. 

Rkai)1N(i for the Ciiiluren. — Of late years 
great strides have been made in providing liter- 
ature for the little ones of the household, and 
they are in length neglected. The RfRAL has 
always given space to the youna folks every 
week, a feature which not only the children, 
but the older persons appreciate. On this sub- 
ject the following paragraph is to the point : 
" Be sure to remember the children when se 
lecting your readimg for the year. If your 
humble n cans cannot furnish them with a pa- 
per suit.ible for their growing tastes and knowl- 
edge, take a family paper that has an entertain- 
ing young folks' department. I pity those chil- 
dren who have nothing to read but text books 
and Sunday-school papers. No wonder that 
they weary of both and grow to maturity without 
a practical education or love for general litera- 
ture. How true it is that ' he most lives, who 
thinks most.' Do your part toward awakening 
a healthy tone of thought in your children's 
minds by supplying them with good reading. 
Flncouiaging them to save their odd pennies 
and pay for a children''- paper themselves. 
They will then take a pride and pleasure in 
reading them and keeping them neat. Don't 
deprive them of mental food, even though you 
have to sacrifice some luxury in dress or table 
fare. Teach them to love purity in literature 
and they have a well-spring of delight that will 
cheer and exhault the toil-worn and saddened 
places in life's pathway." 

How Fire mav he Catiried t.s Cotton. — Ed- 
ward Atkinson, of Boston, says : "Fire lurks 
in a cotton bale for weeks. The cotton which 
was injured somewhat over a year ago in l?id- 
deford. Me., was moved to South l5oston for 
.sale. The fire broke out again more than once 
while it was at South Boston being made 
ready for sale. It was then sold at auction. 
The fire broke out again in one parcel while it 
was on tlie cars being carried away, and in an- 
other parcel after it had been received at a fac- 
tory where it was to be used. The latest out- 
break was, I think, thirty days after the origi- 
nal fire." 

Since the adoption of standard time about 
400 applications for patents have been filed for 
clock dials and other devices intended to pre- 
sent the twenty-four hours in a convenient man- 
ner and witliout unduly crowding the figures. 
A large number of these applications have been 
rejected by the Patent Office upon evidence 
found in an old volume that Prince Soltykoflf 
once possessed a watch, m.tde in 1547, on the 
dial of which the hours from 1 to '24 are ar- 
ranged in two concentric circles. 

^OOD J^E/rLTjH. 

Philosophy of Eating. 

Were men to exercise the same judgment in 
regard to their own food that they do in feeding 
domestic animals, there would be less illness on 
account of errors of diet. For a matter of such 
universal importance it has been the subject of 
many absurd theories. 

The world seems to be divided between those 
who "eat to live" and those who "live to eat." 
The proper line may be drawn somewhere be- 
tween tliese extremes. There is little to choose 
between a glutton and one who eats too little 
ftom a sentimental notion that it is vulgar to 
eat; and that the less one can eat, and still 
manage to live, the more refined and spiritual 
one becomes. If a man has no control over his 
appetite, and no judgment as to the quantity 
of food he requires, it would have been better 
had he belonged to a lower order of animals, 
subject to the control of a higher intelligence. 
Neglect or refusal to partake of sufficient food 
to sustain the body in its full vigor should be 
regarded as evidence of disease, requiring the 
attention of a competent physician. Nature 
will not patiently submit to be abused or 

The (juantity andcjuality of food required in 
each individual case depends on the size and 
health of the person, and on his occupation. A 
person of sedentary habits should regulate the 
diet to the re(|uirements of the system, remem- 
bering that it is safer to err on the side of eat- 
ing hardly enough than too much. Over eating 
produces accumulation of fat, which is a disease 
of itself, and increases the quantity of blood, 
rendering one liable to heart disease and ajjo 
plexy; and paradoxical as it may seem, insuffi- 
cient food tends to produce the same diseases. 
Either condition causes derangements in the 
circulation that may induce some troubles. 

If we follow the indications of nature we are 
safe as to foods. What the appetite craves is 
usually best for us; the stomach notifies us when 
we require food, and when we have eaten 
enough. It is often the last mouthful that in- 
vites an attack of dyspepsia. 

"Variety is the spice of life. " In nothing is 
this more applicable than as to foods. Select a 
list of foods that experience has taught us are 
most acceptable, and then from the list get a 
variety for each day of the week. Salt meats 
should be used sparingly, because they are more 
indigestible than fresh. Pies and rice puddings 
tiy the digestive organs severely, and cannot be 
safely indulged in by adults, except they liave 
vigorous out door exercise The quantity and 
quality of food should depend upon what is re- 
quired of the individual; just as the amount of 
fuel requisite depends on the work a steam 
engine has to perform. 

A wise regulation of the food supply can be 
made to supersede the use of medicnies to a very 
great extent. — Journal of Health, 

When to Take Medicine. — The chief 
causes of disease are errors in diet, errors in 
dress, intemperance, impure water, unwhole- 
some food, defective teeth, and blood poisoning 
from inhalation of impure air and noxious 
gases. Di.sease induced by any one of these 
causes, almost invariably manifests itself by 
disorder in the functions of the liver; there the 
alarm is sounded first, and if not attended to 
promptly the trouble is liable to extend to 
other vital organs. Dyspepsia, constipation, 
chronic diarrhu/a, disease of the kidneys, 
dropsy, rheumatism, catarrh, consumption and 
various forms of skin diseases often proceed 
directly from derangement of the liver. Atten- 
tion to the liver forestalls other diseases. The 
remote cause of a majority of our ordinary 
ailments, is taking cold ; the natural functions 
of the body are retard^sd, and waste material is 
retained in the system long enough to do 
mischief. The usual remedy is to take a 
cathartic or a laxative in order to remove it. 
But a more convenient and a more natural plan, 
in ordinary cases, is to cut ofi' the food supply 
for twenty-four hours, and trust to nature to 
do the rest. Instead of food, a tew teacupsful 
of hot water drank during the day will hasten 
the desired result. Whenever the bowels 
become constipated tlicre is an uncomfortable 
feeling in the system, often accompanied by 
restlessness and anxiety of mind. The above 
suggestions, if followed strictly, will bring 
relief more promptly than medicine and without 
its inconveniences. 

Tun Increase of iNSANiTt. — The increase of 
insanity is not confined to this country. In 18()8 
the number of lunatics reported in l'"rauce was 
34,000; to-day it is nearly (iO,000. It should 
be remembered, however, that such statistics 
presumably become more accurate and complete 
every year, and moreover, that many a person is 
now pronounced insane who would have been 
considered merely eccentric fifteen years ago. 
There are ICS lunatic asylums in France, of 
which (il are public and 42 private. 

To Test the Pi^iirrv of Wateic. — If you 
think the water you use regularly for drinking 
is impure, try the following test: put one and 
a half pints of water into a clean glass bottle; 
add to it a teaspoonful of pure white sugar, 
cork it and shako until the sugar is well dis- 
solved and then set in a w '.i m place for 4S hours. 
If it is unfit for drinking it will be turbid and 
milky at that time. 


Household Ensilage. 

"E," writing to the London Standard, says 
it may be interesting to some to know that the 
farmer's wife, in the Netherlands, has her silo. 
This is an earthenware jar about two feet high. 
Into one such in summer time she shreds kidney 
beans; into another she puts shelled green peas; 
into another broad beans; and having thus 
formed a six inch layer she sprinkles on the top 
a little salt, and presses the whole firmly down. 
Then comes another layer, with another sprink- 
ling, and so on, until she has come to the end of 
her vegetables, leaving a light weight on the 
top, which serves to keep all firmly pressed and 
exclude the air. AVhen more vegetables are 
ripe she repeats the process until the jar is 
filled. A good substantial weight it then placed 
on the top and the opening covered with brown 
paper, and her object is attained, viz. : F^nsil- 
age for her family, /. r., vegetables preserved 
green for winter use, more or less good, accord- 
ing to taste, when brought to table. 

Collared Calf's Head.— Scald the head for 
a few minutes, then scrape with a knife to re- 
move all the hair. Clean thoroughly; divide the 
head and remove the brains. Boil till the bones 
will remove easily, which will be in about two 
hours. AVhen the head is cleared of bones flat- 
ten it on the table, sprinkle over a thick layer 
of par.sley, then some thick slices of ham; then 
some hard-boiled eggs sliced thin, and put a 
seasoning of pounded mace, white pepper and 
nutmeg between each layer; roll the wliole up 
in a cloth as tightly as possible. Boil for four 
liours, and when taken out of the pot place a 
heavy weight on it as for other collars. Do not 
remove the cloth and bindings till cold. For 
the above you will re(|uire the yolks of six hard 
boiled eggs, four tablespoonfuls of minced pars- 
ley, four blades of pounded mace, and half a 
teaspoonful of grated nutmeg. 

Lemon CnEESECiKEs.— Take [ pound of 
butter, 1 pound of loaf sugar, six eggs, the rind 
of 2 lemons and the juice of Put all into a 
stewpan, carefully grating the rind and strain- 
ing the juice of the lemous, keep stirring the 
mixture until the sugar is dissolved, and it 
begins to thicken; when of the thickness of 
honey, it is done; then put it into small jars, 
and keep in a dry place. This mixture may be 
made in large iniantitics, as it will keep for 
three or four months. When made into cheese- 
cakes, add a few pounded almonds, or candied 
peel; line .some patty-pans with good pufi' paste, 
rather more than half fill them with the 
mixture and bake for about a (juarter of an 
hour in a brisk oven. 

Ciiii KKN Pie. — Put into a saucepan onequait 
of water, an onion, a little chopped parsley, a 
piece of celery, and pepper and salt; simmer for 
an hour, then put in tlie chicken, cut into con- 
venient pieces, and stew until thoroughly 
cooked. Line a dish with good pic crust, then 
put in the chicken in layers, with slices of hard 
boiled egg between each layer; add to the gravy 
a small piece of butter rolled in Hour, and a 
(ptarter of a pint of cream; let it just lioil, and 
pour over the chicken; put on the top crust, and 
bake until the pastry is done. 

Seed Lvnciieon ('.\kes. - 1. 1 If), flour, | lb. 
butter, h lt>. white sugai, one egtr, one tea- 
spoonful of baking powder, one teaspoonful of 
carraway (best ground), and a little milk. 
BlU^c at once in large or small cakes. "2. \ It). 
Hour, i tti. butter, .'5 oz. white sugar, a tea- 
spoonful of baking powder, half a teaspoonful 
of carraways, 1 oz. candied peel, two eggs and 
a wineglassful of milk. Bake one hour and a 
f|uarter in a tin lined with buttered paper. 
Fovu' or six ounces of currants or sultanas may 
be used instead of the carraways. 

I''kuit Cake. — F'our eggs, h pound white 
sugar, .J pouml flour, | pound ground rice, \ 
pound butter, bounces preserved ginger, 1 ounce 
citron peel, a few drops of essence of lemon or 
vanilla, 1 ounce sweet almonds, blanched and 
pounded: mix the yolks and whites separately, 
and add the other ingredients very gradually. 
Bake in small cakes, or in a large tin lined with 
buttered paper. 

It.\lian Macaroons. — Blanch a pound of 
almonds, pound them fine with the whites of 
four eggs, add 2\ pounds of the best white 
sugar, and pound all together: add the whites 
of six more eggs, and bake, adding slips of 
blanched almonds on the top of each macaroon 
before putting in the oven. 

The New Hooi' Machine. — It is claimed 
that the newly invented Boston hoop machine 
will make from 20,000 to 30,000 half round 
lioops a day, cutting two, three or four from 
a pole, as occasion requires. One of the re- 
sults of the introduction of this new machine 
will be the utilization of ironwood saplings for 
hoops. This tough and almost indestructible 
wood, which resists the tools of the cooper, is 
said to be handled w ithout dilficulty by the 
Boston hoop-making machine. 

A slN(iLE leather belt, one inch wide, travel- 
ing 800 feet per minute, will transmit one 
horse-power, provided the pul'eys are both the 


[January 12, 1884 


W. B. EWER. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, S62 Market St., N. E. cor. ProntSl., S. F. 
tr Take the Ulemtor, So. It Front St. "SJ 

AOD RBSS editorials and business letters to the firm ; 
ndtviduals are liable to be absent. 

Our Subscription Batee. 

Our Subscription Rates are three dollars a year, 
in advance. If continued subscriptions are not prepaid in 
advance, for any reason, fiktv cents extra will be 
charged for each year or fraction of a year. I^No new 
D.U1ICS placed on the list without cash in advance. 

Advertising Rates. 1 week. 1 month. Smos. 12 ino? 

Per line (agate). 25 .80 «-2.20 ^.'i.OO 

Half inch (1 square).. *1 . f.O $4.00 10.00 24.00 

One inch 2. CO 6.00 14.00 45.00 

Lar^je advertisements at f.ivorable rates. Special or read - 
ing notices, legal advcrtistmcnls, notices appearing in ex- 
traordinary tj-pe or in particular parts of the paper, at 
special rates. Four iu.sercions are rated in a month. 

Our lales Jur/M go to press Wednesday evening. 

Entered .it .S. F. Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 


W. B. EWER. 



Saturday, January 12, 1884, 


EDITORIALS —The Silk Interest in t-alifornia; Buf- 
falii ^;|•as.^: The Aiiti licbris Decision, 25. The 
• irowtli of Small Imiiistrius in the Fontliills, -Mines and 
Mountains; 'I he World s Kair in ISS", 32. California 
Poultry Association: A Proposed (irand Fruit Show; 
Shipping.' (ira|iu9, 38. 

ILLI..S 1 RATIONS. -Hiiffaln rjrass, 25 Premiiini 
(_'M|. of till: c alii'.riii.a I'oultrv Association, S3. 

QUKHIES AND KEPL.IES.- K'/Ot Priinin(; and 
Bark I'celiiii;; I'hc AftorClow; The Xo-Keiicc Law, 32. 

E >i rOM>Jj-iOGIGAL..- Scale Bug and Kcd .spider; 
New I'cst ill Crairi Fields; Hiiming Stubble; The Loss 
of the .\ntt-l'cst Bill; National Museuiii of Entoinoloirv, 

CORRESPONDENCB.-Chilean Pepper and Mon- 

tere\ Cvpif-s; On Soils, 26. 
SHEEP AND WOOL..-Shcop and Sheep Feed for 

Arid Lands, 26. 
AGrflCQLTURAL SCIENCE. -University Ex- 

I'eriniunt Station, 26. 
POULTRY YARD.-IIonie-Madc Ineuhator, 26. 

A Voai's KxiK;ricii?e in Poultry Haising, 27. 

Horticulturist Cionc to Kest; Uranjfc Flections; Ke- 

tiirnud. 28. 


vutin^' SI reams, 27. 
HORTICULTUHE.-Tlic Fi;;: Flowering Shrubs, 


AOrtlCULTURAL NOTES - From the various 

counties of California, 28-29- 
NEWS IN BRIEF- on pai^c 29 and other pages. 
THE HOME CIRCLE.- Faiiy Love (P.ietrv); A 

Kiwi .if Nolilc Daiing; Village Christinas Trees", 30. 
YOUNG tOLKa COLUMN.-Onr Puzzle Box; 

Heading for the i liildren. 31. 
GOOD HEALTH. Phil.isoi.liy of Eating; When to 

Take Medicine; Tlie Increase of Insanity; 'lo Test the 

Puritv of Water, 31. 
DOMESTIC JiiUONOMY.- Household Knsilage; 

Collared l alfs Head; Lemon Cheesecakes; Chicken 
■ Pie; Seed Lunelieoii Cakes; Fruit Cake; Italian Maca- 
roons, 31. 

MISCELLANEOUS.- Silk Culture Meetings, 29. 
Bain Table for Sacramento, 29. 'i'lie Mining Debris, 
34. How the Debris Iieccsion ia Received, 37. 

Business Announcements. 

Thoroughbred Pmillry (ieo B. Bayley, Oakland, Cal. 
Horse Liniment - .1. K. Williams, Stockton, Cal. 
-Nursury— F. B. Clowe, Stockton, Cal. and Guernsej s— Henry Pierce, S. F. 
Sprajing Puni|> H. 1'. Gregory ti Co., S. F. 
Nursery — Oustav Eiscn, Fresno, Cal. 
Land lor Sale--L. .M. Cutting iS: Son, Stockton, Cal. 
Coiiimission Merchants -Thomiison H Ilale, Stockton. 
CommciTial Hoteb-A. & J. Hahn. Stockton, Cal. 
Commission Merchants -(.'ole ii .\1 ■Keiuie, Stockton. 
Oral e t'uttingB-California Kaisin Co., Kocklin, Cal. 
Poultry -John .McFarling, Oakland, Cal. 
Insoles— Dr. C. Witney, Santa Cruz, Cal. 
«.;rai>c t iittings-Oeo. H. Kerr, Elk Grove, Cal. 
Kgg Food-B. F. Wellington, S. F. 

tsr See AdverliaiMi Columnx. 

The Week. 

Another week has passetl without rain in suf- 
ficient quantities to allay the anxiety of the 
farmers as to the outcome of the harvest year. 
\Ve republish the table of the rainfall of the 
past thirty-four years at S.^ciMuiento, which will 
be studied by all with interest. The most im- 
portant event to a large portion of the peo- 
ple of the valleys is the decision of Judge 
Sawyer, of the United States Circuit Court, 
granting a perpetual injunction against the 
hydraulic miners. The decision is given else- 
where, as well as telegrams to the press, as to 
how the decision was recuived in various locali- 

RosECRANS has introduced a bill to authorize 
the Secretary of NVar to rcliii(jui.<!h fhe Camp 
Douglas Military lUscrvatiou, in Utah, so that 
it can be opened up for settlement. 

The Growth of Small Industries in the 
Foothills, Mines and Mountains. 

What is to be done with the on-coming gen- 
eration in California is a ((uestion that is ex- 
citing much interest and eliciting some dis- 
cussion among those «lio assume to deal with 
these ethical and economic su.jjeets, and the 
thouglitful generally. Here, as everywhere 
else, the question resolves itself into one of 
employment, mainly what is there for the youth 
to do that they can do or can be induced to 
The young people of California are not worse, 
perliaps, than those of most other countries. 
The average youth are inherently about the 
same the world over. Nevertheless, the ques- 
tion with us becomes a little more diflScult of 
solution, by reason of certain intlustrial condi 
tions and social peculiarities that here obtain. 

In the first place, our juvenile population, 
already large, is increasing rapidlj', California 
being a prolilio country. Though not particu- 
larly vigorous, they are apt to be tenacious of 
life, a Urge percentage of those born surviving 
the perils of adolescense and reaching the adult 
state. They are a little precocious, growing 
fast and maturing early. As a general thing 
they have come to stay, being like the rest of 
us, attached to California and not, likely to seek 
residence elsewhere. They would not be apt to 
thrive if they did so. Like some other pro- 
ducts of California, the native born do not well 
bear transplanting. The Scqnotn it is said will 
not grow elsewhere. Other countries, if they 
become overpopulated or accumulate too many 
of an undesirable class, find relief through emi- 
gr.ition. But through no such means can we 
ever find relief from any obnoxious or too 
numerous class, should there be ueetl for it. But 
this aspect of the case is not serious; there is 
here room for all and means enough for insuring 
all a comfortable subsistence, were such means 
turned to good account. 

In older communities it is the youth 
of the larger cities who most stand in 
need of work. ^^"ith us it is the youth 
of the rural districts, or at least certain 
portions of them, who so want work supplied 
to them. In most other countries there exists 
in the cities a large surplus of the young, for 
whom itisdiHicult to find suitable employment, 
though outside of these large towns there is apt 
to be enough for all. Here these conditions 
are measurably reversed, the larger cities being 
the principal centers of our mechanical and 
manufacturing industries, thereby affording 
much suitable employment for the young. The 
great agricultural valleys of (,'alifornia are also 
capable of supplying work for all classes, old 
and young. 

But there remain the mountainous districts of 
the State, with their valleys and out-lying foot- 
hills containing resources of a varied kind, but 
no one of which is capable of sustaining a lar.^e 
population. Possessing a tolerably good soil, and 
beingfor themostpart well wooded and watered, 
these districts are admirably adapteil for fruit 
raising and the culture of the vine, there being 
also much land on which, with careful tillage, 
fair crops of the cereals can be produced. This 
is the region of the gold^iincs and other min- 
eral deposits of value. Taken as a whole this 
is not a bad country for stock, there being 
much good summer p.astu rage— also mast for 
swine. AVhile the mining districts were never 
much more pojmlous than they are to day, the 
majority of the inhabitants formerly consisted 
of grown men, mostly engaged in mining; 
whereas, much the larger number is now com- 
posed of women, children and adult youth, 
while of the men, not more than three-fourths 
follow the business of mining, a great many 
having turned their attention to cultivating the 
land, raising stock, making lumber, and to va- 
rious other pursuits. 

Having originally gone to the mountains for 
the purpose of mining, the most of these men 
stuck to that business as long as it would pay; 
nor did they in all cases wholly abandon it 
after devoting .% portion of their time to other 
jmrsuits; so that we have now the spectacle o^ 
farming, mining and stock raising, being in 
many instances carrietl on here by the same in- 
diviilual, and this quite successfully, there be- 
ing seasons of the year when he can give his en- 
tire attention to some one of these branches 
without detriment to either of the others. 
Thus, in the northwestern counties, where ob- 
jections have been made to hydraulic mining, 
this branch of businevs can be engaged in along 

through the winter and early spring, when it 

can be prosecuted to the best advantage, and 
during which the farmer-miner has not much 
else to do. Liter in the year, when, the grain 
harvest being over, there comes another season 
of leisure, then, and not before, the river beds 
can be worked to advantage. As operations in 
the quartz and drift mines can be carried on 
equally ■well at all times, parties in working 
those can consult their own convenience. Be' 
tween the closing of river-bed mining and the 
advent of winter comes another interval of 
rest, which is to be availed of for gathering in 
the beef cattle, now in good condition, and 
driving them over the mountains or off into the 
lower country to market; and so the inhabitants 
of these foothills and mountain regions are com- 
ing to find their time fully and profitably em- 
ployed, the combining of so many minor indus- 
tries enabling them to make a gootl livelihood 
in sectious of the State where only a few years 
ago their ability to do so was far from being as- 
sured. In a short time there will he added to 
the occupations now pursued others for which 
these sections of the .'^tatc are well suited, such 
as fruit drying, curing raisins, making wine, 
sericulture, etc. 

Throughout nearly all parts of the mining re- 
gions the condition of the inhabitants shows im- 
provement through the multiplicity and growth 
of these small industries, the change in some 
of the more northerly-lying counties being espe- 
cially noticeable. From Trinity, for example, 
which not long since was importing its beef, 
one stock-raiser has already, this seiison, driven 
over the mountains into tlie upper .Sacramento 
valley five hundred head of fat cattle, which 
were there disposed of for a good price. Limit- 
ing observation to one branch of business or a 
single neighborhood the ch.mges effected seem 
small, but extentled over the whole field they 
are seen to aggregate a great ih-al. 

It is to be set down to the credit of the young 
people of the interior that they do not evince 
such a desire to leave their homes and seek em 
ployment in the cities as is common with this 
clas.s elsewhere. This argues well for their fu- 
ture. Notwithstaiidicig the gloomy forebod- 
ings of the past the present industrial out- 
look presents many features of encouragement, 
this here noticed baing one of the most hopeful. 

Watching the unfolding of coming events 
we shall hope for the evolution of such indus- 
trial system .as will meet our many-sided wants, 
and thus work further surcease of our fears 
for the future of this, our California. 

The World's Fair in 1887. 

Strenuous efi'orts are being put forth to con- 
vince the people of this coast and the country 
at large of the practicability of holding the 
World's Fair in .San Francisco in ISST, anil of 
the great benefits to be derived therefrom 
should the scheme prove successful. An ad- 
journed meeting of what is known aa the 
World's Fair Committee of this city was held 
at the Grand Hotel on I'hursday evening, the 
:id instant. The attendance was large, and 
considerable enthusiasm prevailed. (Jovenior 
Stoneman presided, while Marcus D. Buruck 
actetl as secretary. A brief but animated tlis- 
cussion resulted in the appointment of the fol- 
lowing Executive Committee, who will canvass 
the matter more fully and make all arrange- 
ments incident to a permanent organization 
and presenting the subject before Congress: 
William T. Coleman, Irving M. .^cott, M. D. 
Boruck, Charles Crocker, James A. Johnson, 
C. A. Hutchinson, K. B. Fond, I). J. Staples, 
L. L. Baker, Louis .'^loss, Charles (ioodall, 
,Iames C. Flood, H. M. I.,arne, William Alvord 
and Charles Kohlcr. On motion of Irving M. 
.Sjott the (lovernor and the Mayor were addeil 
to the committee. 

The secretary then read a report showing the 
cost of exhibitions at Vienna, Paris and I'hila- 
delphia. The buildings of the International 
Exhibition held in Vienna in Xiru'A covered an 
area of 4,000 acres. The main building was 
■2,.S00 feet long. Austria appropriated §11,000,- 
(X)0 for the benefit of the exhibition. The Paris 
Exposition was held in 1S7.S, and during the 1!M 
days of its continuance there were IG, l.-iOiTI!* 
admissions to the exhibits, an average of 8.S,'2!I7 
a day. The largest number of admissions for 
anyone day was on June 10th, when '210,61.'5 
people visited the exhibition, and 18'i,"J4t) of 
these paid admission fees. During the Centen- 
nial Exhibition in I'hiludclphia there were 10,- 
1()4,4S0 admissions, of which S,041,(i01 were on 
payment. The total cost of the buildings was 
^,-),-J4-2,29.').8:5. The city of Philadelphia appro- 
priated §1 ,.")00,0O0, for the exhibition, and Penn- 
sj'lvania appropriated J<1,000,000. 'i'he amount 
paiil by the Centennial Hoard of Finance was 
^'•2,742,"2!).'>.S.S. Congress appropriated nearly 
000,000 for the exhibition. The total amount 
taken for admissions was 8S,s;{4,'2!HJ.99. 

Eloquent and enthusiastic re iiarks were made 
by a great many of those present, and Governor 
.Stoneman said that he had received telegrams 
from all the Pacific Coast Congressmen stating 
that they would ilo all in their power to promote 
the success of the project. The meeting then 
a'ljourned subject to the call of the Executive 

Root Pruning and Bark Peeling. 

Ei.iToKS Prk-ss:— J. [;. E., of Fresno, Cal., 
makes some inquiries in the Press of the 5th 
instant about root pruning and denuding trees 
of their bark in order to induce them to bear; 
also in reference to pruning cherry trees. 
Whenever a tree shows a disposition to make 
too much wood, and consequently refuses to 
bear fruit, root pruning becomes necessary. 
This consists in simply digging a trench around 
the tree some six feet in diameter — more or less 
I according to the size of the tree--and two and 
i a half by three feet deep, cutting off" all the 
j roots ill the way. This trench should be filled 
partly full of small stones, old boots and shoes, 
j or bones, and the whole covered with the soil re- 
i moved. If the tree is small, a sharpened spade 
; run into the ground the full length of the blade, 
i cutting a circle three feet in diameter, will be 

found sulKcient. 
j The other process, of peeling the entire bark 
from the body of the tree at a certain season of 
the year, will be found to be equally effectual. 
If done at the time there is a deposit of sap for 
converting the inner Layer of bark into a new 
layer of wood, no harm will come. On the 
contrary, the barren tree will become prolific, 
and it will be clothed with a beautiful smooth, 
green bark. I once saw a number of large 
apple trees in a neighbor's orchard which some 
vandal had entirely stripped of their bark. On 
examination, it was found that the bodies of 
the trees were covered with a slimy substance 
which had been deposited for the purpose of 
forming an annular layer of wood. The trunks 
of the trees were shaded from the sun by the 
thick foliage of the tops. Instead of being 
ruined, as the proprietor supposed would be the 
case, the trees were loadeil with fruit, and a 
new and beautiful bark formed. This process 
is not to be recommended, however, as it is a 
somewhat critical one and must be done just at 
the right time. The process and result are the 
same its in the shedding of the shell of the lob- 
ster, the skin of the toad, and the Miake. 

I prune all trees more or less. Clierry trees 
do not usually require as much pruning 
as other fruit trees. Wliere limbs cross or 
crowd each other they sboidd be thinned 
out, and where there is a tendency to 
attaining too great an altitude, they should 
be cut back or shortened in. Care should be 
taken, however, in every instance, to cut close 
to a bud or limb, otherwise nature, in trying to 
reproduce the severed limb, will throw out 
multitudes of small shoots from the end of the 
! stub. Evidences of this carelchS inodeol .-h.nt- 
{ en<ng-in process may be seen in many orchards, 
I in the maze of small thoots \> here but one was 
seen before. If a limb be severed near a bud 
or other limb, as it always thould be, all the 
food originally directed to the .severed limb will 
be diverted to this side bud or limb, and thus 
any desired direction may be given to a limb, 
and the top of a tree be formed to one's liking. 
— J. S. TiitiilTs, Natividad, Cal. 

The After-Glow 
EniTORS Press;- I have been much inter- 
ested in the varied discussions of tlie above 
subject which have appeared in the scientific 
journals of this coast. Whatever may lie the 
cause, it is quite evident from the results of 
proof attained that nothing satisfactory has 
been arrived at. .Some of the arguments maui- 
tained seem to be far-fetched, if not altogether 
illo^'ical. Probably Professor Damon, of Napa, 
Ims more nearly arrived at a logical conclusion 
than lias any other writer. The Professor says, 
howe\cr, "I have not heard of its appearance 
this season east of the Uocky mountains." In 
repljs I would say that it has been noticed in 
various parts of the Atlantic I^tates during the 
early paitof Itecombcr. In Pouglikeepsie (if 
M'e are to credit a scientific paper of th;it sec- 
tion), the eriiiisoii t;low was so bright as to 
cause the alarm of lire to be given, and the 
calling out of the lire il-paitinent. Be the 
cause of the "glow" what X may, it in doubt- 
less yet to be demonstrated by the hand of 
science. — T. S. Price, Selma, Cal., .Ian. "Jd. 

The No-Fence Law. 

EiilTORS PuESs:-In reply to your re(|ue8t 1 
wouM state that an act concerning lawful fences, 
stating their character and manner of constrae- 
tion, was approved April "27, IS.'!."). Certain 
counties have, by amendments, been excluded 
and excepted from the provisions of this act, 
but Santa Cruz county is not one of them, antl 
the fence law is in full force and effect in this 
county. If you desire it and think it would 
prove of value to the n adcrs of tlie Press, I 
will send you a copy of the act with the amend- 
ments for putilication. — Koi:eu Conant, Santa 

Cl HZ. 

[We think it would be well to republish the 
law with the amendments. We have so many 
new comers in this .State that the law would be 
received with much interest. Wo will thank 
Mr. Conant for the copy he offers.] 

Stabs and Daockks. — We forgot to call at- 
tention in our last issue to the fact that the 
printers had misused the * and t marks in the 
index of the last volume, printed in the ItrKAl. 
of December '29th. The * signifies illustrated 
articles; the t articles are in verse. The marks 
are correct in the body of the index, but the 
transposition was made in the footnote. 

January 12, 1881.] 

pAeiFie [^URAL PRESS. 


Scale Bug and Red Spider. 

Editors Press : — I have suffered great an- 
noyance and damage from the ravages of the 
scale bug and red spider. I have noted with a 
great deal of care the various methods recom- 
mended through your columns for their destruc 
tion, and finding the treatment by spraying 
most generally indorsed 1 provided myself with 
a (iregory force pump, and when trees were in 
the dormant state I gave them thorough and re- 
peated spraying with a solution of one pound of 
concentrated lye to one gallon of water. When 
the trees were in full foliage I gave them thor- 
ough and repeated spraying with a solution of 
one pound of whale oil soap to a gallon of wa- 
ter, and as much sulphur as the liquid would 
possibly take. To-day 1 have more scale bugs 
than I ever had. 

I obtained the address of several parties 
whom I had heard were successful in destroy- 
ing them, and applied to them for information 
regarding their mode of procedure, and stating 
that I V as troubled with the pests in my or 
chard, and that they were still spreading. To 
my astonishment no one had met with any 
better success than myself after employing 
about the same measures ; and one had 
used a solution of two pounds best American 
concentrated lye to a gallon of water, so strong, 
he writes me, that it killed some of the small 
limbs and cracked the bark on the trunks of the 
largest trees; and on some of those trees where 
he used the strong solution he finds plenty of 
scale bugs yet. He had expended last year 
$i)00. However, he intends continuing to wash 
his trees, and I suppose we will all do the same 
until some one is able to furnish us with direc- 
tions for some more reliable and certain means 
of getting rid of these destroyers of our orchards, 
which I am sure would be received with grati- 
tude by every orchardist. Will not some reader 
of the Press who has succeeded in ridding his 
orchard of these destructive insects, if any 
such there be, have the kindness to publish a 
description of means he employed ? — Sperry 
Dye, Walnut (irove, Sacramento Co., Cal. 

[It is just the season for the discussion of this 
matter. AVho has succeeded, and who has 
failed, and how ?] 

New Pest in Grain Fields -Burning Stubble. 

Editors Press: — Tlie observing Steward of 
Stockton Grange brought some wheat straw in 
at our last meeting, containing insects resem- 
bling little, lively red fleas, and likely to be 
very injurious. He found a small white worm 
in some stalks. These insects seem voracious 
and active. Several gentlemen have them un- 
der consideration; also Mr. Robinson, of the 
County Hoiticultural Society, who will doubt- 
less be able to classify them. Experience has 
proved the wisdom of burning the stubble-fields 
just b.ifore winter sets in, not only to render 
cultivation easier, but the flames are scavengers 
of the eggs, larvre, pupa, and even the winged 
insects destructive to crops. Phosphates and 
other salts are thought to remain on the ground 
after burning, to be plowed under. Many suc- 
cessful farmer3 plow the stubble under to make 
the soil loose and more moist, and save the vola- 
tile parts that would float away on the wind. 
If we could burn our vegetable gardens over, I 
believe it would diminish dialjrotica, squash 
bugs and aphides. Small satisfaction it is to 
see the garden start so finely when we know 
that there'll be lice on the cabbage, bugs on the 
vines and beetles on the beans. Flea powder 
does little good, except for slugs on the roses, 
and our friends, the lady-bugs, will take care 
of them. I rolled the large shell-back, red 
spotted bug that crawls on the stalk of cab- 
bage, carrots and other vegetables, in powder, 
and the next day he was as lively as ever. — W. 
D. A., Stockton, Cal. 

The Lioss of the Anti-Pest Bill. 

Editors Press: — I presume that you have 
heard say, in regard to the loss of the " Insect 
Bill" that had passed both houses of the Legis- 
lature, that the Assembly Committee on Enroll- 
ment, of which Mr. .1. O. Sweetland, of Nevada, 
Co., was Chairman, was to blame for it. The re- 
port has gone round, bringing upon the head of 
Mr. Sweetlandthe denunciation and blame of the 
horticulturists throughout the State. He does 
not merit them, for the Assembly Committee 
had nothing to do with that bill, which, having 
been first introduced in the Senate, Iiad to go, 
after passing both Houses, to the Senate Com- 
mittee on Enrollment, of which Mr. Norton is 
Chairman. In justice to Mr. Sweetland, I hope 
that you will state it in the Rur.'VL Press.— 
Felix Gillet, Nevada City, Cal. 

National Museum of Entomology. 

Prof. Riley, the entomologist of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, has deposited with the 
Smithsonian Institute his own private collec- 
tion of insects, with the idea of using it as a 
nucleus for the development of a collection fit- 
ting the dignity of a national museum. The 
collection deposited comprises some .SO, 000 
species and upward of 150,000 specimens of all 
orders. The most important addition to the 
Institute has been Mr. Ridgway's private col- 
lection of American birds, containing 2,.S0'2 
specimens of 77S species, especially important 
because the specimens have been selected in 
field to illustrate variations of color and form 
due to age, sex and geographical location. 

California Poultry Association. 

This association was recently formed for the 
purpose of disseminating infoimation concern- 
ing thoroughbred fowls, pigeons, etc., and by 
emulation to stimulate our California breeders 
to turn out as fine birds as can be annually seen 
at the leading exhibitions in Europe and the 
Eastern States. To the call for an organization 
of this kind, the prominent breeders of the 
State responded, and succeedf d in making their 
first exhibition, which was held at this city last 
month, one which compared favorably, both in 
numbers and quality, with the Eastern poultry 
shows. This success was so gratifying that all 
members of the society were encouraged to go 
forward to the full expectation of making next 
year's display even more large and creditable 
than the one to which we have alluded. The 
association desires the earnest co-operation of 
all who are in the thoroughbred interest, and 
those who are interested in producing a better 
class of fowls for market purposes. It is hoped 
that all having the progress of this industry at 
heart will co-operate to attain this end by join- 
ing the associatior and taking part in future 
exhibitions. The Secretary, Mr. D. H. Everett, 
(box 1,771, San Francisco) will be pleased to 
receive correspondence from all who are dis- 
posed to take part in this commendable work. 
The membership fee of the society is $5. One 

two weeks ago. In this State there 
is much reason to expect good results 
because poultry and egg prices are so much 
better than at the East. It is the ordinary 
thing to get •$!) per dozen for broilers in the 
spring, and eggs from October to December 
bring from 40 to .50 per dozen, and sometimes 
even better. Of course, there is much to be 
gained by securing those breeds which are most 
given to laying during the time of high prices, 
and those which come to bro'ling size soonest 
after hatching. At this time the Langshans 
and the Wyandottes are attracting much at- 
tention for these qualities. 

In connection with these general remarks on 
the work of the California Poultry Association, 
we give engravings of the splendid cup 
awarded as a sweepstakes premium at the 
recent exhibition in this city. The cup is of 
solid silver, about eight inches high, and was 
made by Shreve X: Co , of this city, to suit the 
special needs of the society. The fowls shown 
[ were drawn from life, and ore very creditable to 
I the artist. This was awarded to Mr. (i. B. 
I Bay ley of Oakland, for the finest exhibition of 
j poultry, and next year will be up again for 
I competition. Thi.s cup goes back to the asso- 
I ciation every year for competition, and is thus a 
I continual excitenn-nt to breeders to make as 
fine a display as possible. 

C.vLiFORNiA Wheat in Australia. — Cali- 
fornia seed wheat is becoming famous. Last 
year in Ore£on, when the season was so 
unfavorable, it was found that wheat from Cal- 


of the objects of the society is to prepare a list 
of all reputable breeders in the United States and 
in Europe, and this desirable information is to 
be furnished to all members. There has been 
much chagrin and loss of time and money 
hitherto by breeders on this coast sending their 
orders to irresponsible parties at the East, and 
this, it is hoped, will be checked by the enter- 
prise of the California association in this direc- 
tion . 

Since the exhibition last month the interest 
in and the demand for thoroughbred poultry 
has increased to a notable extent, as is shown 
by the increased sales of our leading breeders. 
The result will be, of course, the production of 
a much better class of market fowls, and pur- 
chasers will appreciate the improvement. There 
is every reason why poultry should be much 
more largely used as food. At the East the 
high price of meats has led to a wonderful in- 
crease in the demand for poultry and much 
money is being made by ministering to this 
demand. The hen has been found inade(iuate 
to the hatching of the vast numbers of chicks 
required, and incubators have been generally 
introduced. Artificial incubation has been so 
long before the public, and so much experience 
has been secured that there is no longer any 
question as to the profit in the use of the ma- 
chines where a fair degree of intelligence and 
application is given to their management. For 
an illustration of what can be done on a coun- 
try farm with an incubator, the reader is re- 
ferred to the letter of our old correspondent, 
Mr. G. W. T. Carter, in the Rural of 

ifornia seed stood up under drought which de- 
stroyed the home-grown seed. In Australia 
they are almost continually beset by rust, so 
much so that they have often despaired of 
growing wheat. ■ We read in the last issue of 
the Melbourne Leader — which, by the way, is a 
splendid number of that journal — as follows : 

It would appear that it is not by any chemi- 
cal dressing or peculiar treatment of the soil 
that we are to become a wheat producing 
country, but by the introduction of the flinty 
wheats of India and California. These wheats 
have proved thoroughly reliable; an.l although 
giving a much smaller yield per acre, are super- 
seding all the other varieties. The millers in 
Queensland have not yet the machinery to deal 
with the flinty wheats extensively, but no 
doubt they will study their own interests by 
importing suitable machinery. 

Our own wheat is sometimes badly injured 
by rust in our own fields, especially near the 
coast, but we are finding that certain varieties 
resist well here — for a time at least. 

Cinchona Growing. — Now that cinchona 
growing is being made the subject of inquiry 
and practical test at the University Experiment 
(irounds, and in other parts of the State 
where the plants arc sent from the propagating 
houses at Berkeley, it is interesting to note 
what is being done by similar, though more ex- 
tended cfl'ort, in other countries. It appears 
that the result of the government planting 
operations in Bengal during 1882-83 was a total 
of .50,000 less trees than in the previous year, 
owing to the upi'ooting of a great number of 
hybrid varieties and sriae 160,000 red-bark 
trees. The total number of trees of all sorts at 

the end of last year was 4,711,168, whil 
crop was the largest ever gathered, being 3ii' 
i)SO pounds of dry bark. All this was sent to 
the factory, except 41,800 pounds, which was 
forwarded to London at the request of the Sec- 
retary of State, to be made up in different 
forms of febrifuge, and to be afterwards re- 
turned for experimental purposes to India. The 
revenue derived from ttie sale of febrifuges, 
seeds, plant and bark amounted to Rs. 1.52,807, 
leaving a profit, according to the P'toneer, of Rs. 
66,284, equal to a dividend of 6i per cent on 
capital. The cost of an equal quantity of 
quinine at Rs. 96 per pound, would tiave been 
Rs. 401, .328, whereas the febrifuges used cost 
Rs. 68,988, being a consequent saving to the 
government or the public of Rs. 3.S2,I140. 

A Proposed Grand Fruit Show. 

There will be in New Orleans a World's In- 
dustrial Exposition to be opened on the first 
Monday in December, 1884, and continue for 
six months. This will be, it is hoped, in the 
largest sense a World's Exposition of Industry, 
and will in many essential features surpass any 
exposition heretofore held in this or any other 
country. The provisions being made for this 
great fair are of the most generous character. 
One plan of tije managers is to secure "the most 
extensive and complete exhibition of fruits and 
other horticultural products that has ever been 
made in the world." 

The Exposition managers will erect a build- 
ing especially adapted to a display of plants 
and of fruits. This horticultural building will 
be about six hundred feet long by one hundred 
feet wide, and will be a handsome and conven- 
ient structure, which, with the landscape em- 
bellishments adjacent, will cost .$100,000. 
They will, at an early day, issue a list of pre. 
miums for fruits, in medals and money, which 
will aggregate from .f 12,000 to .f 1.5,000. 

They have placed the horticultural depart- 
ment in charge of the Mississippi Valley Horti- 
cultural Society, and the ofliicers of that So- 
ciety have issued a circular in which they set 
forth their plans at length. We make the 
following quotations: 

We expect to secure an exhibit of such fruits 
as will be in season at any part of the period of 
six months during which the exposition will con- 
tinue, or as can be held over by the most effi- 
cient system of cold storage. We expect these 
exhibits from every State and Territory of 
the United States; from the Provinces of British 
North America; from Mexico and the Central 
American States, and from all important nations 
of the world. The same classes of fruits from 
all the temperate climates of the globe will be 
placed side by side for comparison. The citrus 
fruits, and others of great commercial value will 
be gathered from the Gulf States, from Califor- 
nia, from the Mediterranean countries, 
from South America, from India, China, and the 
islands of the sea. This exhibition will be con- 
tinuous for the whole term of the exposition, 
showing every fruit in its season, and continu- 
ing many kinds beyond their season by the help 
of cold storage. And the most ample and com- 
plete cold storage facilities to be found on the 
continent have been placed in control of the 

Of course the fair is at the wrong time of the 
year to show the greater half of California fruit, 
for our splendid summer fruits cannot be held 
over by any system of cold storage so as to do 
themselves anything like justice; but there wilj 
be much that can be shown. The citrus fruits 
will be in their glory, and if they should move 
the Riverside and National City citrus bodily 
to New Orleans it would make the world open 
its eyes. Possibly some grapes could be held 
by cold storage so as to show well, and apples 
pears and plums would work well. Then the 
vast variety and magnificence of our canned and 
dried fruit interests could be well displayed. It 
will be a good thing to remember this New Or- 
leans exposition and prepare to make an exhibit 
which shall be creditable to the State. 

SnippiN(i Grapes. — How the immense cost 
of transportation keeps up the prices of our 
grapes at the I'^.ast so high that only the rich 
can afford to buy them, is shown by a little 
piece of experience which Mr. Feeley gave at a 
recent meeting of the Santa Clara County Viti- 
cultural Society. He said that he had shipped 
grapes to Chicago and realized $90 per ton, af- 
ter paying all expenses, which were enormous. 
He said that he had sent at one time 900 crates 
containing 40 pounds each ; they brought, alto- 
gether, .?4,066; the expenses altogether were 
.?2,094, and still left .1f!90 per ton net profit. 
This shows how much freight cost the Eastern 
consumers have to pay. Our wheat has been 
carried to Liverpool this year for less than .$10 
per ton, but to get fruit East, even to Chicago, 
the cost is nine times greater. And yet the 
railroads cannot pay taxes! 



[January 12, 1884 

Mining Debris. 

A Decision in the North Bloomfleld Case. 

Judge Sawyer this week rendered the long 
exi)ected ilccision in the case of Woodrutl' vs. 
the North WoomfieldCiravel Mining Company. 
It malitjs the injunction perpetiKil, virtually 
prohihitiiig hydraulic niininj^. The deci:>ion is 
very voluminous, hut we give a lull abstract as 

This is a hill in eciuity to restrain several 
miaiu>: companies on the western slope (jf the 
Sierra Xi vaila niountaius fro'n discharging their 
debris ifitu tlie Yuba river a id its allluents, by 
which it is carried into the Sacramento and 
Feather livers, tilling them up and injuring 
their navigation, and sometimes injuring m igh- 
boring lands by overtlowing and covering them 
with debris. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Mendell's report to Con- 
gress in . I anuary, 18iS-J, on the injurious results 
of hydraulicand otherminiug, will furnish many 
of the facts relied on, since it has been recog- 
nized by both sides, and tlie remedies it sug- 
gests being confirmed by other evidence. In 
ISrw tlie water whicli .■ irries away the eartli 
and delnis of a g^l : 'nu-aring bank was dis- 
charged through a i iii bcr lioSH, with nozzles of 
not more than an iiicli in diameter; by later 
Machines the nozzles' size and pressure were 
largely iiu reased. Now, for inst ince, an eight 
inch noz/l' at the Xorth Hloomtield mine ilis- 
charges IS.i.OOO cubic feet of water in an hour, 
with a velocity of 1 50 feet per second. At some 
of the hydraulic mines the "Monitor"' machines 
are worked night and day. 

The Yuba River Drains 
About I,.S:10 square miles of Sierra, Nevada 
and Yuba counties. Its basin's highest eleva- 
tion above tide water is 8,000 feet; its lowest, 
■200 feet. The debris complained of is mostly 
discharged into its tributaries. Colonel Men- 
dell says that 700,000,000 cubic yards may be 
assumed to repre^ent the amount of gravel 
remaining to be worked by hydiaulic- process 
tributary to the Yuba. The beds cf all the 
streams mentioned, from the very dumps of 
the higlier mines to the junction of the main 
Yuba with Feather river, have been lilled up 
at some places to a depth of 150 feet, and all 
have regul:irly graded themselve.", so that a 
railroad track might be laid upon their beds 
for the whole distance. I heir channels are 
choked and clogged with debris. Most of it 
will fiom year to year be carried further 
down, and ultimately to the valley. 
The ordinary annual Hoods are unable to carry 
all of it oli, and it accumulates in vast amounts. 
Any extraordinary Hood that may occur will 
sweep it into the valleys. 'I'he Yuba's load of 
sand and gravel has risen until it now stands 
above the level of the adjoining country on 
either side. This eruption from the mountains 
has destroyed over 15,000 acres of alluvial land. 
15efore hydraulic operations commenced, rich, 
black bottom lands extended on each side of 
the Yuba, and on them were some of the tinest 
farms, oroiiurds and vineyards in the .State. 
These have been ruined by debris and aljan- 
doned. Levees were built along the ridge on 
either side of the Feather river, but they broke 
anil Y'uba county was flooded. The filling of 
debris between the levees is several feet above 
the level of the surrounding country on the out- 
side. The lining gradually rises as the river is 
ascended till, at Squaw Flat, by the entriince of 
the foothills, it is L'tO feet deep. This change 
in the depth of the water has impaired the prac- 
ticability of navigation. (Ireater exposure to 
overflow now exists for all riparian lands on 
1)oth these rivers. For years the comparatively 
deep draft steamers, Senator and Xew ^Vorld, 
ran regularly through Steamboat slough. It is 
not navigable now for light draft river boats 
of to daj-, aud its navigation has been aban- 

The River Cliannels 

Have been largely contracted in width. The 
tilling up of the present navigable rivers is 
tlireuteued. The Y'uba waters are so charged 
with debris that they are wholly unfit for water- 
ing cattle, domestic or other uses, unless first 
taken up and allowed to stand and settle. As 
it comes down to Marysville it is so charged 
with sand as to bo unfit even for surface irriga- 
tion. Two dams for impounding debris 
were constructed by the State, under the 
Drainage Act of 1880, at a cost of i*500,000. 
liotli were destroyed. A dam made by the 
North Bloomfleld .Mining Company at Humbug 
catiyon is full, and the debris has passed over 
and filled the canyon and South Yuba to a level 
-with the debris above, as if no dam existed. A 
dam across Sucker Flat ravine is in a similar 
condition. The plaintiff owns property in 
Marysville and two farming tracts on the 
T'eathor river. The latter have become useless 
tiirough being buried by debris, and by an 
overflow, caused by debris, his Marysville 
jjroperty was injured in 1873. The level of the 
bed of the Y'uba was elevated by those deposits 
above that of the basements of Mary.sville 
buildings, and as the water in them rises and 
falls with that of the river, they were rendered 
unfit for use and abandoned. The sewage was 
greatly obstructed by the same means. 

The Filline Up by Debris 

(!aused a greater flood, with a smaller amount 
of water in 1875-6 than in l8(il-o. In 1881 the 
inhabitants of Marysville ware called out in the 
night to raise the levees with gunny sacks filled 

with sand; and only by able work saved them- 
selves from inundation. Their taxes amount to 
from two to seven per cent annually on the 
value of their property, most of which is used 
to strengthen the levees. The levee tax alone 
in Marysville and Sutter couuly has been as 
high as six per cent. I'efeudnnts claim that 
much of the clanger from overflow results from 
an improper U'vetiiii: systmi adopted. I Jut ihe 
deposit of mii.iiig ilebris h. s not only greatly 
augmented the injuries heretofore received; it 
largely enhances future danger aud is a great 
source or cause of all the evils sutl'ered and 

Were it not for the levees, much other coun- 
try would be buried by debris. If the flood 
i)f 18G'2 did so much as defendants claim to till 
the Y'uba chunuel and its bottom lands, what 
must be tlie efl'ect of its recurrence in precipi- 
tating upon the levee barriers the accumula- 
tions that now gorge the water courses of the 
mountains Unless authorized by law, the 
acts of defendants constitute a general, far- 
reaching and most destructive public nuisance. 
The complainant has suB'ored, is suffering, and 
by a continuation of those acts will cintinue to 
suffer injuries that t ntitle him to equitable re- 
lief. This nuisance extends over a space of 
two miles wide and twelve miles long, and has 
injured the navigation of 150 ndles of w ater. 
The pro\ isious of the ( ode api'licable tii this 
case are Sections 347!' and 

The acts complained of constitute a 

Public and Private Nuisance, 

ISoth at common law and within the express 
language of the cited sections of the (.'o'".e. The 
only limitation upon that definition is contained 
ill Section This case is not within that 

liniit-ition, because there is no statute of < ali- 
fornia authorizing such acts, and if there were 
it would be unconstitutional and void. It is 
always .an implied condition that rights granted 
or regulated by the Legislature shall be exer- 
cised with due regard to the rights of others, 
an no authority to encroach on others" 
vested rights can, as defendants claim, be in- 
ferred, but it must be expressly and clearly au- 
thorized. The Uuiteil States had no power to 
enlarge the rights of its vendees as against 
private rights already vested; Ufir could it 
authorize any encroachment by its grantees 
upon or injury to other piivate property. In 
•luly, ISOU, 

Congress Passed an Act 

Relating to public lands which provided that 
any party injuring or damaging the possession 
of any settler on the public domain shall bo 
liable to the damaged party. It only proviiled 
for the sale of quartz mines and grantins 
water rights. It cannot lie inferred that, by 
the same act. Congress authorize<l a great and 
intolerable nuisance. The State, under the ex- 
press terms of the Act of Admission, could not 
in anyway interfere with the disposition of the 
public lands. The Congressional Acts of 1 870 and 
1872 imposed on mining lands sold under pre- 
scribed conditions and circumstances casements 
of various kinds, such as tunnel rights, water 
rights, etc., but they do not indicate more 
strongly than the previous act .an intention to 
authorize the injuries complained of. It is 
contended that, because Congress in the River 
an<l Harbor Bill appropriated S2.50,000 for t)ic 
improvements of the .Sacramento aud Feather 
rivers, it assumed the responsibility of protect- 
ing them and legalized the use of those naviga- 
ble w.iters for the deposit of mining ilebris. 
No such authority to destroy navigable waters 
can be inferred. It shows that the injury is of 
such a character and extent as to make a 
remedy necessary for the evil. Xo argument 
can be drawn from the appropriations for the 
removal of obstructions of other rivers that 
Congress authorized their continuance. It had 
not the power to make such authorization law- 
ful. The United .States Supreme Court says 
that the 

Right of Eminent Domain 

Over the shores and the soils under the 
navigable waters for all municipal pur- 
poses belongs exclusively to the .States within 
their respective jurisdictions, and only they 
can exercise it. This decision has never been 
overruled. If Congress could or has author- 
ized the acts complained of, it could authorize 
the destruction of all navigable rivers, streams 
and b.ays of the State; for there is no limit to 
the amount of debris that may be sent down. 
There is then no plausible ground for holding 
that Congress has ever attempted to legalize 
the acts complained of; or, if it had, that it 
possessed the power to do so. It is not claimed 
that any statute of the State expressly autlior- 
izes the filling up of the .State's waters with 
debris so as to injure navigation; it is only so 
inferred from legislation recogniziug and en- 
couraging mining as in itself a lawful pursuit. 
No authority to commit 

The Nuisances Complained Of 

Can be inferred from any statute of the .State. 
Subdivision 5, Section 1238, of the Civil Code 
seems moat relied on. But here the inference 
is the other way, for it recognizes the right of 
every man to the undisturbed enjoyment of his 
property and legal rights. Subdivision 8, Sec- 
tion 1, of the Act of 1878, is also relied on; 
but this does not protend to authorize the 
acts complained of or recognize their legal- 
ity. It only sought to devise a plan 
whereby such injuries might be averted with- 
out interfering with the working of 
the mines. Mining is an important industry in 
California, and the State may take any lawful 

measures to encourage it without injury to or 
destruction of other important industries or 
1 right.s. The legislation mentioned is entirely 
I consistent with that relating to nuisances, and 
the latter cannot lie regardeil as repealed, super- 
] seded, modified or lindted by it. The State, 
I also, wouhl have no constitutional power to 
I authorize the acts complained of. The evidence 
I shows that the whole surrounding country, but 
fiU' the levees, wcmld have been made useless, 
[ and lliat it is endangered from future tlooils. It 
1 is not pretended that th« owners of the injured 
I lands have received compensation f(.r being de- 
prived of them. They h.ive been damaged 
j without due process of law, and without recom- 
, pens", anil, therefore, legislation intended to 
validate the acts coniplaiiieel of must be abso- 
lutely void. .Such dai;i:ige amounts to an un- 
lawful appropriation within the meaning of the 
law. The di'fendants are corporations, and fall 
within the inhibition that the police power of 
the State shall never be so abrielged as to per- 
mit corporations to conduct their business so as 
to infringe the rights of individuals or the 
State's well being. The State's title, espe- 
cially to 

Navigable Waters 

Kxteuding to the oc?an, is held not merely for 
the benefit of the citizens of the .State, but 
for the uses of inter-State and even foreign 
iMiiimerce. California's admission into the 
I'liion was on the condil i in that Its na\igable 
waters should be common highways, forever 
free to all citizens < f tho Uidted .States. An 
obstructed navigali lu e innot be said to be free. 
This compact is valid m an Act of Congress. 
The acts complained of are, therefore, clearly 
unlawful. Defendants claim a right to do them 
by prescription. At common law no light can 
' be acquireel by prescriptien to commit or con- 
I tinuc a public nuisance, anel the statute leaves 
I the circumstances wliicli constitute prescription 
. to be determined by the settled law of the land. 
The act being unlawful, a private party sustain- 
ing special damages from the nuisance gains a 
status which enables him to maintain a |)rivatc 
action for such injury. He can only maintain 
his suit for an injunction on private grounds; 
ye't the Court grants relief, not solely because 
the nuisance is private, but because it is public, 
and the relief will benefit the public. The 
present case afforels a striking 

Illustration of the Hardship and Wrong 

That would result to private parties if any other 
rule should prevail. In the case of such a wide- 
spread nuisance, why shouhl any one private 
citizen hs compelled to take upon himself 
the burden and expense of a litigation 
which the public neglects to institute, and 
which would be as beneficial to the public 
as to himself, and as necessary to its well be- 
ing as his own? In this particular case a 
single individual, no matter how great his in- 
jury, might well shrink from so Herculean a 
task; and, in fact, all of the thousands inter- 
ested did shrink until an organized combination 
of private citizens came to the support of indi- 
vidual members of their numbc-. \Ve hold that 
no right by prescription has vested in defend- 
ants that can defeat this suit. I'laintifl's ac- 
j quiescence to the nuisance has been urged. 
.Slere delay or suti'ering time to elapse is not ac- 
quiescence, though it m<ay be evidence of it, ac- 
cording to circumstances. In 1802, when the 
covering of the Limls bordering on the Yuba 
began, there were at least 10,000 miners dis- 
charging the debris from their washings into 
the river and its tributaries. Although 
hydraulic mining appliances had not developed 
their enormous excavating power, defendants 
claim that a much larger amount of debris was 
sent into the streams then than now, owing to 
the greater number of mines aiiel the lighter 
character of the material. 

Parties Now Commitiiag the Nuisance 
Keside in other counties than those complaining 
of it. The debris, before it reaches the valley 
b'.'low, becomes such a mass that no specific part 
of any injury can be traced to any particular 
mine. When the nuisance began the miners 
were coming and going from day to day, and in 
the lirst suit to restrain these nuisances that 
reacheil the .Supreme Court it was hclel that the 
parties worki.ig mines independently of each, 
but contributing to the nuisance, conid not be 
joined as defendants, thus denying all practical 
legal remedy to the injured parties. Under such 
a ruling del.ay in bringing a suit should have 
little force as evidence of acquiescence. The 
testimony shows that the expenses of this suit 
are paid on one side by the Anti-I )ebris Associ.a- 
tion, composed of citizens of Yuba, Sutter, 
Yolo, Sacramento and part of I'laccr counties, 
and on the other side by the Miners' Associa- 
tion, whose members are citizens of or interested 
in the mining counties aft'ected. It is, there- 
fore, a suit between the 

Mining and the Valley Counties 

Interested. Woodruff's interests involved are 
by no means insignificant. Yet it would mani- 
festly be better for him pecuniarily to see his 
damaged property absolutely destroyed than 
alone and unaided to maintain this litigation. 
If his interests lie not sufficient to justify the 
contest, what other man in the district could 
afford the etl'ort? These facts have a legitimate 
bearing on the question of acquiescence and 
explain the delay in bringing action. We do 
not think, under the circumstances, that plain- 
tifl ami othere similarly situated, should be 
presumed to know that the parties committing 
the nuisance were doing it under an adverse 
claim, especially as there is no plausible ground 

under the laws of the State on which to base 
such a claim. If they made such a claim, why 
did they contribute ■■SS4,000 to build a levee for 
the protection of land that they had a right to 
cover? Complainant and others also built levees 
and taxed themselves to an amount equal to or 
greater than the incomes of their property in 
order to protect it by other means than thi- 
almost hopeless task of stopping the work of 
so large a number of miners by l.'gal process. 
They had a right to see the effect of their efforts 
without pri'judicing their privilege to aelopt 
proper legal remedies in the end. 

The People Aflfected by Mining Debris 

Have, from the first, sought legislative protec- 
tion and it is impossible Ui treat the complain- 
ant and each miner as isolated individuals on 
this qiii stion rif acquit^scence. At last, com- 
pelled to invoke relief from the Courts, the suf- 
ferers began suits of a leiu-esentative character 
in di He rent Courts some in the name of the 
people, others in that of cities, counties or 
private parlies. It would now lie to the last 
degree inequitable to hold that they have lost 
their rights to compulsory remedies by acquies- 
cence and prescription, and that defendants, by 
their long continued trespasses, have ettiiblish- 
ed a legal right to continue and augment the 
liUisance. In our judgment, there ij no suf- 
ficient evielencc of an open, unqualified, undis- 
guised adversse claim, or of acquiescence. If 
ot.her« ise, defendants conlil have acquired no 
prescriptive ri'.ht to ixtiiid the injury. 
The temerity of those in Marysville and the ail- 
jacent country, who trust their lives and for- 
tunes to the protection alforded by feeble levees 
during the flood, is well calculated to excite our 
wonder. Against the continuance and further 
augmentation of the nuisance, the complain.ant 
must certainly be entitled to legal protection. 
Laches is also relied on to defeat the suit. No 
court of equity would deny 

Relief to the PlaintifT 

On this ground. To the plaintifFs farms cov- 
ered by ihbris defendants claim title for 
themselves in common with all other miners, 
under the statute of limitations. But that 
land does not come within its provisions. There 
was no ouster whatever. The prescribed con- 
ditions for acquiring title were not performeel. 
The defendants did not protect it by an 
inclosure after it was abandoned as useless 
or cultivate or improve it. The title was not di- 
vested out of defendant. Nothing like the pres- 
ent case has been brought to our notice in the 
books. The rules of law must be reasonably if 
not liberally applied to its peculiar facts for the 
protection of innocent owners of property. The 
legislative statutes of 1851 and the Act of Con 
gress of ISlJi;, relating to mining customs and 
usages, on which the defense rely, have no rela- 
tion to this, being applicable to mining 
claims and mines alone. These customs are 
local and must not be in conflict with the 
common laws. It would be dilticult to appre 
ciate too highly the iinpoi-tance of the mining 
iuterests. Large amounts of money have been 
invested in hydraulic mining; its machines and 
appliances have been brought to perfection, and 
those engaged in it have successfully carried 
out vast enterprises. After considering the 
various dam projects proposeel as remedies, in 
all their engineering and legal phases, the Court 
finds that there is no alternative to grant an 
injunction. The comparative importance of the 
conflicting interests can have nothing to do 
with this question. Plaintiff is entitled to and 
granted a perpetual injunction, but if some 
other plan be successfully carried out for obvi- 
ating the injury the decree will be modified. 

•fudge Matthew 1'. Deady's opinion, in which 
he fully concurred with that of Judge Sawyer, 
was read by Judge .Sabin. 

Notice of appeal was given by the defense. 

TiiK Kru.\L ok All. During the 1 
two or three j'cars I have often been asked by 
farmers and fruit growers what paper to, take. 
My reply has been, " I take from four to six 
papers, but / coulil Itti-p hit' o>i<\ I should un- 
hesita':ingly choose the I'.vi'irir Ki ual Phe.'^.s. 
I wish you a Hapjiy New Year and (iod speed 
you in your good work.""- J. Asiikr, KI 
Cajon, Sun Diego Co., Cal. 

A Second Emphatic Endorsement- 
Mr. Will. H. Jlitdiell, eilitor i.f Hie Jouriial-Prftg, St. 
C'loml, Minn., wrote to .Mr. Win. IViin Nixrin, asking il a 
card witli Ills sii^'iKitiire, recoiiiiiieiKliiig L'oiiipouiid Ox>- 
Ifcii, was genuine. Mr. .Mitcliell writes: "The follttwiiif^ 
letter, from Mr. Wui. Penii Ni.viin, the well-known editor 
o( th<; (M'usigu Inler-Oceaii, e\\>lauis itaclt, and will he 
read with interest:" 

"TiiK IsTP.R-Oe'KAX, Chieago, Jan. 10, ISSS. 
'•Mr. )!'. B. Mil'-hell, St. Ctmid, Minn.: 

"Dkar Sm: I am alwajs happy to bear tCBtiinonv to 
the nicat value of t'onii>oun(l <lx.V(fen. as inanufaeturetl 
In* llrs. Starkey & I'alen, I'hiludelphiu. I think it the 
most iinpiirtant remedy for throat and luni; troubles that 
was oi'cr discovered. 1 feel that it saved iny life, and 1 
am always irlad^k) recommend it to those that are siitfer- 
in^' from siieh troubles. The eard was not only tremiine, 
hut 1 endorse the remedy now us fully as 1 did in the 
card. Verj truly yours, Ws(. I'k.n.v .\i.\o.n." 

(Uir **Treatisc on Conii>oiuul Oxyi^en," eontainiiig a 
hi8tor\' of the discovery and inotie of action of thi»- re- 
markable curative a;^ent. and a lar^^e record of surprisinf^ 
cures in C^onsiiinption, Catarrh, Neuralgia, liroiiehitis, 
Asthma, etc., and a wide raiii;e of ehronie iliseascs. will 
be sunt free. Address, Dus. .SrARhKV i: I'.\lk.v, 110^' 
and nil (Jiraril .it., riiiladeli.hia. 

All orders for the Compound Oxygren Home Treatment 
directed to H. E Mathews, 806 Montgomery street, Sail 
Francisco, will be lilled on the same terms as if sent di- 
rectly to IH in Philadelphia. 

A ('.\MKL has a foot furnished with a pad, 
which resists the burning sand of the desert 
for years, which would wear out a horse's 
hoofs in a few weeks. 

Januaby 12, 1884] 

pAeiFie f^URAL PRESS. 




The judicious use of an 
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ulveiizin^' Harrow, Clod 
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L Send for Pamphlkts containing hundreds of Testimonials from forty-six different States and Territories. 



George Bull & Co., 21 and 23 Main St., San Frnticisco; G. B 



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Firearms, Ammunition and 


W. W. Sreeier, Colt. Reiiiton, aid Parker 

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Eepeating Rifles. 

Remington and Ballard Sporting Rifles, Colt's and Smith & Wesson Pistols. Metallic Cartridges, Brass and Paper Shot Gun Shells. ^Tns 
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Colt's New Magazine Rifle 254-Inch Barrel 44 C. F., 
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15 Shots, Taking 




Authorized Capital, - - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $531,200. 

lieservcd Fund and Paid up Stock, $21, 17s. 


A. D. LOGAN Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIEII Cashier and iManaffcr 

FRANK Mc.MULLEN Secretary 


JOHN LEWELLING, I'resident Napa County 

.1. H. GARDINER llio Vista, Cal 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus County 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara County 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano County 

H. M. LARUE Yolo County 

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A. D. LOGAN Colusa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS arc opened and conducted in the 
« -usual way, hank books balanced up, and statements of 

■accounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS tbrou^'hout the Country arc made 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
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CF.RTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand 
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Cashier and Manager. 
Sill Francisco, Jan. 1.5, 1882. 

OTIie r.uYERs' Guide is is- 
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Commission Merchants. 

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Consifcaiments of GRAIN, WOOL, nAIIlY I'ROinK'K, 
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n. El 3VC C> V ^ Xj . 


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Commission Merchants 

No. 75 Warren St.. - - - New York. 

Refkkences: Tradesmen's National Bank. N. Y.; Kl 
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[January 12, 1884 


Seeds, Plants, Etc. 


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The IViu-tioHl llusiiu:ss Traiuiiig School of Calii\>rDia fo 
the juunj; au'l mUMk-agcil of butli sexes. Kxneuses are les 
than one-half thu usual rates. Kxcellent hoard in privat 
families from to slO iK^r month. C'.tirs.s 1/ Study— ¥u\ 
Busintss (.'oiirhe. full Normal t'ourse. Review Course, Bpecia 
Courses. Teachers' Course. Preparatory ( 'oiirse. Telegraphy 
T he "College Jourual" will he sent. i>o8tpaid, to any address 
F. R. C.XAKKE, Principal. Stucktou. Cal. P. O. Box 15 


New Spring Grains 

(;KiirXl>S. TlieoiiKiiia'"fsof the DeHancc wluat, Snow- 
Hake potatoes, etc., ..ff. r the following: 

"I'liiit'lc's (;reeri Mountain" wheat, balil liRht ehafT, 
berry mcdinm .■^ize, litflit anilicr, vcr.v prodiKtive; first 
olTere<l in pai ket* last spring; a iross between "Defiance" 
and '-Lost Nation." "Printtlc's Grandee," larjiest of his 
new wheats, lieads often o\er7 inches lonjt, liald, lijfht 
chaff, hern Urge; now first offered; will do wonders in 
California.' "Horsfonr* Imperial Barley," a true hj briil, 

rowed, heads 4 to 7 inches long exclusive of beard, often 
wifli over 100 kernels per head, and prodncin;; 40 to 60 
licads per plant; lias yielded as liijjh as l,:i'K) fold the past 
^ea»on; 11 \ bushels have been !,Town from one i ound of 
teed; valnable for hav; first offered last spiin^' by the 
pound and packet. Prices of cither of the three above 
named \arieties by mail. 2 pounds, SI; S5 per peck; by 
express or freiirht, ni>t ire) aid, i'i.M per peck; per 
bushel. "Pringle's American Triumph" oats; first of- 
fered last sprinu' by the pack.t; remarkably free from 
rust, y:row over 6 feet hitrh. very productive and valuable 
for bay; straw and grain lisfht yellow. Price by mail, 70 

1 ents jier pound; .m. J5 per pi ck. Hy express or frei){ht, 
not jirepaid, per peek; ?f8 j er bushel. One peek of 
either I'f the above, sown in drills and cultivated, suHi- 
cicnt seed for an acre. 


Chailoite, Veimont. 

P. 0. Box 490, 

San Jose, Cal. 

FirBt-class. Centrally located. Well equipped. Full 
corps of Teachers. All branches belonging to the modern 
Business College taught. 

Sk.VD for ClRCCLAR. .tfj 


Berkeley, Cal. 

For Catalogues or other information, address 8. S. 
HARMON, Berkeley, Cal., or E. J. Wickson, 414 Clay 
Street San Francisco. 


University Ave. (BcrkcU-y Statifni), Borkeie.v, Cal. j 
T. S. KOWKN.S. A. B., T. C. I) , Prinrii»al, for six years ; 
Head Master (.'lassies and KiigHsh in a leading Californian 
Aradeniy. Advant£^^es: tirst-tiass education with home 
comforts; ffvown boys of neglected education carefully in- 
structed; |>rei>anition for any l'nivcrsit\ ; also a Prepara- 
tory Department. Term lx'(jrins January 2d. Send 
for circular. 


I have for ^.ile seed of Cali/ornica, proof against 

ph\ lloxera, which I will send at SI ] er pound for '• pounds 
iir uinrc. or ■■^l..''>(i per pound for Ic^s than ■< | ounds. 

Vitis Californica Cuttings. $8 per 1.000, 

Freight t«> be jKiid b\ purchaserj^. 
(P. <>. Box No. s.) 

MIddletown, I^ke County, Cal. 

imilCd I Tli«oftrtte.t and molt 
-nAnotLL>«lu'>'>l' ll«-pHerrj, 
Early Ilurvegt ItUoUberry, 
.Itliintle iinil i>aiilcl Kuone 
l*lrinvberrle« I '■••J il'litU. 
The lur,,,sla<id br.t .1 " t of 


thf t'nifed States, including all 
lunhle larietUi, nftr and old. 
\ Richly Illustratrd CaUitogue. teUiiif} 
f iihat to j'hint. how t-t yhiiit, and h"tr 
to grt and gruw VruH Trpe» and 
PImnt*, /flUd tcith usr/ul information 
on fruit cuUurr, frw. Addreaa, 
J. T, LOVETT, l-Iltle HlUer, Sew Jen^y. 
ntruduccr ('ulhbert Raspberry and Mnnch€»U r Stravherry, 


Orders fnr t_'nTI.\4i.S oi these new and excellent 
Pears should be gi\en at as early a day as possible. 
Ha\'ing the largest orchani of bearing trees of these va- 
rieties in the State, I am prepared to sui)ply all de- 
mands for Scions, during the grafting season -from Janu- 
ary to .Marcli. PRICKS- Khsfker Cuttings, from a foot 
to \:> inches in length. In for .^1 ; I-kc o.vtk Cuttings, l;i for 
$1, bv mail. Address, 

J. WINCHESTER, Columbia, Cal. 


Wliolesalc and Ketail Pealcrs in 

Foreign and Domestic 

,,, , , .u • . ■ , ,. 1 , r. ■ The Fihcrz.Tgos giape is gocid both for wine and raisins. 

All Orders irom the mtenor carefully blled, and Satis , ,t has a thin skin, is ^ery sweet, ripens early, and is wori- 
faction Guiirntced. 


Zinfandel and Fiberzagos 

derfully productive. 

I'KICK List Si RMiTrF.n kor Appiwival, .tXD 

Goods Delivered to Depot or Landing 


Send for Catalogue and Price List, 

^GTConsignnients of Cmoicp. Coi'vtrv Prodice solicited. 

716 Market Street, opposite Third, 




It is important that llie SoDA or 
S.-M.KR.^TI S they use should be white 
and pi'RE, in common with all similar 
substances used for food. 

In making bread with yeast, it i!well 
to use about half a teaspoonful of the 

"Arm and Hammer" Brand 

Scida or Sulcratus at the fame time, 
and thus make the bread ri-c better and jirevent it be- 
coming sour, by o.rrectin- the natural .icidity of the 


Should use only the "ARM AN D HA.MMER" brand tor 
eleaning and keeping milk-pans sweet and clean. I 

To insure obtaining only the "ARM AMI HAMMER" 
brand Soda and Saleratus, buy it in *'roi'Xi> or HALh- 
ror.VD PACKAGES," which boar our name and trade-mark, j 
as inferior goods arc sometimes substituted for the ' 
•ARM AND llAMMKIV brand when bought in bulk. 



E. A. SCOTT & CO., 

Proprietors for the Pacific, 

P. 0. Box 293, Sacramento, Cal. 

Hayes' Fire TrucK. 

tVdrcnlarg Forwarded Free to anv Addre8i..av 

plkxdid! Latest Style chrome cards, name, 10c. Pre 
mium with 3 packs. F. 1{. PARDEE, New Haveo, Ct 


Fresno, Cal. 


Grape Cuttings and Rooted Vines 

Of 250 Varieties, for Sale at the 


Senil for Catalogue. F. T. KISK.V. 


1,000,000 Muscatel Crape Cuttings, 

Twenty inches long, by OAK SHADK FRl lT COMPANY, 
Havisville, at $3 per Thousand. 


Address WKRSTER TREAT, .Mana'jrer. j 


For r $675. L 

French Burrs, Bolt, Snnufters, Elevators, <tc.V 

Portable Corn Mill and Corn Shellers 

For Farmers. 


•StSend fob Paupblkt and Pbici List. 

Established 18li. CINCINNATI, 0. 


Orchard Force Pump. 

BEST Puinp in «he World] 

ti! Kspeeially adapted for spraying 
Fruit Trees. Will throw a steady 
stream GO tt. Send for Catalogue. 
cisco, Cal. 

Sewing Macblnea. 

Several fl'st-clase styles, good as new, will be sold at 
baargaio. Call on or address H. F. D., at this 1 fflw. 

The distress- 
ing feeling of 
we,.»rine«s, of 


exhaustion without elfort, which makes life 
fl burden to so many i.eople, is due to the 
fact that the blood is jioor, and tlie vitality 
consequently feeble. If you are suffering 
from such feelings, 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

is just what you need, and will do you incal- 
culable good. 

No other preparation so concentrate^ and 
combines blood-purifying, vitalizing, enrich- 
ing, jind invigorating qualities as AVER'S 


Dr.J.C.Ayer&Co., Lowell, Mass. 

Sold by all Dr.iggists ; .?1, fix bottles for ?5. 



Asthma, • Bronchitis Catarrh. 


-I- OK SAI.K r.Y- 


(Established in San Francisco, in ls7n). 

Tills is the leading fanning journal on the western halt 
of the continent, and second to none in America. It is 
well printed and illustrated, woekl.t . Contuins an unusual 
amount of fresh, original farm, household and family cir. 
cle literature. Careful attention is | aid to giving full and 
reliable weekly market reports. The following are among 
its ably eondueted de; artnicnts: Edit. trials ..n ugricultu 
ral aiid other t niel.i and imp . ilant subjects of live inter' 
est to farmers an 1 their fiiniilies: agricultural and other 
useful and oniuniental illuslrati'.ns'. c.irres|>ondenec from 
various ipiarters cif our new anil rich ileveloping fields of 
agrie\dture .11 the Facilic Ciast, embracing new hints and 
idea.s from pri.gressne men and wi.inen in all branches of 
rural industry; Hi.rtieulture; noriculture; The Garden; 
The Home Circle; The Cirange; Vi.img F.>!ks; Domestic 
Economy; Good Health; Ehti.m.ilogitnl; Sheep .ind Wool; 
Tlie Dairy; Tlic Stock Yard; I'oidtry Yard; Tlie Swine Yard; 
The .\piary; Seric ill ur.!: Tile Vinejard; (Queries and Ke" 
plies: New linenti.>ns (and illustnitii lis uf new and im- 
proved niachiiier\ ); .Agrii-iiltural \..tcs; Items i.f General 
News. etc. Its eolunins are studiously filled with eha&te, 
interesting, fresh and useful reading, devoid of question- 
able literature for old or y..uiig and fancifully alluring 
e!ap-trap advertisements. Send f.»r .^.uuple copies. 

Subscriptii.ns, m (jrfroiirc, a lear. Agents wanted 
on liberal jKiy. Dkwkv .t 1 Publishers. 

No. a.^' .Market St.. S. F.,Cal. 


xLangley & Michaels, San Francisco.>« HOfSe POWGr fOf PumpinR. 


Trhk. K. II. Hiii.iiKooK, of lliL' National L'lii- 
viTsity, Lebanon, ()liit>, writes: *' The Asihiiui Curo 
I n'ccivftl fr<im y<ni Iat>t Snrini^ a year ag-n, rnm- 
pli'tolv cured me ot my Asttinia, thai I li;ive Murcfly 
ttiouvlunf ilthe pnstloiif;. haril, winter.** 

PiuiK. .JnsKPH PKABODY,rrinripal of (he MimmK* School, 
I./jwcII. writi's : " I liave hi cii tiiiirh hi'nelited 
\\y its use. and wmihi jidvis«» nil pi-rsons aflliclfd with 
Asthma, lu Iry • Kniu'htV-^ Asthnm Curo.' " 

Kkv.Cai.vix Cask, r.ruudh. ads Hrid^-('. rist. r Co.. 
N. Y., write«i: *• It is the most ettortual remedy I have 
ever tried, and I reconiniond it to all." 

David H. Ukowx. nf Thompson, itrown & Co.. Piih- 
lishers. 3:J Hawloy .Kt.. Roston. Mass. .writes : "I have 
trie*! nearly all known helps for Asthma, and consider 
' Knieht's .Vsrhnia Curt- " the best. It has cured mv of 
the terribh' disease, and I now am oblii^ed to take it 
only ooea-.i"iially \\ he-i I have a cold.'' 

Knight's New Book on Asthma and Hay Fever 

L. A. KNIGHT, 'i'lncii'illlnlo.' 

meadok's combined 


Made nf tlie best of Steel rue<|uale(l in the market. 
I*rlre. Farmers and OrchardistH are invited to ex- 

amine it. .Manufactured and for sale by MEADDK & 
SIM(»N1>S. corner Fourth and St. Jidin Sta . San Jose, Cal. 
S<: Send for circuhir. 

50 in Use; 20 Sold in last few Months. 

stood the test of four years; pLin|>s 2,000 to 3,000 gal- 
lons an hour; simple, durable, compaet— all in a buneh; 
runs easy and steady ; no fly=>«heels, no Jerk or jar. 

"Best Horse Pump made."— H. J. Kobinson, Gridlev 

"Uecommenil it to all."— Dan Streeter, Biggs' Station. 
"Don't want anything better for my use."— E. C 
Reynolds, Chico, 
These are a few testiiiioiiials. 

FOK SALE BY Hawley Bros.' Hardware Co., San 
Francisco; Holnian, Stanton 4K'o., Sacramento; Hubbani 
« h^arle, Chico, Cal., or the I in enter ami I'utcntee, 





Pacific Carriage Factory. 

Surry Wagons, Buggies, 


WllKKl.S, (JkAKIM., KTC. 

J. F. BILL. Prop.« 

1301 and 1323 J St., Sacramento. 



t4os. 204 and 206 West Baltimore Street, 
Baltimore. No. 112 Fifth Avenue, N. 'f 

Piles! Piles! Piles!— A Specialty. 

J. 'W. HARTLEY, M- D., of .Nk» Vork, 
Room 28, Phelan Building, San Francisco. 

Hemorrhoids (Piles), Fistulas, Fleers, Fissures, anil all 
diseases of the rectum, of whatever character, successfully 
ami radicallj cured in two or six weeks, without the 
knife, ligature or acids. The treatment is [Miinless, and 
can attend to business while under treatment. 

P.ATIENTS - I have selected from hiindrols of patients 
a few names: Georjje N. Carleton, Est)., Baldwin Hotel, 
San Francisco; Edw. Martin, Esq., 4iJS Front St, San 
Franciseo; T. R. tiibson, Esq., 120 Sutter St., San Fran- 
cisco; Chas. E. Shillaber, Cordelia, Solano C.'., Cal. 




The onlv Reliable Trap in existence. Defies all compe 
tition. PRicKs-l'lain traps per dozen, S4; plain trap 
aiiiece, 40 cents; safetv trajis per dozen, $.'>; safety trap 
apiece, 50 cents. For sale by L J. HATTABAUGH, 
San Jose. CaL 

tr BT All Hakdwarb Dsalub.^ 

Is th^ only genpral purpo.c Wire Fence in uae, being 
8<r«ag Mat-Wark Without Barbc. Itmll turn dog», 1 1^.<. 
lh««p. and poiiltrT. aa well as th.. vici<^u« M..k, 

without injur;rtoeilher fenoeor stock, ft m just th« reoca 
for farms, ^ar'.Jens, stock ranees and raili nri.U. aod verT 
oaat for Uwns. pirka, school lots and ccm.*Urif a. CoverM 
ihth riiBi.f>ioor|>.v(nt^orgalTftnire(l 1 it will laslalife-timft^ 
It is Saparlor to Boarda or Barbed Wirt in erery reapoct. 
Wo aak for it a fair Irial, knnwinii. it will wemr itsolt 
into faror. The Sed^wlrk MalM. made of wiougbt- 
troD pipe and steel mre, dtfv all compatltloDin oeatn^ 
atrengtb and diiral ilit j. \Vr nN<> tn.,k,f the best %Drt 
ebeappst Alt Iron Automatic or Salf-Optnlag Oato, also 
Cliaapaat and Neauat All Iron FaDce. Brat Wire 
WlrelrtK'i' Hiitl l*oat .%ia(;«'r. .%l»o lUMnulkr* 
turv KiiHMell'.. cs.<M'll4'iit Wind F.n|cliir« fur 
puiu|«injjc w;it«.|', "T i^.-iiitd cii;:iu.-'a f .r ^rm.bui. 
ami otbef lii;bl work. Fur prices uud pnrti.'ulara ask 
hardware dea!.To. nr adrirps-, inenljonini; paper. 
MEINiiWIt'K BRO.S. nrr*. Rlrtaanond. tnif. 

Register Your 


Through Dewey & Co.'s Scien- 
tific Press Patent Agency, No, 
252 Market St.. cor. Front, S. F. 

Silos, Reservoirs, Head Gates, 

KVNBOUE, 402 Honteomorv St.. S. P. Sitnd for drcalar- 

i n rv '^"l" ''''"' ^Vood and Sletal Eiigrav- 
I \\cL '"K, Electrotypiii); and Stereotyp- 
' O'l'ii; done at the office of Mining 
ANU Scientikk; Pkkss, San Franciaeo, atfa^orBble rates. 


January 12, 1884.] 


How the Debris Decision is Received. 

J)ispatchc3 from various localities in this 
State show how the news of the debris decis- 
ion is received, as follows : 

DowNiF.vii.LK, Jan. 8. — A feeling of general 
indignation prevaaes .all classes in regard to the 
debris decision as unjust and oppreBsive, and a 
deadly blow at the mining industry of the country. 

Goi.D RVN, Jan. 8. — Miners and citizens feel 
that judge Sawyer's decision is unjust, and every- 
body is indignant. All property is ruined and all 
feel that the general government should settle the 

Camptonville, Jan. 8. — Judge Sawyer's decision 
liad to some extent been anticipated by the miners, 
yet it has a very depressing effect on all kinds of 
business here. 

N'oiiTH San Juan, Jan. 8. — The decision of 
Judge Sawyer in the debris case was received here 
on yesterday afternoon. It created but little, if any, 
despondency among the miners and business men, 
as they think matters will eventually come out all 
right, and that the interests of the miners and far- 
mers alike will, in the '.ear future, be protected. 

Auburn, Jan. 8. — .As a matter of course the de- 
cision of Judges Sawyer and Deady is not very ac- 
ceptable lo lesidents of Placer — Gold Run, Dutch 
Flat and vicinity being more seriously affected than 
any other portions of the county. On the Forest 
Hill Divide but a small amount of hydr.iulieing is 
done comoared with the other kinds of mining. No demonstration was made here. Evidently 
we must grin aed bear it, .although it will add to the 
financial depression hcreibouts. 

Run ru.liKF, Ji'n. 8. — Tlie decision of a per- 
petual injunction in the d ebris case does not create 
as much comment or feeling here as in counties 
south of us, as wc arc e.Ncnipt from hydraulic trou- 
bles. But those who are aware of the decision ex- 
press a dei;ree of :-ati-faction which proves tlia; our 
eomiiiiiiiity is in lavor of the farme.s winning. Many 
believe it will help the county by resurrecting the 
steamboat traffic, which is now prevented on account 
of the obstructions in the river. 

Jackson, Jan. 8. — The ])erpetual injunction in 
the d'ibris cise doe; not miterially affect the mining 
interests of this county, as there are no hydraulic 
mines of sufficient magnitude to cause injury by their 

Chico, Jan. S. — The decision of Judge Sawyer is 
received with satisfaction by the people in this sec- 
tion. The farmers here, although not sufferers from 
mining debris them-selves. have a strong svmpathy 
with those who are — especially our near neighbors in 

C'Gl,L'.vtBl.\, Jan. 8. — The general expressed opin- 
ion of repre.sen'iative men of this place relative to the 
decfiion in the d.-?bris c ise is that it is unjust. 

SoNORA. Jan. 8. — The feeling prevails here that 
the decision in the debris case will work an injustice 
to the miners and mining interests of the .State. Tlie 
mineri hiving purchased their ehiims in good faith, 
the general government should provide some means 
liy wh'ch they can work their claims, they having lights with the farmers. 

STi.cktds, )an. 8.— Public sentiment in this sec- 
tion is almoit unanimous in approval of Judge 
Sawyer's decision in the celebrated debris case. The 
decesioii was n )t generally known yesterday, and 
not until to-day was the matter discussed to any 
great extent. .Some think that the decision hardly 
goes far enough, and that an opening is left for 
mischief to be perpetrated by exempting from in- 
junction those mii ers who can confine and take care 
of their debris. The decision has caused no excite- 
ment whatever in this community, but has been 
received with qu-et yet cordial approval. 

Colusa, Jan, 8. — The decision of Judge .Saw\er 
in the debris case was received here with the greatest 
satisfaction. One hundred guns are being fired. 

loNR, Jan. 8 — The first news of the decision of 
I ud^c Sawyer in the debris question was received 
here this afternoon. While this community is not 
directly affected by the decision, yet it will be event- 
ually. The farmers approve of it emphatically, 
while the miners and those who sympathize with 
them are equally emphatic in their disa|5proval. 

Tested by Time. For Tliroat Diseases, Colds, .and 
Coughs, Brown's Broxciiial Troches have jjrniwrf their 
cflicacy hy a test of niany years. Price 25 cent.-^. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacitfc Coast 

[From the official list of U. S. Patents in Dewey & Co.'s 
SciKXTiric Press Patent Aoexcy, 252 Market St., S. F. 

For "Week Ending December 25, 1883. 

2130.727. — .Automatic Gas Regulator — M. J. 
Amick, S. F. 

290,746. — Sai-'ETV I-"knukk ior Car.s— p. H. 
Cooney, S. F. 

290,755, — Logging Engine — John Dolbeer, S. F. 

290,756 — Logging Locomotive — John Dolbeer, 
S. F. 

290,674. — .Automatic Belt Shieter eor Ele- 
vators— F. W. Fuller, S. F. 

290,776. — Privv — F. B. Kendall, Turnwater, 
U. T. 

290.794. — Refrigerating .Appar.^tus — C. C. 
Palmer, Oakland, Cal. 

290.795. — Refrigerating Apparatus — C. C. 
Palmer, Oakland, Cal. 

Note. — Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
>y Devvev & Co., in the shortest tirae possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
less for Paciric Goast Inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 

Congratul.\tiox.s. — Althougli personally a 
stranger, allow me to congratulate you on the 
marked success of the KtiRAL, and I 
trust its future may be commensurate with its 
merit. — T. S. J'kice, Salma, Cal. 

Our Agents. 

Our Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
jausc of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
.igents in their labors ol canvassing, by lending their in- 
rlueiice and encouraging favors. We intend to aeiid none 
l)Ul worthy men. 

Jauku V. H0A8 — California. 

li. W. Crowkll — Nevadi. 

1. M. Leiuv— San Kuriiardino and San Diego counties. 

J. .J. Bartri.l— .Saeraniento county. 

C. E. Curtis— Kern anil Kiesi o counties. 

A. S. Ok.\'Nis — San Mateo and tiaiita Cruz counties. 

A. C. Kxox— Colusa, Tehama and Volo counties. 

\Vm. R. MetJuiDDY— Tulare eount3'. 

.Joiix E. Moore, a large rancher near Stockton, and a 
Director of the San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Fair, 
9a,^ t?; "Barnham's Abiotene, or Extract of Fir Balsam, is a 
general reineily on my ranch; am never without it. I use 
It both internally and externally. It is an excellent lini- 
ment. I've eurcd the s«eoiiy with it. It is my remedy 
for rheumatism, neuralgia, bruises, sprains, fresh cuts, 
inilamed eyes, etc. When my horses have the colic or 
kidney troubles, or my cows tlie milk fever, I cure them 
with .Abietene. 1 give them at a dose two ounces, or half 
of a.'jtl-eent bottle. I use it internally for kidney troubles, 
colic, croup, sore throat, etc. I look uijon it as one of 
tiaturc's remedies, and one that siiould be in e\ ery house. 
I hardly know how to do without it." Abietcne is sold by 
dealers generally. Price 50 cents and SI per bottle. 

The San Jose Board of Supervisors were 
strongly indorsed by the citizens in a public 
meeting ("(.iturday night, in the passage of the li- 
quor license ordinance, which requires that 
every applicant for a license nuist obtain the 
consent of ton freeholders residing in the im 
mediate vicinity of the saloon. 

- CoMrr^K.NTAi>.v".s:\Mri.ES of tiii.'? taim-.U ai'O 
occTs^rfuilly sent to parties connected with tlie 
infests specially represented, in its colmnns, 
Vyi-xons so receiving copies arc requested to 
examine its contents, terms of .siibsciiptioii, and 
give it thcif own patronage, and, as far as 
praclicaljlo, aid in circtilatiiig the jotirnal, and 
making its v.aluc more widely known to others, 
and extending its influence in the cause it faitli- 
fully serves. Subscription rate, $.'j a year 1 in 
advance. J'^xtra copies tnailcd for 10 ecu t?/ if 
ordered soon enough. Personal attcntion/vill, 
he called to tliis (as well .as otlicr iiotic>lj at 
timcs^,) Jjy turning a leaf. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

.Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
does not want it, or heyond the time he inl-.-nds to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing only one cent) will siilBce. We will 
not knowingly send tlie paper to anyone who does not 
wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of the 
ubscriber to notify us to discontinue it, or some rre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positi ely 
demand payment tor the time it is sent 

iMi'onrANT additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walled with aquaria is 
eoiislantly reeei\"ing accessions of new fish and other ma- 
rine life, 'j'he number of sea lions is increased, and there 
is a better chance to study their actions. 'I'he pavilion 
has new varieties of performances. The fl<n'al deijart- 
inent is replete, and the wild animals in gtiod A'igor. A 
day at Woodward's Gardens is a day well Sijent. 

Will, the subscriber holding receipt No. 34,305 for 
KiiRAL Press, given by us at San Jose, about Oct. 4tli, 
oblige by forwardng his name and address to this office. 

Rkmittaxcf.s to this office should be made bj- postal 
order or registered letter, when practicable. Cost of pos- 
tal order, for ¥10 or less, 8 cts. ; for registered -lotter, in 
aiidition to regular postage (3 cts. per half ouncel, 10 cts. 

Over 80,000 Howe Scales Sold.— Hawley 
Bros.' Hardware Co., General Agents, San 

ToKiLii Flies AND Other Ax.xoYiNO Insects — "Buhach, 
California grown Insect Powder, is a never-failing remedy 
sold by Druggists and Grocers everywhern 

Gener.\l Rosecra.vs thinks there will be no 
difficulty in passing his bill providing for a 
commission to select a site for a new postoilice 
at San Francisco. There will, however, be 
great pressure for appropriations for public 
buildings everywhere. 

CosGRESS.viAX- Calkins proposes, the first 
chance he has, to introduce 'bills to arbitrarily 
proliibit the importation of French wines and 
brandies, so long as the prohibition upon Amer- 
icau hogs is allowed to stand in France. 

J. C. Plunket, Esq., who makes a specialty of 
mining law, is now well located in the new 
building on the north-east corner of Broadway. 

AvriKM.'s Liver Pills cure rheumatism and hfiaHarh^. 

Our Seed Offering for 1884. 



There should be more gardens planted on this Coast. 
It would add pleasure and health to many, and enhance 
the value and attraction of their homesteads. To en- 
courage the planting of seeds, and to extend the circula- 
tion (if cmr progressive journal, we offer, till Mar. 1, 18S4, 
and ivhile thin notice remains in our columns, to furnish, 
rosT-rAiD, to subscribers, the following seeds, from Cali- 
fornia dealers, on the favorable terms named below : 

SEEDS, Etc. 


1 . E.-irly Blood Turnip 

P.eet 10 

2. Larly Long Dark 

lilood Beet 10 

3. Early 'V'ork Cabbage 10 

4. Karly French Ox- 

heart Cabb.-ge ... 1 

5. Large Late Drum- 

he.-td Cabbage.. .. 10 

6. Red Dutch (for pick- 

ling) Cabbage 10 

7. While Solid Celery.. lU 

8. Karly Paris Cauli 

Hower 10 

9. Early Horn Carrot 5 
10. While Belgian Car- 



. . 1^ 

Early Frame Cucum- 

Long Green Cucum- 
ber . 

English Gherkin for 

14. Victoria Cabbage 

Lettuce . . 

15. Ice Drumhead Let- 


16. Simpson's Early 

Curled Lettuce. . . . 

17. Large Yellow Cante- 

loupe Melon 

18. Extra Fine Nutmeg 

.Melon 10 

19. Casaba Melon (new) 15 

20. Mountain Sweet 

Watermelon 10 

21. Black Spanish W't'r- 

melon 1 

22. White Imperial, or 
Lodi Melon 15 

Stockton, Cal., Jan. 7, 1884. 

Pear Sir:— "\V'e have 1,000 .Veres of Ko- 
t'laimed Land for Sale. .V Kare Opportunity 
for Capitalists. This land is thoroughly reclaimed 
and is in the highest state of cultivation. Levees stood 
the high water of lS)-0. No trouble about the Debris 
question. Levees are 75 feet Wide at the base; 12 feet 
wide on top and 8 feet high. Land can be drained or 
irrigated at will. Is divided into four farms, each with 
fine house and barn. 'Ihree-fourths of the tract is rented 
to good tenants, at one-fourth of the crop on the bank, 
from which boats arrive and depart? daily. Title perfect 
or no sile. To responsible parties desiring to purchase, 
wc wi.nild show the land. At the low price asked for the 
entire tract, it will pay from 18 to 20 per cent, per an- 
num olear of ta.xes. (irain sown on tliis land produced 
110 bushels barley and s.') bushels ofwheftt to the acre. 
It is the finest garden land and the best rtclaimed in the 
State. Apply to oraddres), ; 

Real Estate and Insurance Agents. 

.Sfockton, Cal. 

23. Early Red Onion 

24. White Portugal, or 

Silver Skin Onion. 1 

25. 'Yellow Danvers, On- 

ion 10 

23. White Dutch Parsnip 5 

27. New Early Round 

Par.',nip 10 

28. Early Scarlet Turnip 

Radish 5 

29. Black Spanish, or 

Winter Radish.... 10 

30. Early Scollop Bush 

Scjuash 5 

31. Early S uinnier Crook 

Neck Squash 5 

32 Boston Marrow Win- 
ter Squash 10 

33. Ni-,v Hubbard Win- 

ter Squash 10 

34. Early Red Smooth 

Tomato II' 

35 Trophy 'I'omato 10 

33. Canada Victor (earii 

est variety) Tom'to 10 
37. Early White Flat 

Dutch Turnip 

38 Long White French 


39. Im proved Late Ruta- 

haga 5 

40 Kohlrabi 10 

41. Scotch Kale 10 

42 Curled Parsley 5 

43. Spinach ^ 

44. Sage IG 

-A5 Thyme 10 

46. 'I'obacco If, 

47. Blue Gum 25 

48. Monterey Cypress.. 25 

49. Black German Wax 

Beans 1 

50. Refugee Beans 10 

51. Red Valeniine Beans 10 

52. Extra Early Peas... 10 

53. Ch.inipion of En] 

land Peas 10 

■54. \'orkshire Hero Peas 10 

55. Queen of Dwarfs 

Peas 10 


56. Acroclinlum 

57. Alonsoa, Grandiflora 

58. Alyssum, Sweet 3 

59. Amaranthus Cauda- 

tus( Love-lies-bleed- 

60. .Antirrhinum Majus, 
t mixed 5 

61. Cacliri Coccinea 

( I'.i - I n '"'-i ) 5 

62. Ca.,i|.,nM,l,, hpecu 
luiii (\' Look- 
ing r, 

63. Candytutt, white 
fragrant 5 

64. Centaureri C y n ii s 
(Balciiclur'.-, iliitton) .'> 

65. Clarkl.i, Inif mixed. . 6 

66. Convolvulus (.Morn- 
ing 1 ,!ory) nii.xed . . 5 

67. Foxglove, mixed 5 

68. Gilia, mi.xed 5 

69. Globe .\maranthus. . 5 
70 G> psop hila Elegans. 5 
71. Hibiscus Africanus.. 5 
72 Ice 5 

73. Larkspur, finest 
ed 6 

74. Linum Grand iflora 
(Flax) 5 

75. Love-in-a-mist 5 

76. Marigold, double 
Ireiich 5 

77. Mignonette, Sv/eet. . 5 

78. Nasturtium 5 

79 Nokina 5 

80 Purtulaca. mixed... 5 

81 Poppy, double mixed 5 

82 Rocket, Sweet 5 

83. Scabiosa, D w a r I , 
mixed 5 

84. Sensitive Plant 5 

85. Sweet Peas, mixed. 5 

86. Sweet William, 
mixed 5 

87. Sunflower, Califor- 
, double 5 

88 Adiumiiia Cirrhosa 

(Mountain Fringe). 10 

89. Althea (HollyhSck) 
fine mixed 10 

90. A.ster, mixed China. 10 

91. Australian Vine .... 10 

92. Balsam (L Slipper) 
fine mixed 10 

93. Balloon 10 

94. Browalli.. i o ..m<1,i1, r.-i 10 

95. Canna(liulian M.ut) 10 
C'elosia Cristat.i(C.i\- 

coinb), fine iirix.-d, . 10 
97. Chrysanthemum .Al- 
bum 10 

Datura, fine mixed.. 10 

99. Evening Primrose. .. '0 

100. Four O'clock, m'x'd 10 

101. Furget-me-iiot 10 

102. Geranium Zona'e.. 10 
1 03 (.nidetia ( IheBride) 10 

104. Gourds (Her.ules' 

105. Ipomoea (Cypress 

106. Indian Pink, dou- 



11 XE B.VRG 



500.000 Muscat of Alexander ; .S3.00 per M. 

50,000 Malaga 3.00 per M. 

50,000 Zantee Currants .\ 5.00 per M. 

Cuttings Thirty Inches I.ons:. 
A limited number of Seedless Su'tan.i9,\f-7 ner M. ,tlie 
usual length. Also a small lot of all th^ ab >ve naiiied 
vines, rooted; as low as can be purchased ttiiy where. 

All vines and cuttings warranted free froBi Phylloxera, 
or any disease. Address, C. P. WKSTCOTT, 
Kockliu, PIac«r Co., Cal. 

tance of cash or post.age stamps, with the name and . .. 
DitEss plainly written. State the number of the prbjuum 
you send for. 

Write the number (h ithout the name) of each package 
of seeds ordered. The seeds can, of course, be distributed 
among friends of those who order more than they per- 
sonally need. 

The seeds will be promptly forwarded from some one or 
more of our leading and reliable California seedsmen, 
whose name wi'.l accompany the package, with brief 
directions for cultivating. 

For other kinds of seeds, or for seeds in larger packages, 
patrons are referred to reliable seedsmen advertising in 
this paper. 

We are not going to embark in the regular seed busi- 
ness, and have not time to investigate or answer many 
questions of jiriv ate interest only, nor respond to orders 
received without remittances. 

Subscribers will pl-ase notify neighbors, who do not 
take //lis pa^r, of these offers and the merits of the 

In writing eorresp.ondence, items of information, or on 
other business, (ilease use a separate sheet. 

DE-WEY & CO., Publishers, 
Dec. 15, 1883. 'l^yl Market St., San Francisco. 


,\lusk 1'l.lllt 10 

N icrenibergia Gra- 
cilis 10 

1 10. Pansy, fine mixed . 10 
111 Petunia, fine mixed 10 
1.'2 Phlox Drummondii. 

fine mixed 10 

113- Pyreth rum .^ureuni 

(Golden Feather) 10 

114- Salpiglossis, mixeil 10 
115 Slock (Ten Week). 10 

116. W.ill flower, fine 

mixed 10 

117. Zinnia, fine mixed. 10 
lis. Belles Perennis 

(Daisy), single. . . 15 
119. Campanula Med- 
ium (Cantebury 
Belle) 15 

120 Canary Bird Fl'w'r 15 

121 Ihunbergia, mixed 15 
122. .Aquilegia Alpina 

(Columbine) 20 

123 Hc'liotropium, D'rk, 

mixed 20 

124. Verbena, choice 

mixed 20 

125. Violet, Blue 20 

126 Balsam Camellia, 

flowered 20 

127. Carnation, fine 

mixed....'. 20 

1 28. Dealers' catjlogue, 

of seeds, etc.. free. 


Colonization Co. 

state of New York (Limited). 

Has a large grant of the finest lands in Mexico, State 
of Chiapas, district known as Soconusco, now opened for 
settlement. These lands are located on the slopes of the 
Sierra .Madres, facing the pacific- ocean, and adjohiing the 
celebrated coffee lands of Cualeinala. Being a new dis- 
trict just opened to settlers, will be disposed of to none 
others but actual settlers, very ciik.ap, with ten years to 
complete the payment. No belter to be found for coffee, 
sugar-i^ane, corn, tob.aeeo, indigo, rice, giiass. and hence 
all kinds of 8T0(;k, as well as a great variety of fruit, 
vegetables, spices, medicines, etc. ; also water. A large 
variety of valuable timber is also to be found in great 
abundance. The climate is healthy and delightful, the 
thermometer varying only from 60 to 85 degrees the year 
round. A large colony will leave here, unoer the most 
favMrililc- ciinditions, on the l.'ith of March next. For 
full |i:iit)r,,l;,rs ap,,ly to MEXICAN COLONIZATION 
CO., :>'jij Battery St., San Francisco, Cal. 






Fruit Trees and Grape Vines Free from 
Insect Pest. 

a^Se.NU FOK Catalogce. 

(Premiiims 1 AND 2.) 

Two Dollars for $1. 

Any patron of the Rt'RAL Press who has or will pay 
subscription in advance of this date, can order $2 worth 
of seeds for #1, or a less amount at the same rate. 
(Premium 3.] 
Over $2 for $1.00. 
To NEW st'DsciiiBKiiK We will fumisli 8i.\ select back 
Nos. of the RfRAL Press, and three months' subscription 
in advance, with one dollar's worth of seeds, for .$1. 
IPremu'm 4.) 
Over Two Dollars for 50 Cents. 

To entirely new subscribers wc will send the Ili'RAi, 
Press one year in advance and 12 back Nos. with S>2 
wm-th of seeds for with 12 back numbers and $1 worth 
of seeds, for §3.50. 

Free Packages. 

We will send the following free on receipt of amounts 
indicated for postage; Winter Wheat, postage required 
on two pounds, 32 cents; Golden Millet see.l, half pound, 
8 cents; Turnip, ".Mississippi Giant," and Rutab.aga, 
"American Purple Top," two packages, 5 cents. N. U. 
Postage for these free .packages must be in addition to 
price of premiums. 

All orders must be written on a sheet separate from 
other business matters, and accompanied with a remit- 




Corner Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 
All Kinds of 

Fruil M PacMi Boies lade to Order 

iS" Communications Promptly Attended to. "gJi 


Successors to Cooke & Gregory . 



:>32 California St., cor. Webb. 

For the half year ending with December 31, 1883, a 
di\ idend has been declared at the rate of four and thirty- 
'wo one hundredths (4 32-100) per cent, per annum on 
term deposits, and three and six tenths (3 10) per cent, 
per annum on ordinary deposits, free' of taxes, payable 
on and after .laiuiary 2, 1384. 

LOVULl. WHITE, Cashier. 

Premium Pioneer 
Cra- ite and 
Marble Works. 

617 K ., bet dill and 7tb 
Moinnneiits, Tombs and 
.V\ ^'riive .Stones Mantel «, Ta- 
: '■^- *<- bl < Tojis, Wash ,Staud.s. etc. 

t All kiml.s of work dou (in 
— ' Italian aud "Veriroijt Mar- 
ble. Seotcli Granite Monu- 
ments. Marbleized Slate 
Mantels. Orders filled for Bnclfhoufs Pat Hot-Air Grate. 


The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending December 31, 18S3, the Board 
of Directors of the Cermfin Sa\ iiigs and Loan Society has 
dccl.ired a dividend on Term Dejiosits at the rate of four 
and thirty-two one luiiidredths (4 :i2-100) per cent, per 
aniinm, and on (h'dinary Deposits at the rate of three and 
six tenths (3 610) per cent, per annum, payable on and 
after the 'Jnd dav of Januarv, 1884. l!v order, 

GKO. LICTTK, SccreLary. 


LVhsolulclv cured In SO lo 9ii 
(LivB. liy'Dr. Pic-rccs l';i|.'nt 
Magnc'fic Elastic Truss. 
'Warraiitcil the onlyElr otricTrUSS 
itheworkl. Entirely difVcreiitfrom 
nil otlior>-. Perfect Retainer, and i» worn 
withffiNC 011(1 conit'ort iiiRhtand ihiy. Cured 
the renowned Dr. J. .simmii of is'ew 1 ork, 
1 hundreds of ••ther8. New Illustrated pam- 
_ ct free. eonCiining full infoniiation, 

704 Sacvameuto St, &aii Prancisco, CaL 



[Jaxdabv 12, 188 

Lands ror Sale and To Let 


■\VJtUoiit Jri-i«a1 ion. 

Free by mail, speciuieu uuniber of ''Thr Cali/irniiaii Rial 
EMate Exchanti' iind Marl," full of reliable infoniiation iin 
climate, prtxliictious, etc., of 


Ailiiress, ■' I'.XCHAXI ilC AND M A I,"!', Sauta Cniz, Cal. 



A'o C');»/;i /o» Clianii il. 


234 Montgomery Street 


The Model Settlement of 



Health, Climate and Choice Fruits. 

Map of tract ami cupy of ontaiio Fruit (;ri>«er sent 
free on application. _ . „ . 

I'rrtceciliiifj's of Semi Aiinual State Couvention of Fruit 
(Jrowers, with Ontario Aiipciidix, givinjf proHts of fruit 
culture, climate anil (,'cncral infonnation, sent on receipt 
of ttiirtv cents in stamps. 

Applvto .1. S. CAl.KlNS, No. 6, Srhuniackcr 
block, oppiisite I', II., Los AiiscKs, ur aildruss 


Ontario, Cal. 


OU trees 

trees of best varieties; situated four niilc^ 
from .San Jose, S.anta (Mara County; trees are foiii vi :irs 
old and in perfect health; this season's fruit solil for ship- 
ment Fjist; has two tlowiii'; artesian wells. This pr 'iHirty 
ig lirst-class, and will jiay handsonielv. Fruit samples 

can be seen at office. 

aaO acres vineyard land; 120 acres planted in choicest 
foreign {{rajie vinos, two years old: situated one mile 
from JIadeira Uailroad Station, Fresno County. The 
l)roperty is offered cheap, and should pay for itself in 
three years. Price ;S20,000. 

337 acres near Vacaville, Solano County; l.'iO acres jfoo.i 
fruit, vine or i^rain land; balance in hill land, with oak 
timber and j{""J pasture; has spring of water; favorably 
situated; price *12,0OU. 

Desirable country property throuifhout the State for 
ale. Catauioi'Ks ON .\i'ri,ic.tTiox. 

ROBEllT WALKINSHAW, Keal Estate ARent, 
43S California St., San Francisco. 



The Celebrtited "LIZZIE'S VINEYARD," at 
Brighton, Sacramento County, Cal., which took the first 


At the late State Fair, is offered for sale at a bargain. 


Brighton, Sacramento Co.. Cal. 


The most delightfully situated "colony in 
Southern California, 

Remarkably healthy, being 2,00 feet above 
the sea level. 

Wholly devoted to fruit culture, and espe- 
cially adapted to oranges and raisins. 

Advantages of church, school, store, depot, 
hotel, stage line, telegraph and telephone. 

Illustrated Circulars on Application 







Storajjfe at lowest rates. 


I'.Vt, UBY.DOI K to., Prop!r8 Office 31S Cal. St., mi. 3. 


Fifth Street cars '^^p 
I>asfl the Workf 
every tivt- iniinites 

The only Plow that ever 
received the $100 PREMIUM 
at the State Fair. 


TheLiFTiXii Gkak ami Lani> Gauge 
need otily seen to Ijt* appreciated 

The AD.irsTAULE Si'i NULEsaud Boxes 
are a uew feature, uml when worn can be 
replaced without purchasing new M heels or 

Wc have plows with Cast Cast Steel 
Sliji-Sliare Hiittinns, Collinft'Best CaRt Cast 
Steel l>(»lted Share BottoniK. ur with extra 
heaiT Wrought Steel MoMs and Bolted 
KLures. Also extras for all Myek'n Haso, 

SlNtJLK SiDBUlLL. Oa\(J Sl^HSdlL, aud 

^r:?' Please »end for descriptive circular 
iif these plows. 

In ordering Ex- 
tras BE si-KE to 
give uunil>er of 





Every Fruit-Grower His Own Canner! 

Nos. 52-60 Bluxome Street, San Praacisco, Cal 




4,000 IIST XJSEl 

Siaglo and Sulky Plows, Seed Sowers, Harrows, Etc. 


S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

WPree Ooacb to and from the House J. W. BECKER. Proprietor 

International Patent Bureau, 

ivnt. A. BBLT.. Mannuer. 

Sacramento Street, cor. Montgomery, 
Sa.v Fra.vcihco, Cal. 


Tliruu^'hoiit the l\ S. , Canada and Enrojiu, 
Tlircugh the Forciprn Agency Ofliic of Internationa 
Patent Bureau. 
O. DITTMAR, Civil Enffineer, Berlin, Qermaiiy. 

OC Gilt Edge Cardx, cleganti; printed, 10 cents. VAN 
fc** BUSSUM & CO., 79 Nassau St, New York, N. Y. 


Nkkdham's Rkd Clovk 
BLO.SK0M8, and extracts pre 
pared from the blossoms cure 
Cancer, Salt Rheum and all 
diseases arisinjffrom an impure 
state of the hlood. It will also 
clear the complexion of al I 
pimples, eruptions, etc. Is a 
sure cure for Constiintion, 
I'iles and many other diseases. 
Is l>oth laxativq and tonic. For full particulars, address 
W. C. NKEDHAM, Box 422, San Jose, Cal. Kesideuce 
257 Third Street. 

Wheeler's Patent Cannery, 


Fruits, Jellies, 

Jams, Vegetables, 

Meats and Fish. 

As Well as to Large Canneries. 


It imparts Sunerior Flavor ! 
It is Economical of Labor and Fuel . 
Its Productions will Bear Stronger Tests 




Challenge Contradiction. 


No Processing Required to be Learned ! 

Matiaiicmcnt fxtriiiKly yiniple; can lie imj^arted by a 
few iniiiutfs' iiibtruction. 


We fidect the names of a few from the maoj tufng th 

C C. Perkins, Islrton, Sacramento county, Cal.; Geo. D 
Kulhigg, Newcaslie, Placer county. Cal. ; Newcastle Fruit- 
ijrowvrs' AsMtciutiitn, I'lacc-r county, Cal.; .John U. Reding 
Um. San Kraucisc«»; L. (1 Hurft;e, Vacaville, Solano coimty, 
Cal.; John W. Stewart. San Francisco; (J. M. Hlake, Vaca- 
ville. Solano county, Cal. ;* >ak Sha<le Fruit C<».. Daviftville, 
Cal.; J W. North. Oltanikr; II. H, Bigelow. Oakland; J. 
W. Sfastick, Alameda; J. A. Hunting, Centerville. Alameda 
county; H. .1. Kudisil, Kiverside; C. K Naylor, (ieyserville; 
(»eo. Itrougham. Vacaville; L. W. Buck, Pleaaant Valley, 
•Solunti c<)unt> ; W. .1. I'leasauts. Pleaiiaut Valley. Solano 
county; (1. W. Tliissell. Ph-asant Valley. Snlano county; N. 
liaker. Vaca Valley. Holaiio county; *J. W. liiMis, /acaville, 
Solano county; II. Scott. Vacaville; J. C. lioag. 2(H McAllis- 
ter St.. San Francisco; ii. W.iiat*-.'*. Vacaville; T. C. Stewart, 
Stiisun; Uonohoe, IJearaley & (Men. Fresno; W. H. Jeaaup, 
Haywarda. Alameda county; J. <) Lovejoy, Tulare City; 
John T. Doyle. Menl<i Park, San Mateo county; C. K. BeaU 
San Ituenaventura; Tayli>r Bnm.. Byr*tn; R. H. Campbell, 
V<ica Valley; Hon. Wni. JnV.nBton. Kichland. Sacramento 
comity; B. Nathan. Stockton; D. K. Perkins & tiray. Ophir 
Packing Co.. Ort>ville; Mrs. E. Lovejoy, Tulare county. And 
many others living in varioua parts of the State. 

Sole Ay-entH on this Coast for the 



Ever offered to tlie putilie. Have always on hand Tin 
CaiiM, Soliluriii;,' Irons, Soliler, Heacli, Apple, and Pear 
I'ei,lers, I'ackiint Ca-^cs (or Class and, in (act, everything 
requisite for canning. 

T. A. MUDGE, Agent, 

414 Sacramento St.. - San FranctBCO. 






|. i...o;rni/.<l a-^ 


Alwavsj^-ives satisfa<-t ion. SIMPLE, 
STK«tN"(; ami l»rKABLE in all i»arts. 
Solid Wroujfht-ir«in I'rank Shaft with 
iioi BLK HKAKiNOH foi' the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run in adjUHt- 
able babbitted boxe^j. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With in» eoil sjirinj^s, tpf sju-in^r-- of an;. klTnl. No little 
r'tds, jitinif*, levers, or anvthinj: of the kind to ^et out of 
order, as such thing^s do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
j^ood order ntiw, that have ne^"e^ cost one cent for re^airA. 
All t'enuine Enterjmse Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
eonie only throuvjh thi» ajfeney, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are tjenuine except those bear- 
iii>c the ''Enterprise Co." stamp. Look ()ut for this, as 
inferior mills are beinj^ offered with testimonials applied 
to them whieh were ;<iven for ours. Prices to .suit the 
times. Full jiartieulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
rtc, kept in stock. Adilress, 


GENKRAL OKKIf E AND Sl l'PLIES (as always »>cfore), 


Francisco Aaency-LINFORTH, RICE 
& CO., 323 & 325 Market St., T 


' ' all kinds of Pnmping Machinery hullt to order. 
51 BealcSt., ) T} TIT 7nnPn 9, n[\ } Hatcnteet 
San Fran'co. )" f , ff , llIlUuIl B uUi I Sole Propr. 


.Made expressly for the purpose. 



Uorner Market aDd Beale Sts., - - San Francisco. 

Wc win fend von awatchorachain 

.■\aiiilncc| bi forn laying any nioner 
Uli.l 1 r not satlBfacliirV, returned al 
onri xpciiso. Wo uiauufacture all 
our watdios an.l save you 30 per 
vent. CataloBUc of 2*1 styles free. 

r.vrnr Watxii Wakra»tiio. Addrm 


wrrsBUiwii, hA. 

January 12, 1884.] 


Six lines or less in this Directory at 50c. a line per month. 


R. J. MBRKELEY, Sacramento, breeder ShortHorns, 
Percheron-Norman Horses and Berkshire Swine. 

ROBERT BECK, San Francisco. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Jersey Cattle. Herd took six premiums of the 
eleven offered at State Fair, 1881, and six of 12 in 1883. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past twelve years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

MRS. M E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal. Breedet 
of recorded thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for sale. 

SYLVESTER SCOTT, Cloverdale, Sonoma Co., Cal. 
Breeder of recorded Thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle. 
Jacks and Jennets for sale at reasonable figures. 

T. SKILLMAN, Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal., Breeder 
and Importer of Norman Horses, Tornado standing at 
the head of hia stud; took all first premiimis at fairs 
for 1882 and 18t>3. Horses of all grades for sale. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. K. R. P. 0., Penn's Grove 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep and Berk.shire Svvine. 

GEORGE BEMENT, Redwood City, San Mateo Co., 
Cal. Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle, Southdown Sheep and 
Berkshire Hogs. All kinds of stock for sale. 

P. J. SHAPTBR, Olema, Cal. Breeder of fine Jerseys 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal. Breeder of 
registered Thoroughbred Devons; fine roadsters and 
diatt horses. 


B. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, .Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City office, No. 418 California 
street, S. F. 

JULIUS WEYAND, Goat Breeder. Postoffice ad- 
dress, Little Stony, Colusa Co., Cal. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co., Cal. Breeder 
and importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes for 
sale. Also cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importorand breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Red Duroc 
and Berkshire Swine. High graded Rams for sale. 


L. H. CUTTING, 132 Rose St,, Stockton, fa'., I'. O 
Box No. 7. Breeder and Importer of Wyaiidottes, 
Langshans, White and Brown Leghorns, Rose Lumb 
White anil lirown Leghorns, Illaek Hamburgs, Siher 
I'eneiled Hainhurgs, Goklen Penciled Hainlmrijs, \\ nite 
Face Black Spanish, White Crested Black pMii-.n, Silver 
Beariled I'olish, Golden Bearded Polisli, ^.l\er Gra>' 
Dorkings. Kggs for hatching from above varieties. 
Send 2-eent stamp for circular. 


1 Hi. boxes, 40 et.s.; 3)1,. boxes, si; 10 lli. boxes, .-<2. oil; 
2.') 111. boxes, .^r>. This is the only preparation in the 
world that will positively pre\"ent every disease of poul- 
trv and make hens lav. Ask your grocer or druggist for 
it.' B. F. Wellington, Prop'r, 42.5 Washington St., S. K. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embden 
Geese, Bronze atjd W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

H. K. SWEET, Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co. Light Br.ah- 
nias a specialty. Kggs for sale ihu'ing the .season. 
Sherwood Egg l^'ood receipt for sale. 

O. J. ALBEE, Santa Clara, Cal., Poultry Fancier. 
Irish B. B. R. Game, McDougall Pitt Game, B. Leghorns 
and Langshans (Croad's strain). Box 229. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Pure bred 
Fancy Poultry. White and Brown Leghorns, Pl.yinoutb 
Rocks, Langshans and Houdans. Eggs and Fowls. 

IMPROVED EGG POOD.-l lb., 40c.; 3 tt,s., 81; 10 
lbs., $2.50; 25 lbs., $5. B. F. Wellington, 425 Washing- 
ton St., S. F. Also agentfor Perfect Hatcher Co., of N. Y. 

J. N. LUND (P. 0. Box IIS), cor. Webster ana Booth 
Sts., near Mt. View Cemetery, Oakland. Breeder of 
Poultry, Plymouth Rocks, Brown Leghorns, Light 
Brahmas, Langshans and B. B. R. Game Bantams, 
Jacobin Pigeons & Guinea Fowls. EggS(Si Fowls for sale. 

D. D. BRIGGS, Los Gatos, Cal. Importer and breeder 
of White Dorkings, W. F. Bl. Spanish, Bl. Hamburgs. 
Eggs, $1.50. Langshan eggs, .•ji2.50. Authorized so- 
liciting and advertising agent for the West Shore, puo- 
lished at Portland, Ogn. Circulars free. 

Cal. Thoroughbred Poultry and Eggs for sale. Also 


DUROC SWINE for sale by F. P. Beverly, Mountain 
View, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

W. D. RUOKER, Santa Clara, Oal., breeder of thor- 
oughbred Poland China Swine. 

8. L ALLEN & 

127 ifc 129 
Catharine Street 


if you are intei- 
eBted iu Farmiui^.Grardeu- 
iiiKor TrucUing', forour New 
-atafogue con- 
taiiim^? payes 
and over -lO illustra- 
ing fully the 

"PLANET Jr.".^ 

Horse Hoee, Cultivators, Seed; - 
Drills.Wheel-HocH ii Potato-Dit^yer^.__ 

Ti.e NEW TOOLS rs"'"'^' 

eeasou, together, with rt'ceut improve-, 
ments, place the *'l*ljANliT 
J r." farm and Gar- 
den Imi)leuieuts he 
yoiitl all Com- 

Important ! 

That the public should know that for the past ELEVEN years our SOLE BUSINESS has been, and now is. importing 
(0 7ER 100 CARLOADS) and breeding improved Live Stoeli— Horses, .Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshires and Jerseys (or 
Alderneys) and their grades; also ALL THE VARIETIES of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We < an supply any and all gocd 
animals that may be wanted, and at VERY REASONABhE PRICES and on CONVENIENT TERMS. Write or call on 
us. LICK HOUSE, San Francisco, Cal.. October 22, 1881 PETER. 3AXB & HOMER P. SAXE. 


Norman Horses for Said. 

PORTER OF NORMAN HOUSES, has just arrived 
in Petaluma with Nine Splendid Norman (itall- 

ions, which he offers for sale on reasonable tenns. 
ittfTConic and see the horses, or address, 


Magnolia Stock Fann, 

Petaluma, CaL 

O A.XJTI01\r 2 

TV A \ nR 

Unscrupulous persons, envious of the Fame and World 
wide Reputation of 


Arc, by fraudulently imitating the style of packages of 
the Iniperial, endea\ uring to put upon the market 

Worthless Stuff of no Value to Fowls, 

Under a name so similar to the Imperial as to be easily 
mistaken for it at first sight. Wc take this means of 
cautioning our numerous customers against the fraud. 

The Imperial Egg Food is now used in every part of the 
United States, and its sale on this Coast is simply won- 
derful, our order book sliowing that every customer con- 
tinues to order, while e\ cr\' letter received is a testimo- 
nial for the Imperial. In purcha.sing, see that you get 
THE I.MPERIAL and ntjuc other, no matter how nearly 
similar in name and appearance. Send for Circulars and 

Retail Prices of Imperial Etrg Pood l-pounil 
package, ."iO cents; 2J-pound package, $1; G-pound box, 
§2; 2.')-ponnd keg, l?6.2.'i. 

Solil by the trade generally, or address 

G, &, WICKSON & CO., 8 New Montgomery St„ S. F 

Hall, Lubr.i & Co., Sac. i Batchelder & Co., Marysville. 



Positively the Best for Hatching 
All Kinds of Eggs. 

The following record proves our assertion: 

1S81, FIKST PREMIUM over Axfords N.U'kjn.hl Ix- 
t rii.vToii .at Sonoma and Marin District Fair, the hatch 
averaging 00 per cent. 

1*S2, SILVER MEDAL over Perfect Hatcher at State 
Fair, hatching 370 chicks out of 405 eggs, after moving 
the machine 150 miles during the second week of in- 

18S:i, (fOt.D MEDAL over the Col, DKV Cmi; 1 Ncrr.ATOR 
at State Fair, the I'lClWl,! ,M \ lutcinn'.; i:. nini-,' rlncks 
out of tlic same iiiuiiIki- ot f--s; (jiir pur runt ln iiig82, 
and that of the Golden (iate M. 

Also eleven other First Premiums at different Fairs. 

ALL SIZES. ALL PiilCES. Electric and non-electric. 
Prices from $12 to $125 

Hf. Send for circulars, ^af' Circulars free. 

Address, X. L. DIAS, Petaluma, Cal 

LANGSHANS Score 95 points; B. N. Pierce 

PLYMOUTH ROrKS— Score IIGJ points; J. 

Y. Bicnyl and N. Adorns jit>1g«s 
BROWN LKGHORNS -Score ;i4i points; B. 

N. Pierce Jadge. 
S S. HAMBUKGS Score 94 points; B. N. 

Pierce Judge. 


With the best of stock ami square dealing, I will satisfy 
every customer. Address, 


Brighton, CaL 


(Patented Dec. 31, 1882.) 

Mauufactured iu four sizes at the 

Oakland Poultry Yards, 


-100 Eggs capacity. 

Cor. 17th & Castro Sts., 



1 2U0 Eggs capacity 45 

'i 300 Eggs capacity 65 

a -tiOO Eggs capacity (10 

.\ny rcfinired size niauufactnred 
to order Also for siilc (tliis sea- 
son's liatelil, liralimas. Cochins. 
Langshans. Leghorns, etc, in great 
variety, from .¥l2 to H'M per trio. 
For furtln-r particulars, send 3-cent stamp for Illustrated 
Circular to 


Importer and Breeder of Blooded Fowls, 
P. O. Box 1771. San Francisco, <'al. 

N. B.~A few pairs of Yellow Fantail Pigeons, Tinbi .■ 
aud Carriers (Belgian Voyageurs), can be spared at $10 pe- 
pair. They are this year's hatch and from the tiuest un- 
ported stock. 



$1.40 per Gallon. 

Imperial gallons one-fifth 
j^rcater than American. 

Twenty gallons of fluid 
mixed with cold water will 
make 1,200 gallons of Dip. 
It is stii)oiior to all !)ips ami Dressings for SCAB in 
Sheep; is curtiiin in utfuct; i-^ i.'asil\ mixed, and is applied 
in a cold state; it imi»ro\cs thu rluuactcr of the Wool and 
j)roinf)te.s its growtli; is of great healing qualities in all 
cases of Siiies and Bruises; is a protection against blow- 
fly in Bucks; is death to Maggots, Lice, Ants and all 
Verntiii. Apply to 



San Francisco, CaL 

For Sale at our Farm at Mountain "View, 

v)w. u iiicli \v'e 

ti.l j;(«r 

ris there 




WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars free. 

TYLBR BEACH, San Jose, CaL Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshires. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 


J. D. B NAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeder of Pure 
Italian CJueens. Coiiib Foundation, Extractors, etc. 






Send two-cent stamp for Circular and Price List to 
R. G. HEAD, Napa, Cal. 

Jersey, Durham and Holstein Cattle. 

Thoroughbred English Berkshire Pigs. 
Also Poland-China Pigs. 
Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book. 

New edition, over 100 paios. Prce, by mail, 50 ce 
Addreas, inclosing stamp. 


Los Angeles, Cal 

Jersey Cattle for Sale! 


Various ages, all with pedigrees— at Moderate Prices. 

R. a. SNEATH, 
Jersey Farm, San Bruno, or 835 Howard street, San 

W. C. DAMON, Napa, Cal., grows choice Stock Beet 
Seed. Send for Price List and Circular on Beet Culture. 

Correspondence is cordiall; BoUcited from reliable 
toutcei sp^M aU topics of Interest and ralue to our readers. 

Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

Baden Station, - - - San Mateo Co. 


For hatching chickenE. Self refrulating, durable, practical 
and easily understood. This is not a Toy, hut a Practical 
Chicken Mumfacluring Machine. Can be run in any 
TEMi-EBATUiiE. A8 Kanciers, Amateurs and others are 
ready to use a good, reliaVjle. Solf-regnlating Incubator, 
that can be procured cheap, we now offer ouh that holds 1 50 

The Baby Price, »;5.5. iS'Send for Chrcular. 

I. P. CLARK, Sole Agent for the Pacific Coast. 
630 Howard St.. San Francisco. 

From ,,iir Tlioi.H|.;lil,.v,l lie iksliirc llMiiriiinl ^ 
imi.oitril In. Ill Iji'jlioiil in Is^o pi-^ li,,iii I 
and .Sou SI'.-, r;i(li. h..iii l.n],ort,wl |;,,;,r 
Sow. XW to .s2(J. Our Iiiipoi tcil Pigs ah.- iis nic _ _ 
are in the State. Address, I. J. THUMAN, San Francisco. 




~ ' ' ^ ■) FLOCK at tlie State Fair in 


^^^gl^ Choice Rams & Ewes 

Ijll^j^yjtf Drders promptly filled. 
I ii.V.NK lU'LI.AKD, Woodland, Co., Cal. 

Calvert's Carbolic 


9^ per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying t,ie vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 


Headquarters for pure LANGSHANS. Largest and 
Finest stock on the Pacific Coast. 

Fowls and Eggs for Sale. 

Ml!''. J. RAYNOK, 
fruit Vale, Alameda Co., Cal. (formerly of San Francisco). 
4^Vi«itors take horse cars at East Oakland. 


Blaudlng Ave., bet. Everett and Broadway, 

Importer and Breeder ot 
Thoroughbred Fowls. Lang- 
shans (Croad Strain), American 
Sebrights, Plymouth Rocks, 
Brown and Whi te Leghorns. 
Eggs for hatching. 

CHAS. W. SMITH, Manager. 
Address: Brooklyn, Ala- 
meda Co., Cal. 




From $ao up. Send 
for deseri ptive price list. 
Thorougbbved Poultry 
'iod Eggs, 
ion Broadway, 
Oakland, Cal 



Free from Poison. Prepared 

by the Italian Qoveruracnt 

Co. Cures thoroughly the ^ 

remedy known. Rnliable testi- ■ 
monials at our offi'ie. 

For particulars apply to ^"^'iM^- 
CHAS. DUlBEtTBE AG & CC . Sole Agents. 314 Sacramento 
StroRt. San Fraucinon 


I am now ready to sell Carp, which were imported by 
nie from Germanj- in 1872, in lots to suit. 

Adilress .1. A. POPPK, Sonoma, Cal. 

Poultry and Stock Book. 

Niles' new mamnil and reference book on subjects connect- 
ed with sncces.sfnl Poultry and .Stock Raising on the Pacific 
Coast. A New Edition, over 100 pafc-es, profusely illustrated 
with handsome, life-like illustrations of the dittereut varieties 
of Poultry and Live Stock. Price postpaid, 50 cts. Address 
pacific; rural press OtUce. San Francisco. Cal. 

Cash in Advance. 

Our terms are cash in advance for this paper 
New names will not be entered on our printed 'ist 
until payment is made. Feb, i, 1889. 

[January 12, 1884 

g.jg. Marke t J ^EfoilT 

Note.— Our quotationsare fur WcJiiesJay, not SaturJaj 
the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco. Jan. 9, 1884. 

Receipts of Wheat. Barley. Kye and Oats have 
been hght of late. On Tuesday of this week there 
were no receipts of these articles, a most unusua' 
thing. In fact the markets are generally dull. The 
latest from abroad are as follows. 

LiVKRi'OOi., Jan. 8th.— Bcerbohm's Reports- 
Wheat and Corn, downward tendency. Fair to 
choice Wheat, per ctl, 8.s 4d@8s yd; Red Wint<T, 
8s; Red American Spring, 8s 3d. 

Eastern Grain and Provision Markets. 

Cmi<,,\go, Jan. 8. — Wlical modoraii\fly active, 
strong; 65^4 January; 94 = ^ Icliruary. Corn, fair 
demand; 56 January; 55 -"©Sj?* February. Oats, 
cjuiet, firm; 33H asked 33 '« bid lanuary; 33K Feb- 
ruary. Kye, steady; liarlty, quiet; 6i@62. 
Pork, good request', stronger; $14.45 bid January. 
Lard, fiimer; $8.80 bid Januiry. Bulk meats in fair 
demand; shoulders. Sb.2y, short ribs. $7-65; short 
clear, $7.50. 

The Foreign Review. 

IxJNDON, Jan. 7.— The Afiiri Lune Express, in 
its weekly review of the British grain trade says: 
The weather i? A.\mf. foggy and mild, and growing 
crops stand it unusually well. \'alues are lending 
downward and even the lowest point is not yet 
reached for linglish wheats. Flour weaker, barleys 
improving, foreign wheats more lifeless than ever and 
stock heavy. Flcur dull and rather weaker. Maize 
cheaper. Linseed is dearer. Other articles in favor 
of buyers. Cargoes of wheat off coast in small sup- 
ply, and inquiry for them has almost ceased. I here 
have been fuur arrivals; two cargoes were sold, .one 
w^ithdrawu and three remain. Cargoes on p is.sige 
for shipment remain unimproved. (Juolatior., re- 
main nominal. Sales of English wheat for the >seek, 
35,136 quarters at 39s per qu.irter, against 23.4 !6 at 
40s 7d per quarter the corresponding week laM sear. 
Freighie and Charters. 

The following is a summary of the engaged and 
disengaged tonnage at this and adj.acent pons, and 
on the way to this port yesterday morning: 

18S4. l-i83. 

Engaged tons in port G'<,97.'. r,7,2:>0 

Dise^ged ltK!.6i' 

On ihe w.-iy • U'Mw l.s.b.J 

Toul 3*1,71)0 315,676 

Increase ««.0-'S ...... 

Tons under engagement to load Wheat.. f)-',lS5 j8,lSS 

Decrease fi.WW 

• Includes f>,500 tons for Wilmington, against 6,000 tons 
List yeilr. 

There were 35 vessels under engagement at this 
port to load Wheat, and two at neighlioring ports. 
There are 108 disengaged vessels at this port and one 
at neighboring ports. Tlie engaged and disengaged 
tonnage, as above, has a wheat-carrying capacity 
for 348,900 short tons, against a capacity for 206,000 
tons on the corresponding dale last year, being an 
increase of 142,900 tons. The bid and asking rates 
for Wheat cargoes were reported as follows: 

Bid. Asked. 

Iron— Liverpool direct 258 Od 

Iron— Cork for orders to United Kingdom 278 6d 

Iron— Cork or Continent 

Wood — Liverpool direct 

Wood — Cork for orders to United Kingdom Xoniinal 

Wood— Cork or Continent Nominal 

Eastern Wool Market. 

pHil,.\L)ELrHiA, Jan. 8.— Wool, quiet; Oregon, 
i8@28; other grades unchanged. 

Boston. )an. 4. — The Journal %Ays: The Wool 
market is quiet. Sales of the week amounted 10 
1,609,000 lbs. of all kinds. Theye is no change in 
prices and no prosijecls of any change at present. 
There been considerable doing in Fall California, 
but at low prices. The transactions include 15,500 His 
of Spring at 25 So; 38,000 Itis, 9@ 12c, and 490,000 
Hii of Fall on private terms. 

HAGS— Calcutta Wheat are 7H(?75f cts. 

B.^RLEY — Business is very quiet. Feed $i(&^i.05.^ 
Brewing $1.15(2; 1. 17^5 for -No. i, and $1 07'.ira; 1. 10 
for No. 2. Chevalier is neglected. Bay is wholly 
nominal and unrepresented, while coast is worth 
$j.i2^(<f,i.i7;A. Call s>iles were: May — too, $1.10. 
Buyer season— 200, $1. 12;'^ ; 100. $1. 13; 900, $1,125-4 ; 
100, $i.i2H. Seller season — too, $i.02?i; 300, 
$r.02!-5; 100, $i.o2>^; 400, $i.o2jf. 

BEANS — Pinks are the attraction just now. Reds 
are still higher and scarce, while Biyos are firm. 
White kinds show no particular change, as colored 
continue preferred. 

CORN — Nebraska is selling at $1.50. California 
goes at $1.50 for damp up to $1.60 for dry lot.s. The 
market is steady. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— With Butler the market is 
weak. There is plenty good firkin, but pickled roll 
is scarce. Cheese is scarce— Californian, 17® 19c 
Eistern creamery, i8(a 20c; Western, istff i8c. 

EGGS — Though few comparatively are coming 
in, the market is somewhat downward. 

FEED — Bran is weak. No change in b.irley. 
Hay shows smiU receipts with a steady market. 

FRESH MEAT— There is no change to report 
beyond an advance in the best grades of Beef. Mut 
ton is in good supply and easy. Pork sells fairly. 

FRUIT--.N0 change to report in this line. There 
are plenty of poor apples but few good ones. 

HOPS — Stocks arc light, and about 2,500 bales 
remain in growers' and dealers' hands. There is 
now a steady shipping demand for the East, and 
dealers expect that good Hops will be cleaned up 


I Kuniiiilie<l for pulilication lu tbePRKM by NelsuK Gorum, Sergeant Bignul Service C'or]>". I^. S. .\ 

1. PoKTLANU. 2.C MSNDOCINO. 3. Sacba](E.\to. 4. S. Francmco. 5. Lo«ANaBLE8. 6. San Dieoo. 

^1 ^ 



Explanation,— CI. for clear; cy . cloudy: fr, fair; fy., 
and weather at 11:58 A. H. (San Fraacisco mean time), wttb i 

foggy: — indicates too small to measure. Temperature, ' 
tmiiUDt of rainfall iu the preceding 24 hours. 

eariy in the spring. It is a healthy market, with 
even a better demand anticipated. Quotable at 16(0 
17c for fair and medium, and 18(0200 for good to 
choice, although some holders refuse to accept these 

( ).-\TS — Prices are unchanged. 

O.NTONS — Choice varieties show a shade advance 
but poor qualities still remain dull. 

PO r.\ TOES— Good lots sell well, the market be- 
ing steady. 

POULTRY AND GAMl'.— The market for I'oul- 
try is bare, at high prices. In Game the market is 
weak, except for Quail and Canvas Back Ducks. 
PROVISIONS- Remain at stated prices, 
\ EGET.-\BLES--There is no special change to 

WHEAT — Market remains dull. Quotations for 
shipping are nominal at $1.72^4(0(1.75, although 
quite a number of holders refuse to let go under 
$1.80. This figure, however, is above the market 
lor shipping, while extra choice, for milling, is worth 
$i.So(« Sl.Bi ' ■■ 

WOOL — 1 hi-r/? is a fair demand for free f.dl for 
scouring. Of the cheapest grades of fall, about 500,- 
000 Itis have been sold during the week at 
8(j( 9c. No more bright spring clip here. Beyond 
the sales noted, thare is no business of any conse- 

Domestic Produce. 


WeoNEHDAY. J;in H. 1884 

Soft staeU 13 M 

Brazil 10 (d 12 

Pecans 14 @ 15 

Peanuts 8 (ce 9 

Killierts 14 (<* 15 


Early Rose SO ® 60 

Petaluma 80 @ US 

Toiuulea 70 ^ 


Bayo, ctl 3 60 (g 

Butter 3 20 3 25 

Castor 4 (K) (S — 

Pea 3 00 c« 3 15 

Red 3 jO IS - 

Piuk 3 70 «? 3 75 

Large Wilte .... 3 00 1* — 
.•Small Wliite.... 3 00 l« 3 15 

Lima 3 15 (a 3 20 

F id Peas. bik eye 1 5i: c« 1 75 

do grucn 2 50 (a — 


.Southern 3 @ 3i 

Nortberu 4 6 


Oalifomia 4 @ 4; 

(iumian 64<ff 7 


Cal. fresh roll, lb. .11 (9 22 

<1() Fancy hr uds 32i^i<: .« 

Pickle roll 25 (j? 27. 

Firkin, uew 24 (* 26 

Eastern 17 @ 2U 

New York - <s» - 

Cheese, Cal., tb.. ' 17 @ 19 


Cal . ranch, doz.. 40 @ — 

do. store 35 (« 38 

Ducks 37i(rf 40 

< )regon 28 (<« 271 

Eaatem, by ex.. 27S(g 37 j 

Pickled here — — 

Utah .. 30 (f( 32j 


Bran, ton 14 00 (815 00 

Corumeal 34 00 (« - 

Hay 7 00 C«i4 50 

Huinl>oldt . . 
do Kidney 
do Peachlilow. — _ 
Jersey Blue 60 

1 00 @ 1 12J 


Culfey Cove 8j <rt 1 oO 

River, red 35 (C 50 

ChUe 1 00 (rt 

do Oregon... — «t I 35 

Peerless 110 »a I 10 

Salt Lake — — 

Sweet 3 00 (It 3 75 


Heus, doz. 



Ducks, tame.... 

do. Sprig 

do. Tf»l 

do, .Mallard . . 

Gee.^e, i>air 

Wild (Jray, doz 

7 50 (<£ ii 50 

6 50 (.1 8 50 

5 00 (<t 6 00 

9 00 (^12 00 

1 50 (" 2 00 
75 III 1 00 

2 00 l« 2 .50 
2 25 (* 2 50 

(g 3 25 

White do... 1 50 (g 

Turkeys, tb 24 @ 25 

do Dressed.. 24 (* 27 

tail and wing.. 10 20 
Sni|je, Eng., doz. 1 50 C<? — 
do Com.noD.. 50 ^ — 

(^uail 1 25 (g 1 50 

Rabbits 1 00 (jic 1 50 

Hare 2 00 (a 2 50 

Middlings 19 00 (.123 00 I Venison .... 5 _ 

Oil Cake .Meal.. 30 00 (sp - PROVISIONS. 
.Straw, bale. ... 55 (c6 65 Cal. Bacon, 

FLOUR. Heav}-, lb 12 (g 

Extra, City .Mills 5 75 @ 6 OO Medium 12 (g 

do Co ntry Mills 5 00 (g 5 50 ' Light 13 (<* 

Suiwrtine 3 50 (rt 4 50 Lard . . . 

Beef. Istiiual., lb 




Spring Lamb... 
Pork, uudressed. 




10 'Shoulders 

71 1 Hams, Cal 

6i, do Eastern.. 

7 Alfalfa 

5i do Chile 

8 Canary 

12 «* 

16 @ 

17 (S 

12 Clofer, red 14 



7 m 

6 ^ 

4 @ 

5 (S 




Barley, feed, ctl. 1 00 @ 1 05 Cotton 

do Brewing.. 1 07JM 1 17i Flaxseed 

ChevaUer 1 30 (a 1 1U Heuii. 

do Coast... 1 12.i(rt 1 17S Italiau RyeC.rass 

Buckwheat 3 00 (ji. 3 25 I Pereuuial 25 (S 

Com, White.... 1 65 1 70 iMillet, German.. 10 <ce 

Yellow 1 .55 (** 1 65 : do Common. " 

Small Roimd. — (^ — Mustard, white. 
Oats . 

MiUing 1 70 (0) 1 80 |R»,,t 

Rye 1 30 CO 1 40 IKy. Blue Grass.. 

Wheat, No. 1... 1 77 t«< 1 80 ; 2d rjuaUty 

do No. 2... 1 75 (Sf 1 77 Sweet V. Grass. 

9 (3 10 

- (3 - 
5)($ii 6 

45 @ 
20 # 
25 (0 

7 m 

1 .55 (58 1 tW I MrowD 3 (rt 

Choice milliog 1 80 1 

Dry 16k@ 

Wet salted 7 (rt 


Beeswax, tb 26 ^ 

Honey iu comb. 10 ^ 
Extracted, light. 7S(rt 
do dark. 6i(8 

Oregon — @ 

California 16 @ 

Wash. Ter -- & 

Old Hops — @ 


Red — @ 

SilversUu, uew. 36 @ 

Oregon — @ 


Waluuts. Cal.,tb 9 (g 
do Chile.. 7i(rt 
Almouds, hdahL i% 

3 Crt 
20 (rt 
16 (rt 
75 ift 

Orchard 20 (rt 

Red Top 15 (3 

18 ' Huugariau 8 (rt 

lOJ Lawn 30 ^ 

Mesciuit 10 (rt 

30 , Thnuthy 7 (rt 


8i CVude, tb 71@ 

1\ Reflued 10 (rt 


— SPRINU -1883. 

20 San Joaquin 11^ 

■■ Calaveras 20 (rt 

— Northern, free. . 21 <fp 
I Northern, btury. 17 (rt 

— lOregou Eastern. 19 ^ 
75 , do valley.. . 20 (rt 

— 1 F.VLL 1883. 

[Meudociuo and 

10 Humboldt free. 15 (S 

8 Mountain free.. ll (rt 

9 South'u def'tire 8 (§ 

General Merchandise. 


Crystal Wax.... ISO 
Stearic Acid.... 14 

Eagle 12 (rt 

ASstd Pie Fruits, 

21-11. cans 2 25 (rt 

Table do 3 50 (rt 

Jams autl Jellies 75 (rt 
Pickles, hf gal. .. 3 25 (rt 
.Sardiues, (jrliox. 1 67 we 

Half iHizes ... 1 90 (rt 2 
Merry, Faull & 
Cos Preserved 
Beef. 21b, doz. 3 25 3 
do 4 lb, doz... 6 SO (rt 6 
Preservecl Mut- 

t.m. 2tb 3 25(33 

Beef Tongue 5 75 (.a 6 

I'reserved Ham, 

2-lli. doz 5 SO (rt 5 

De\iled Ham, 1 

Iti, doz 3 00 (» 3 

do, J tb, doz. . . 2 50 (St 
Boneless Piggs 

Feet, 3 It. 3 50 (rt 3 

2 It. 2 75 ((« 

Sped Fillets, 2tb. 3 50 ^«p 
Headcheese, 311. 3 50 «<■ 
COAL- JoBBlN(;. 
Ailztnilian. ton. 9 (X) (rt 
Ccio.s Bay. 7 0( (« 7 

Belli ugham Bay - C" 

.Seattle 8 00 (rt 

CumWrlaud ... 13 00 (rt 

.Mt Diablo — (g 

Lehigh — ® 

Liveri>ool - (rt 

West Hartley... 9 OO (rtlO 

.Scotch 10 50 (ei 

Sc rautoD — ^ 

Va uc<mver Isld. — (rt 
Welliugtou . ...10 00 # 
Charcoal, sack . . — (rt 

C'lke, bu — (S 

Sandwich tb - @ 

Costa Rica 12 (^ 

Guatemala 12 (rt 

Java 18 (f< 

Manila 15 (rt 

Grouud, in cs. . . 221(rt 
ac to Dry Cod . 6 (i* 
do in cases . . 7 (rf. 
Eastern Cod ... 7 (rt 
Salmon, bbls. ... 7 00 (rt 7 

Half bbls 3 50 (rt 4 

1 lb cans ... 1 12i<a» 1 
Pkhl Cod, bills.. — (rt 

Hulf bbls - § 

Mackerel, No. 1, 

Half libls 8 50 (iS 9 

In kits 1 70 (rt 1 

Ex Mess, kits . 3 00 (rt 3 
Pkld Herring, kg 1 75 (rt 2 
Boston Smoked 
Herriug. 65 (3 

Plaster. Golden 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 6* 3 
I^iiaPla.4ter,tonlO 00 (•^13 
Lime. S ('niz.bbl 1 25 (>» 1 
Cement, Roseu- 
dale 1 75 frt 2 



Wkdnesday. Jau. 9, 1884. 

Portland 3 75 (JC 4 00 

17 NAILS. 

Assrtd sizes, keg 3 7S ^ 4 00 

- t)lLS. 
Pacific Glue Co s 

Neat.4ft. No. 1. 1 00 @ — 
~ Castor, No. 1.., 1 05 (rt 

do No 2... 95 lie — 

- Baker's .\A. . 1 30 la - 

- Olive, Plaguoil. . 5 25 (? 5 75 

Possel 4 75 (rt 5 25 

50i Palm, It, 9 irt - 

uuseieil, raw, bhi 60 (g — 

Boiled 65 (rt - 

00 Coeoauut 60 (rt — 

00 China Nut, cs. , . 70 (rt — 

Sperm 1 40 (rt — 

SO Coast Whales. , . 35(3 - 

00 Polar — (rt — 

Lard 100(rt — 

60 Petroleuiu, 110". 18 i« 22 
do 150". 28 Irt 35 
• Pure White Lead 7|® 8 

Whiting lj<rt — 

75 Putty 4 (<» 

- Chalk 

- Paris Wliite .... 

( ichre 

Veuetiau Red. . . 
Averill mixed 

50 Paiuts, white 

and tints, gal.. 2 00 (» — 
Greeu, liiue k 

ChycUow 3 00 (* 3 50 

Light red 3 00 (rt 3 50 

Metallic roof. . 1 30 (rt 1 60 

00 China Mixed, lb. 4}(a 5 

Hawaiian 4|(rt 5 


Cal. Bay, ton... 14 00 @22 00 

Common 6 50 ml4 00 

Carmeu Isld 14 00 ("22 00 

- Liverpool, tine . 14 00 iii20 00 

- |Castile, lb 10 (rt 

14 iCoiiuuou brands 44(rt 6 
14 I Fancy brands . . 7 (rt 8 
20 ' SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 374(» 40 

- 'Cassia 19 (rr 20 

, Nutmegs 85 «» 90 

- jPepiwr Grain... 15 (u 16 

- Pimento 16 (rt 17 

7j;Must:u-d, Cal , L 

50 I lb, glass 1 25 (S - 

00 i SUGAR, ETC. 

22J Cal. Cube, It..... 101(rt - 

- 1 Powdered lofe 

- Fine Crushed... 10j(rt -■ 
pranulatwl 10 (^ lOj 

00 'Golden C 9 (rt 9; 

80 Cal. Syrup, kegs 62 Jiff — 
50 iHawaiiau Mo- 

00 lasses 25(rt 30 


- Young Hyson, 
I Moyune. etc. . 
iConutry packed 

25 Guu|)"wdcr k 

00 Imperial 

SO Hyson 35 

Foo Chow O 27krt 

00 iJanan, medium. 35 (rt 

(rt 65 

35 (rt 


Fruits and Vegetables. 


Apples, box 73 (rt 2 

Bananas, bunch. 2 50 (rt 5 
Cocoauuts. 100. . 6 00 (rt 7 
Cranberries, bbl.l7 00 (rtl8 
Limes, Mex . .. 11 00 (rtl2 

do Cal . 100.. - (rt 
Lemous, ('al.,bx 2 00 (rt 2 
do Sicily, box. 6 00 (rt 7 
do Australian. — (rt 
Oranges, Cal ,bx 2 50 & 5 
do Tahiti M - @ 
do .Mexican. . 20 00 (rt22 
do Panama... — ia> 

Pears, box 50 ffl 2 

Pineaiiples, doz. 5 00 (ft 6 
.Strawt>erries.cht - (rt 
Per 100 . . 4 00 (i» 6 
Apples, sliced, lb 7 (rt 
do evaitorated. 10 (rt 
do quartered.. 6 (ft 

Apricots ll.iirt 

Blackberries 15 (rt 

Citron 7&& 

r>at«s 9 (rt 

Figs, pressed 7 (rt 

do loose 6 (rt 

Nectarines 11 (rt 


Wednesdav, Jau 9, 1884 
Peaches 11 (rt 

15 (rt 
7 (« 
5 (rt 
2 (rt 

00 do pared. 
00 Pears, sUce<l 
00 do whole 

00 Plums 

00 do pitted 

- Prunes 11 (ft 

75 Raisins. Cal. I>z. 1 SO % 
00 do halves — ((« 

do quarters. . — @ 
00 do eighths... — @ 
/ante Currants. 8 (<9 

50 ve(;etables. 

- Artichokes, doz. 40 (rt 

00 Beets, ctl ' " 

00 Cabbage, 100 lbs. 

- 'Carrots, sk 

'Caulitlower, doz. 

00 Celery, doz 

Garlic, tb 

8 Lettuce, doz 

12 Mushrooms, lb... 

fiS Okra. dry. It. .. 

12 Parsnips, Iti 

Peppers, tb 

304 .Squash, Marrow- 

10 fat, ton 13 00 (815 

8 Tomatoes, box.. 60 (rt 
7 ITumips, ctl 75 (rt 1 


Retail Groceries, Etc. 

Butter. Califor- 
nia Choice, tb. 

Candles, Ailni'te 



Com Meal, lb... 

Coffee, green 

Dried .\i»ple8, tb 
Prunes. (;er.. 

F-igs, Cal 


Flour, extra fam 

Lard, Cal 


O Is, Keroseue.. 

Oysters ,can doz 

25 O 
15 (rt 
17 (rt 
25 (rt 

23 (g 
10 (rt 

9 ^ 
15 (rt 

8 00 (Ss 9 00 
18 (rt - 
20 ^ 25 
SO ^ 60 

2 00 @ 3 00 

Wkdskhiiav, .Ian 


Sugar. White 


Light Browu . . 

.Soap, Cal 

Syrup, 8. F. 


Tea. fine black.. 

Finest .Tapan. 
Wiues, old Fort, 3 
Freucb Claret. . . 1 

Cal doz ls)t... 2 
Whisky, OK, gal 3 
French Brandy. 4 
Yeast Powder, 

doz 1 

9. ISfrl. 
8 (rt 10 


8 (rt 
7 (rt 

75 cs I 10 

50 |.» 1 00 
55 i>r 1 W 
50 lir 5 00 
00 (H 2 50 
00 (,rt 4 ,50 
50 (rt 5 00 
00 (i) 8 00 

SO (g 2 00 

English Stand- 
ard Wheat.... 

Cal Manufjtcture 
Hauii .Sewed, 





Machine .Swd, 

Flour sks, halves 

Bags and Bagging. 

[.loBBINU I'KH-'ES. 

WtaiXESDAV, Juu. 9, 1894. 


7[ llesman. 60 inch' 

45 inch 

- di 


8] Standard Gun- 

12 (rt 

13 1 Dies 


13i Beau Bags 

Twine. Detrick's 


9 1 A 

1^1 Detrick's AA. 




38 IS! 


14 (^ 



7 (g 




WEIlSEHDAy, Jau. 9. U84. 

REDWOOD. [.Shingles 2 50 (cf - 

i-AKiiuEs Posts, each 15 (g 17| 

Rough 18 00 (rt - PINE. 

Surfaced 24 00 (rt28 00 I rAROoES. 

Floor and step. . 22 00 ("28 00 IRough 28 00 - 

BETAii. Surfaceil 27 00 (£r28 00 

Merc'iantable. . 22 50 frt — I RETAIL. 

.Surfaced. No. 1 37 50 Irt —IRough 22 50 (rt - 

Tongueigrooved30 00 (a37 50 Flooring 35 50 (rt35 00 

Pickets, rough 20 00 (rt - Floor and step.. 35 00 (rf 37 00 

do fancy ..'!0 00 (rt — Lath 3 76 (rt 90 

do squari. .17 50 (rt ■ I 

Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San FKANCi.sco- Week ending Jan. 8, 1384. 


.tan 2 

Jau 3 

Jau 4 : Jan 5 

Jau 6 1 

Jan 7 

Jau 8 


30. -297 

30.214 30.125 

30.231 1 





30.12s! 29.882 

29.S*4 1 




Tn ER>I( 

MKT Kit. 



58.0 1 58 5 

.55.0 1 





47.5 1 53.0 

47.5 1 




79 7 


82 3 ; 78.0 

93 1 






i XW i SE 

1 SW 






1 144 i 260 



1 89 


Fair r 


Fair 1 ('Ioud> 

Fair 1 Cloudy 






.1.0 , 48 

1 .00 


1 04 

Total rainfall duriue season, from July 1. 18834. 5 lOtuch ! 


The Ikst i:enii .l.\ in use i..r ( 1 ilCllS, ( (iLl'S, ASTHMA, 
Ib'ioicliilis, liiHueiiza, ( roup, incipient Consumption, 
and ali THKOAT and Ll-.V(; TKOI BLES. 
Sold by all Druif^'ists for 50 leiits. 

J. R. GATES & CO., Proprietors, 

417 .Sanaome St... S. F. 

Ayer's Cherry Pectoral. 

'• I irrvilli-, ( tliio. Sfjit. 1(1, lN.s2. 
COLDS. " "uvini; b.-eii subi<?et M a i>ron- 
cliiiil atfertfnn, with frequent 
colils. f. T n number of yi'Urs, I lieroby cer- 
tify tli.'il .Avrn'-i i'iii:nnv I'l < touai. gives 
nil! pnuiipt n lii f, ami Is the most effective 
remedy I have ever trieil. 

.Iames a. Hamti.tov, 

Editor of The Crenrent." 

" Mt. fiilo.iil, Ohio. .luiir -W, t ^Si. 
COUGHS. " ' AVI R's ciiF.nnv 

PriToItAI. this .^priiii; fur a se- 
vere couKh anil liiiic Irouhle with yijod 
efleel, .iiid I am pleased lo reo.iiiiin. iiil it 
to any one similarly alTeried. 


Pro|.ri< tor Cilobe Hotel." 

Dr. J . C. Ayer & Co., Lowell, Mass. 

S iM bv .111 Drii'-L'ist.s. 


Apple, Pear, I'ejich, 
Plum, Ai)()ricot, Etc. 

"Rcxyt GnvFTS. 
Seeilliiigs, Cuttings, 
Seeds, Etc 


SiMiil US .1 list of wl at 
you wont auil we will 
quote you a prieo for 
the same, boxed and 
freight prepaid to 
any of the principal 
ftiilroad towns in Cnl- 
ifornia, Ore;.'i)n. «nd 
Wiifhinsrti.n T.' ritory 

US' If you iloti't wa»t aii'ithinr/ this yvar smj for 
Price List and gel ]MStcd for another season. 



Commission Merchants, 

.\n<l \Vl,..|...;il. I lielail lluukr- in 

And till l<inil> <>f 
C«>ITS'1^I* V l'B<>l>UOI--. 

ItKi Levee and 109 & 171 Kl lioradu Sts. , Sto(;ktoii,Cal. 

Januapy 12, 1884.] 

PAeiFie I?.URAL f RESS. 



The New American Fowl, 
formerly called Eurekas or 
American Sebrigrlits, now all 
the rage in the Eastern States. 




Hovers from 60 to 75 Chicks. 

The most complete Brooder yet manufactured. 
S^lt is S'ivinsr "iih I'rsal satisfaction. 

PUlCJi, COMPtKTE, $7.30. 


Cor. i7th and Castro Sts., Oakland, Cal. 






Also Winner of the FIRST PREIVIIUIVl on Light and Dark Brahmas, Buff and Partridge Cochins, Wyandottes, Houdans, Hamburgs, 

Polish, and Plymouth Rooks, 



Are invited to call and examine my 
Stock, which, for variety and excellence, 
cannot be excelled in this country, and 
they may be assured that anything pur- 
chased of me will be guaranteed 

Strictly True to Name and Ex- 
actly as Represented. 

.1 I 





Wyandottes, Etc. 

(This Season's Hatch) FOR SALE AT 

Pigeons, Antwerps, 
Fan Tails, Turbits, 

Short-Faced Tumblers, 

Jacobins and Pouters, 


Is manufactured on the premises and can be seen in operation at any time; also the method by which the young chicks are taken car 
of after hatching. This Incubator is manufictured in four sizes, as follows: 

No. O Capacity 100 Bggs Price $30 00 

No. 1 Capacity 200 Eggs Price 45 00 

No. 2 Capacity 300 Eggs Price $65 00 

No. 3 Capacity 600 Eggs Price 90 00 

I also manufacture Brooders or Artificial Mothers for young chicks. Price $50 each; capacity, from 50 to 60 chicks. Call and 
see the Most Complete Establishment of the Kind in the United States. 

The Pacific Incubator is 
now in general use through- 
out the Pacific Coast, and - 
■^isgixing universal satisfac- '"'flH^ 

It is perfectly simple ii 
its operation; has no Gal 
X ^ vanic Battery or clock work ^ 

DARK BRAHMAS. to get out of order, and can on application 

For further particulars, send stamp for Illustrated Catalogue to 

be successfully operated by 
anyone having ordinary /'^^ 
intelligence. ' 

It requires no attention at 
night. This can be relied I 

Names of those using'this 
Incubator will be furnished fw . V^- JA. 





[Janqary 12, 1884 

Seeds. Plants. Etc. 


K. M. -lOOI.. 



(AH I.uudin- Varieties), 

RociTK.r) (iliAI'EVIXKS (Siilciiili.l Stm kV 
l"HYI-M)XKI!A-lii;>lsl lNi; (JUAI'KVINKS, 


KK.NTisii i Kiy rii.UKi;r, 


No Irrigation ! No Insect Pests ! 

Send for Catalogue. 


Napa C'itt, Cautornia- 

Make Your Vineyards Permanent. 

Eesistant Vines the Only Safety. 

varieties of vines and cuttiiii^, all ;;ro« n in the State, 
fresh and liealtj : 

RIparia. Blvira, Ta} lor, riinton, M>ii80uri 
Rieslinf; an<l I'li'and, L«noir. Herbr- 
mont, Cynthiana, Norton's Virginia. 

Also, rooted vines of the foUowinj^ \'in!fera varieties: 

Zinfandxi. Q,u«>en Victoria, ''li* fivelas Roae, 
Black BiirKuady and olli«rg. 

Price list and circulars sent on aii|dication. Address, 

Taiaos Vixevaki). Nai)a, t'al 


Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, 

Everything; in the Nurser\ line, at the 

Capital Nurseries 


Our stock, esnei ially of Emit Trees, is unnsnallv large 
this season, eniiiracing all the leadini; varieties and ijuite 
a number of new kinds know n to be very \aliialilc. f)ur 
stock is healthv and 


And will be sold at redneed (irices, in larue or small l"ts. 

Descriptii e (.'atuloguc on application, ii? See our stock 
befiure purchasini; elsewhere. We do not think our stock 
or prices can be beaten on the coast. 

ifcff"Corre.sponilence S'diciteil. .Sdilress, 



Sacka.mesto, Cal. 


W. R. STRONG & CO , Sacramento. Cal 

Our Stock is Fresh and Pure ! 
Our Prices are the Lowest for Equal Quality. 

We WILL NOT Sell OLn ok Txukliablk Skkds. Alfalfa 
and other clovers and lirass Seeds arc ni.adc Specialties, 
and can be furnished in car-load lots or in small (pianti- 
ties, as desired. We are also giving extra attention to 

Small Seeds, Vegetable, Flower, Etc., 

Which we are i^uttinir u(i in packets by the ounce anH 
pound, and will forwanl by mail, i hepaik, at our retail 
price list, excei)t the heavy, coarse varieties, for which 
postage will be chargeil. 

fr^Onr Dcsi riptivc and Price Catalogues for 1884 are 
now ready, anil will be forwarded free on apjdication. 

Fruit and Produce Merchants. 

We make a Specialty in handling Urecn and Dried 
Fruits, Nuts, Honey, and (Jcneral Farm Produce. 
iSTCoRRKsroxuKxcE a.\I) Ohders Solicited."^ 


250.000 ROOTED VINES, 

And also cuttings of the following varieties: Matero, 
Grcnache, Carrignau, t'arbenet, Chabcnau, Trinturier, 
Trousseau, Grey Kiesling, Burger, Sauvignon, Blane Elbe, 
Chasselas Rose, (ionlo Blatico, Sultana, Muscat, Rose 
Perue, Zintaiidel, Malvoisc, and other i:hoice varieties. 

M. UENICKE, Fresno, Cal. 


Established 1858. 
olTer for sale a general assortment of Fruit Trees, 
grown without irrigation, thrifty, and free from scale bugs, 
woolly aphis and other fruit tree pests. .Mso, Ornamental 
Trees^ .Shrulis, Plants, etc. Blue and Red (iums, Monte- 
rey Pines and (Cypress, transplanted in boxes. Standard 
Roses, etc. Prices given on application. 

W. H. PEPPER, Petaluma. 
PeUIuma, Cal., August 1, bSSS. 


The liargest and Finest Trees in the state of their age 
by 20%. Warranted free of all insects and true to name. 
Don't have to be i>arboiled in concentrated potash before 

Nectarines, Peaches & Apricots a Specialty. 
Send for Catalogue and Price List. 

I. H. THOMAS, Visalia, Cal. 


Large Stoct of Vigorous, Well Grown 



Santa Rosa, Cal 

1 8th Year.-^ 

iir' I 65 Acres. 


The Largest and Most Complete Stock on the 
PaclHc Coast. 

Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees! 


Clematis and Flowkrixg Pl.\nts, M.\(.xolas, Palms and 
small fruits, grapevnes, etc. 

.Msu, many New Varieties Kieffer Uybriil, LeCorite and Souvenir du Congrcs Pear, Wager Peach, .St. Abroisc 
.•\pricot, Sihcr Prune, Kelsey .Japan Plum, Prie;arturiens( Dwarf Prolific) Walnut, etc. 

Trees are well gro\Mi ]i\ experienced men, on new soil, and are 


An Inspection is Solicited. 

if^AII those intendiiif^ t<> plant trees will fiml it to their interest to come and exantinc our stoek and inform 
themselves of our prices. 


Will be sent as follows: No. 1 Fruits, Crapcvincs, Rerrics, ctc.,:'.c. No. '.' ornanieJital Trees, Shrubs, Roses, etc., 3c 


San jose. 


Wager Peach & KiefFer Hybrid Pear! 

We offer a lar;.''e stock of tht' al)0\ e new fruits, together vs ith all thf Ica^lin;^' varieties of 



Wearothe firstto grow the WACiER and KIEFFEK on this Co-ast. XS" PRICKS LOW. 


Corner Tenffi & Jackson Sfs. - - - Oaklana, California. 








New Crop Alfalfa, Grass, and Clover Seeds now Arriving in Lar^e ftuantities and 
Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 

Hedge Shears, Pruning ard Budding Knives, G'-een-House Syringes, Etc. Also 

Wilson's Bone and Shell Mills and Hal 's Mole Traps. 

SEED WAREHOUSE: 317 Washington St., San Francisco, Cal. 


o p 
a o 



400,000 Ti^:E]K!S 

tlxe SofLsoxx Of 1800-34; 

Apples, I'ears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectai-iiies, French and Hungarian 
Prunes, Plums, Figs, ami Cherries. Cypress, Gums, Acacias, 
Ornamental Plants and Shrubs, Roses, Green- 
hiiuse Plants, l''tc.. Etc. 

All Thrifty, Strong Growth, FREE from Scale or Aphis. 

if^Ten |>#»r cent - Discoanf. can be reser\erl on all orders acconijianied by the 
cash received before Dkckmhkk 1st. LIBERAL RATES To DEALERS. 



P. O. BOX 175 Fresno c;ty, Cal. 




Do You Want Clean, Healthy TREES Without Bugs? 



A Large Stock of 1 and 2-year-old PEAR TREES, Besides the usual Assortment. 

Some NEW and RARE Varieties of SPECIAL MERIT. 

Apple, Nectarine, Apricot, Peach, Plum, and Prune in Lots to Suit. 



Address Xj:h:'\7\7'IS tJto Tl A FLP, 

Fresno, California. 




Timotliy, Clcer, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red !ip, 
Blus Crass, Livs Sracs, Cr:h:;d Qra::, Bird Seedi, tc. 

Office, 115 KInzie St., 

104, 106, loS & iioMichigan St. CHICAOO, ILL. 


115, 117 & 119 Kinzie Si. 


I make the raisin'; of stock Beet Seed a specialty, anil 
now have on hanii a elioice lot of Lon(f Red Han),'cl Seed 
(crop of lss3), which 1 offer for sale at the followin),' rates; 

By mail (postage paid) .W eto. peril.. 

By express (under Id lbs ) 35 ets. |ier It. 

By express (ID tt.8. or more) i'l i-ts. iier It.. 

Sly Seed is warranted Frr-.ii, Pi kk, and Tri k to Namk, 
iirown on sclecteil, transplanted and hi'jhly enlti- 
vated roots. California seed is bristhfer and better 
matured than Eastern, and costs 4U iier letit. Ies.s. 
Therefore it does not pay to send East for Seeil. I am 
aware that much had seed (loluntei r) has tieen placed 

upon the market to the detriment of both e sumers and 

jiroducers. My Beet Seed has now been in the markcl 
for four years, and h.ts an established reputation for e\ 
cellcnce throughout the l'a»:ilic States, and to some ex- 
tent in the Western States. 

I send Ki ll Prlntrm Dirkctioxs with every order, 
tcllini; I'ow to plant and tend the crop. 

*yscnd for niy Circular on Beet Culture, 
mailed free to all. 

Every man who keeps cows or hogs should raise beets; 
Iheti are the farmeni' best pai/ing crop, Iwth for uulch 
cows and for fattening stock. 

Sums "f *l iir may be sent in stamps (5 or 10 cent) 
at my risk; larger amounts in postal notes or by express. 


Napa, Cal. 



Wc offer for the season of 1883-84, a LARGE and SU- 
PERIOR stock of 


Of all the Leading Varieties of 

Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Prune, Necta- 
rine, Apricot, Cherries, Etc. 


Shrubs, Plants, Etc. 

No Trees grown from seed of cultivated varieties. W 
offer a limited number of Trees of our Cklkbrated Cali 
PORMA I'EAcn at $1 each, or $75 per hundred. 

tS" Catalogues Sent on Application. 

C. W. REED & CO.. 


Box 161. Sacramento, Cal. 


lKsTABi.i.-nKi( IN IS.'i'i-.'.;;. j 
Oflens this season some new and rare Fruit Trees, all well 
grown and healthy, eoniprisiiig .lajHtn I'lums, Apricots in 

1. 'j varieties. Pryal's New Hybrid Apricot, "California." 
price each. Pryal's new Peach, "Coast Pearl;" Pry al's 
new Pc.aeh, "fir. Gibbmis;' Pryal's new Strawlicrry. 
"Oakland Cadet. ' Apples, 1 anil 2 year old; Pears, 2 
years; Cherry, 1 year, small growth; 'Ji.W") Raspberry 
plants; Lancashire Yellow Champagne Gooseberry. 
This (iooseberry never mildews, and bears immense crojis 
fruit sold in Oakland the jiast season at '2.'> cents jier It.. 

2. ''>,iK)0 Cherries in hud. Fanners and others about to 
plant Apricot orchards will do w'ell to consult the under- 
signed, for he has the varieties best adapted for market 
and canning pur|>oses. Address, A. 1>. PRVAL, North 
Teniescal, .\lamcda Co., Cal. 


Kelffer's Hybrid Pear, 

Russian Mulberry, 


The i:.irlic8t and ISi st Market Herrv. 


.\s large a.s the Cherry Currant, bett<'r flavor, <i7irf lire 
tiiiiex as iirodiietiiv. •'special circular sent free. Write 
for it and full descriptive illustrated catalogue of large 
and small fruits of all kinds. Address, 

C. M. SILVA & SON, Newcastle, California. 

S 1884ft 

their interest to plant our Early 
^eed Corn, I'ot.itocs. ami Car- 
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ticn Seed this coming Spring. For 
^^^^^^^^^^^^M .-,0 rents in 2-cent stam{>s. we will 
send to an\ address, b^' mail prepaid. 2 jiounds either 
>ariety selected seed corn, Muninioth Yellow King, 
Golden Yellow. Chester County Yellow. Leanung, Nor- 
inand.v White, Clianipinn White or White Pearl. From 
the above varieties we have received better re|>orts the 
past two years and more flrst premiums than any house 
in the I'nited States. Price for either variety b\ express 
or freight, |>urcliaser to pay all charges: 1 peck. 7.'i cents; 
1 bushel. fc'.40; 2 bushels, s^..'.!!; ^ hushcis, .'s|ii; sample 
any variety. 10 cents. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
<yC'ATALooi K free. 

THOS. M. H4YES & CO., 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 


Raised at the Layhodie Nurseries, in the foothills, 
without irrig.ition. Sound and thrifty, and free from 
pests. French Prune, Oregon Silver Prune, German 
Prune, Moorpark Apricot, fiirtlett and Winter .Nellis 
Pears. In lota to suit. Liberal discount to the trade. 

. San Jose, CaL 


A samjilc box of luti lilue or Red Gum Trees, 8 to 14 
inches high, will 1>c> sent to any address on receipt of $1.25 
in stamps, or one box ».f Monterey Cypress Trees, (J to 10 
inches, transplanted, for :^1..^.0 in stainfM. All fresh, 
healthv and hardy stock. Cvprcss secil at low rates. 

Dwig^ht Way Park Nursery, East Berkaley. 


Wild Riparla Cuttings 

iM.iiO and $7.50 per 1,000. 
Address COATES & TOOL, Napa City, Cal. 

January 12, 1884.] 


Seeds, Plants. Etc. 

Cuthbert or Queen of the Market 


Best Market Berry Known. 

Large, Finn and Luscious, stands travel finely, bears 
mmensely, and has two crops a year. 


Great Bearer and Largest Strawberry Grown 
CuriiBKRT Raspbkrries, *1 per dozen, §4 per 100. 
SiiAKi'LESs Strawukrrius, 5 ' ctf. per dozen, <t;2 per 100. 

L. U. McCANN. 

Santa Cruz, C'al 


Inijiortors, growers of, wliok'sale and retail dfalcrs i 





A Descriptive Price List of Veoetaulk, Flower, Fielu 
and Tree Seeds. 

^free to all applicants.-^ 
607 Sansome St., - - San Francisco. 


lu postage stamps or mctncy 
wt; will send l>y mail una 
oackage each of the follow- 
ing uew Seeds: .Iapankse 
NKST-E(i(i (IniiKi). a beau- 
tiful climlnnii plant; fruit 
valualile fur nest-ejjgs. 
Golden Dawn Manco, 
moit l)eautiful pepiier ever 
seen. Osoah Wilde Sun- 
flower HoNKY-DEWCl 
RON Mei,on, the finest and 
sweetest musk melon in tlie 
world. Etk.mpes HrightRed 
Mammoth Pitmfkin; seed 
impDrteJfrom France; excel 
lent for pies. Heltanthts 
DoKONiroiDErt, a heautifnl 
foliage plant, literally amass 
offeoldlwhen in bloom. Two collections for 50 cents, it:^ Our 
new lllustrated'Seed Catalogue fkee. KtM«LL WIL' 
1)0.^9 Seed dtrower. Mechanicsville, IJucks Co., Pa. 

Will be mailed PpCC 'Applicants and tO 

f ustomrns of !;ist rllCfc year witliout ordering it. 
It contains illustrations, prices, descriptions and 
directions for planting; all Veg^etahln and Flower 
Seeds. Plants etc IiivaluaMe to all. 

D. M. FERRY & CO.°B. 



100,000 FRUIT TREES. 

Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Prune, Nectarine, English 
Walnut. Cherry, and Apricot trees; also Orange trees, 
rooted (;rape\ iiies, Everffrc'ens, etc. The above trees ARt 
FREE FROM DISEASE OR INSECTS, and are well grown. 

1500 BI»XEh of .good Winter Aim-les for sale 
Send for Price List and Catalogue. Address 

MILTON THOMAS, Proprietor, 

P. 0. Box 304. Los Angeles, al. 



Fruit Trees, Ornamental Evergreen Trees, Plants and Shrubs; also Several Thousand 
Gum and Cypress Trees, Flowering Bulbs, Roses, Fresh Seeds. 
a:£? .Send for Catalooi e and Price List. 

P. J. KELLER. Seedsman and Florist. 

Nursery near Cemetery. Seed and Floral Store, 509 and 511 Seventh Street, between 
Washington and Clay, OAKLAND, CAL. 

J. I». jS^TVEESKTE'S' cfc CO., 



All Kinds of Field acd Garden Seeds, at Reduced Prices, in Large Quantities. 

Alfalfa, Red and White Clover; Australian, Italian and English Rye firass; Blue (Jras.s, Lawn, 
Orchard; Mesquite, Red Top and Timothy Seed; California Forest and Evergreen 
Tree Seeds. Also Fruit and Ornamental Trees, at Lowest Prices. 

^ A Large Quantity of Evergreen Millet Seed on Hand. 


Nos. 409 and 4 1 1 Davis St. , - - San Francisco, Oal. 

Fruit Trees for Sale. 

A very large and fine stock of FRUIT TREE«, embracing all the leading varieties of Apple, Pear, Peach, Apricot 
Prune, Plum, Cherries, Small Fru ts, etc., etc. A large assortment of Shade and Ornsmontal Trees, Shrubbery 
Vines, Plants, etc. All thrifty and well grown. 

The Kelsey Japan Plum and White French Gooseberry our Special fies. 


New Fruits, Roses, Clematis, Etc., on the Pacific Coast. 


DEPOT— Cor. Ninth and Clay Sts., Oakland. Send for Catalogue and Prices to 

W. p. HAMMON & CO., 

864i Broadway. ... - OAKLAND. CAL. 

Niles, Alameda Co., ------ Calitornia, 


A Well-Grown, Healthy Stock of FRUIT, NUT and SHADE TREES. 

These trees arc free from Insect Pests, and have Iteen grown w ithout sunmier irrigation. .Address 

SHINN & CO., Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 




A large stoci; of extra one-year huddcd trees, from five 
to ten feet; mostly well tiranclied, stocky, good roots, 
nicely dug. Root pruned. No Scale. Eniliracing the 
best varieties of Apricot, Peach, and Nectarine, for can 
ning and drying. Liberal inducements offered to the 
trade. Rates given when applied for. 

W. R. INGHAM & SON. Office address, San Bernardino, San Bernardino 
County, Ca I. 


Thirty thousand (irapc < liftings, 1 and ■> years old The 

Black Telntura Tokay, Black Malvoise 
White Muscat, 

And other choice varieties, for sale in lots to suit. 

Elk Grove, Sacramento County, Cal. 


Imi'ortkk, \Viiui,ks.4LE axd Uktail Dkalki! in 



Australian Uye Grass, Timothy and Orchard Grass, Kentucky Blue Grass, Hungarian Millet 

Grass, lied Top, Etc., Etc. 
AJao a Larsre and Choice Colleciion of FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL. TRKES. 
Budding and Pruning Knives, GreenlKJUse Syringes, Hedge and Pole Shears. 
P. O. Box '2059. TBOS. MEHHRIN. 510 Rati ery St.. San Fran isco. 





of ALT, PLANTS, for ALL CUOrs, for ALL CLI- 
i>IATF.S. All are tested; only tho best sent out. 
<;raiii and Farm SprdManmil ; History- and best methods, 
of culture of (ir.-iilis. Root Crops, Grasses, Fodder Crojjs, Tree* 
PlimtiuL', etc. only l()rt». Annual Catalogue and I'lice List of poOR SEEDS, 
severtil thousand varieties, FKEL. 

HIRAM SIBLEY & CO. CHICAGO,!!!. Rocliester.N.Y. 

My Vccetoble and Flower Seed Cntnloiruo for 
the result of thirty yvwvK' ?.\pcrli'iic't' uh u 
Weed Grower, will be »ent free to uU w ho apply. 
All my Seud 1h wurrantcd to be freHli uiid true to 
nniiK', Ko fartbat nhould It prove otlierwlHi>,l ucrco 
to relUI orders lerutln. i\ly oullcctloii of vejretiibic 
&ieed, one of the most e.vteiiwive to be found tii any 
Aiiicrleaii Cutalotfue, l« a lurire part of It of my 
own lErowlniE. vVh the oriji!;l"Hl hit rodiicer of 
KeHnHi' Heet, Kurbaiik I'otatoen, MarhU bead 
KarLv <'oi i(. Ihe llalihnrd S<iiia«Ii. and Hcore-* of 
other new \ rirelablfM, I Invite the pat PonaKi- of t In 
lie. In the irni deMM and un the fariiiM of tli< 
iny seed will be founil my bewt ailverllNfmem. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Seed Grower. Marblehead. Mass. 

Ml I IK- pab- 
' who plant 


I offer for sale a general assortment of 


Grown without irrigation, sound, thrifty and free from all 
pests, consisting of Sokt-Siii'I.i, Waiaiii's, Ai'kicots, 
Pkacmks, Piuines, NfXTARiXKS, Pli'ms, etn. Apricots for 
canning and drying and Soft-Shell Walnuts a specialty . 
Prices given on application. Address 

JOSEPH SEXTON, Goleto, Santa Barbara Co., Cal. 


Growers, Im orters, Wholesale 
acd Retail Dealers In 


FREE TO APPLICANTS -Our DescriDtive Illus- 
trated Catalogue of Seeds, Trees, Plants, etc. 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 

H. H. BERGER & CO., 

Importers of and Dealers in 


and Seeds, 


Camplior Trees, Persimmons, 
Camellias, Bamboos, 

Ornamental Trees and 
Shrubs, etc., etc. 


317 Washington Street, S. F. 
[p. 0. BOX, 1501.) 


Peai'h, .\pple. Plum and Apricot trees. Ki Ifcr and 
I.cconte Pears, with a full line of Nursery Stock at re- 
duced rates; also trees and ])lants by mail. Pear, Plum, 
(^>uince .and Cherry Seedlings. Apjile, Pear, Cherry, 
Plum and (Quince Grafts put up in the best manner. 
Prices on application. Cataf."gues with valuable infor- 
•iiation mailed gratis. Great Northern and Southern 

Wilmington, Delaware. 




Grey Reisling, Fahr Zagoes, Zintandel, Malvoise, Tros- 
seau. Golden Cbasselas, BIou Elba, Burger, 
Black Hamburg, Muscatel de 
Gordo Blanco, Malaga. 

C-?Prices lower than ever offered for the cpi.ilitv of 
Cu ttings. 

Fresno, Cal. 


I am now ready to supply licorice plants at the follow- 
ing prices, sent by mail or express: 

Per dozen plants $2 00 

Per 100 " 12 00 

Per 1,000 " 100 00 

Florin, Sacramento County, Cal. 


THOS. A. GAREY, Agent, 

Now offer at wliolesale and retail Prune. Prach, Xecla- 
/■nir. Apricot and Bttrth'tt Pear Trcfti; Ora/tije. Lnnon 
and Lime Trees: OLIVE TREES and CUTTINGS; all first- 
class trees. We make a specialty of Scmi-Troiiie Trees. 
I »es( riiiti\ e catalogue and price list on application, free. 
Address THOS. A. GAREY, Agent, 

(P. o. Box Vf>.) Los Angeles, Cal. 

New and Rare Ferns of Arizona. 

J. G. Lemmon and wife, on their late Botanical Ex. 
ploration of Arizona, succeeded in obtaining live plants 
of several of the Rare Ferns previonsly discovered by 
them. They offer Strong Growing Plants for each. 
Call or address, LEMMON HERBARIUM, 120.'i Franklin 
Street, Oakland, Cal. 


i^ooTS .A.asriD ctjtthstgs 


.. . . iiv. . . . 
D. W. McLEOD, 

Riverside, Cal. 



Also, Muscatello Gordo Blanco and Zlnfan 
del. Rooted Vines and Cuttings. 

J. Q. A. CLARK. 

Woodland, Cal. 



From tlio ZinfaiKicI, ('Iiarlmneiin, Grey iMtiot, Malvoi.^e, 
and Muscat of Alexaii.lria, in lots to suit. These cuttinyy 
arc from a youiij^" \ iiic.yani, and are guaranteed free from 
disease and true to name. Addres, 

L. G. BURPEE, 916 Filbert St., Oakland, Cal. 

or J. L. BEARD, Ccnterville, Cal. 


For Sale at $7.50 per thousand, f. o. b. Send your 
orders soon to the 

151 Levee street, Stockton, CaI. 


fAeiFie F^URAL f RESS. 

[Jandary 12, 1884 

$3.00 FOR $1.00.— COX'S TRIAL OFFER OF 



In order to induce every one to 
pive our sccxis a trial, wo will send 
liy ni.-cil, pust-paici, on reecipt of 
CI fjfl one 1 nrlcage esvli of the 
•9 I . UU, followins New Vai ii- 
tiv< '1 he Bona \Vaterine>o|i, 
tlic sweetest and best market melon. 
Cubun ^ucrn WaK«>rmelan 
^_tlie laf,'e.<t Watermelon srowi,: 

prize niel"iia have «ei(;:itii fri in Sol 
:;=^to 11)0 D.s. L.ei.'u<f - Yrl.utvl 
: SePl.t-tl Butter, ancweuhhajie vu- [ 
rii ty. I.>-wiir»— B <•< k K«-ed<-<l I 
s ntp.iin. I\rtvAml>er ( r?:iiii f 
.■.\v«;^t » orn of iltliei"u. 


American Wondpr Teog, i 
flower, early; vury lar^. .)""'>' ^'-i' 
Premium l<lat Liu lU > !>>> ; 

larjje, soliil, white, of tiie llni'st llavur, 
Early I*urpl«. T ■}> i ili 

iH f.-.: produeed 1,120 good ears fri.!.i 
^.liniills. fet fx t Geut Sfiu hIi 
yield very lar;,'e, as ni;ui\ as -.'4 
" ^_ _ w.-"^' si-piaslics I>ein^' produeed on a sinirle 
vine. Muakmnon — U yViriv. 
.eet Wrinkled Tea. S*n Ff> ncl-to innrkrt THuli- 
I . rly Summer ( abb /ire tlie best lar^-c early Cahbate. 
ihr lie-', I r','e, late var.-'Jes. «-»-f -cti ->« Mea • wrli Celei'y, 
BlooitiH :ilx I'ejtrl OiAiun, ext-.t early, pure wbitc. Tui-nip — 
llullow Cr-wii Pars'^ip. i;. lipse Bret, the earliest blood 

turnip' Beet, Un"i\-e''M il:tIf-lor$; t a r..t, b 'st ni irkct "variety. 'IVrfect on tChiix Spine 
' urumber. N« >v May How r T iii:<» >. r> . Millet, new loraite plant. NIAIkEO 

F-<EE— Cox's ueed Annual for I 334, t»c luistfompleto catalogue ever published. A valu- 
able book fur every I'aruier and Uardener. It c.uii.iins de-ieription and price of Veirxiiiblr, FIowi-i- 
Kielil, Gras", ■ 1ov«t a»d Tree Meedit: Tree and Flower .Seeds native of the Pacific Coast; Austra'- 
lian Tree and S irub Seeds; !•" ult Trees a •<! Small Pi-a|lB-all the varieties best adapted for the 
Pacific Coast._ Many New and Kare Seejs and Pl ints from .Japan. 43" Send for Xkw ('AiALOorK. .\ddress 

THOMAS A. COX & CO., 409 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 


Wholesale and Commission Dealers in 


Nuts, Honey, Raisins, Oranges and Produce. 


Incoriwrated under the Laws of the State of California. 

CAPITAL STOCK, $250,000, in 10,000 SHARES, PAR VALUE, $25 EACH. 

US' A portion of this stock has been rets ined for s;ile anion;; fruit and produce growers and driers, insuring to 
them a participation in the profits on the ultimate sale of tl.eir consijfnmcnts, and a full knowledge of the business. 
Subscriptions to the stock may be made by mail or at the office of the company, 

408 and 410 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

N. K. NIASTEN. Pres t. M. T. BREWER. Manager. C. B. JENNINGS. Treas- 

W. C. BI.ACKWOOK, Fruit Gr.iwcr. Haywards. 
W. W. COZZEXS, Fruit (irowcr. San .lose. 
M. T. UltFWHK, late >l. T. Brewer Co. 
KDBEKI' IIOWK, late Howe Hall. 
A. W. BKVAXT, Chica^jo, 111. 

("HAS. B. .lEXNIXOS. San Franciscn. 
.IOH\ KLKINHA\S, late A. Lusk « Co. 
N. K. .MASTKX. San Francisco. 
C. SA\1H.K, New York. 

Horse Liniment. 

A positive cure for stiff joints, callous lumps, wind 
galls, Sweeney, poll evil, ring b jiie, splint, sore throat, 
lung fever, epizootic, etc. Will cure the worst colic in 
ten minutes. It is the best family Liulmont in the mar- 

For sale by all the Wiolesale Druggists of San Fran- 
ciscn. and by dealers generally. 

.loHX R. WILLIAMS, Proprietor, 
Stockton, Cal. 

Read the following extracts from testimonials recently 
receiT0<l: - • 

Mr. E. .1. Mattesnn.of Wallace, C«I., says: I would 
not be without the National Horse Liniment for any con- 
sidcratiMii. I have had two horses very badly ctit, one 
with barbed wire, the other en a harness hook, and healed 
them in n few days with the National Hin»c Liniment." 

.Mr. A. .\rri\ey, drayman for Matteson & Williamson, 
Stockton, Cal., says: "I have used all the Liniments of 
any note, and can say tlic H irsc Liniment is the 
best. One of our horses got liadly straino<l in pulling; the 
other got badly kicked and the flesh lacerated tothoboue. 
Both cases were iinickly cured with the National Hors* 

Mr. Geo. ClufI, of Ladi, Cal., says: "I have used the 

National Horse Liniment fjr sprains, and also for cirns 
on my horses" feet, and believe 1 have curcrl them. As a 
family liniment I b lieve it to be without an equal, and 
am nc^er without it in mv house." 

Mr. Wni. R. GaylortI, of Calaveras County, says: "I 
cheerfully give testimony in favor of the National Horse 
Liniment. One of my horses had a bad sore on the 
shoulder and neck, and it cured them the quickest of any 
remedy I ever used." 




We are offering lands ia 10, 20 and 40-acre Tracts, on EASY 

TERMS. These lands are suitable for I->uit, Alfalfa and other farm- 
ing-. We have improved ranches, with and without water right. 
We have land in the Artesian Belt for sale on easy terms. We 
attend to all kinds of Land Business. Address, for full particulars, 

MILLER & KNUPP, Visalia, Cal. 

F. B. CLOWES, Proprietor. 

Tliis old establishe<l and fa> orably known Xur-c ry bas been i iircbiised from the proprietor, Wm. B. West, and now 
carries the I.arfTOBt ami Most i'oiiipletc- .stuck ever known in this city. A large stock of W liilr Siitiyriia 
Vifi from original importation two ^ cars Bince. It is being cimstantly inervastd bv aceessiiuis of >'K \\ nii<l it .\ ItK 
THKK.S and I'l. ANT.S imported direct from the Atlantic States and Europe. FKCIT .\M> <i|;NAM|-\'l'Ar. 
TREES, SHRUBS, R()SES and I'.VEKdREENS, Flowering and Senii-Tropical Plants, in ei. ' ■ . 

within the reach of all. All our stock is on new land, isolated from all other onliands oi 
free from in.scct pests of all descriptions. ,\II Stoc k U arraiitoil Truo to J.alifl. ■ 

the otlice and lU'iiot, corner San Joaquin and Channel streets, on and after the l.itli of l>i . i i i. ,11 , , 
sent on application. 

Stockton. l>eceiiibsr S, 18S3. P. B. CLOWES. 

H. P. GREGORY & CO S jjerseys and Gu.mseys. 
Orchard Spraying Pump. 

neijhtertil in tl,r .1. J. C. C. and A. G. C. C. 

Berry & Place Machine Companv.^f 

PARKE Si LACY' Proprietors. 

No. 8 California Street, 

San Francisco, Oal 

Importers and Dealers Id every Variety of 


Stationarv, Portable and Hoisting; Engines and Bolleri), 


Sblngle MiUs, ;:mery Grlndera and Emery Wheels, Gardner aovemoro. Leather 
and Bobber Belting and Packing:, togretber with a ereneral line 
of Mining: and Mill Suppllea 
MTCatalogne* and Price Lists famished on application. .Mt 

To Settlers and Land Purchasers. 


Except file Handle and Frame. 

An Iron Pump will not last a season through when 
using eorosive insecticide mixture. 
i^'Send for full |>articulars to 

i and 4 California .St., San Fraiit-isro. 


The abovi- is a cut of the unequaled ci>« 
.TerHe.v Iti-IIe of .Scltiiatv that made S5 lbs. 4V 
ozs. of butter in one week. 

is now ill use in the Yert)a Biieiia herd. This heril 
of Jerseys and Guernsejis won all the herd prizes for ls8-_'. 
Since then have been added young animals from Mr. 
Pierce's valuable herds I-^ast. He now b i- -h r-r \ Hrlle of 
Seituale, Coomassie, Mary Ann of St. I r iiiers" 

Glory and Eiirotasstrains. These, witb :is on 

the Islands of (Juernsey and Jersey fr^ 1 ■. with- 

out regard to cost, and imported direitly, nuiki lliistlie 
best henl on the Paeillc Coast. Mr. Pierce has interest 
in two Iiertls in the EJist of 2lK>, at the head of which 
stand King of Scituate (only liiiiig sun of Jersey Belle 
uf Seitiiate), Romeo dc Bonair(^7i .Mary Ann's blood), 
and Pierson, the best show hull in America. These bulls 
are valued at !'10,0U0 each, and sluiid lor 3100 to $200. 
The bloofl of these celebrated animals can be had, at 
inoiUratc prices, ol 

HKMIY riEKCE, San Francisco. 


703 Tweirui Street, 

niroRTKP. A.vii imi;riiEri or.. 



•i'ROT.IlT I:''lKi''TR1 

The imdersigi?e(l h.ts for sale choice land in the celebrated Artesian Belt of Tulare County,- s' i' otiiic oriiM o K- 

n 20 acre lots, :it 

S20 I»DE3H. ^OH.E. 

To iiarties w lio will imke immediate improvemeuts, four years' credit will be allowed, at a 
comparatively low rate of interest. The land is situated within four to five miles of Tulare City. 
The soil is of a character easily tilled, and of very rich and durable quality. It is of the lirst 
grade for raisinf; Alfalfa, Fruits, Haisin and Wine Grapes, and the location is healthy and de- 
sirable. The land is very level and easy of irrigation. Come and see, or address, 

J. M. CREIGHTON, Proprietor, 

Tulare, Tulare County, Cal. 
-Correspondence is solicited with parties who would like to form neighborly settle- 


Langshans. Ligiit Brahinas. Partridge 
Cochins. Plymouth Rocks. 

ICfitiS .V M>,. Y<>l"\<i .STOCK FOi: S.\ i,F, 
at ICeasoiiable RateH. 

Same Fggs and Stock for sale at my f irm at t'alistnga, 
N'apa e'ounty, Cal. 

itiTScnd for further infoniution. 

by electricity. Agents wanted, csend for terms. 

COLE & Mckenzie, 


A. & J. HAHN. Prop'rs, 

General Commission Merchants, 

p. S. — Correspondence is solicited with parties who would like to form neighborly settle- .STOCK rox, c.Vl,. 
ments or colonies, to whom land and artesian water will be furnished in one of the most central Goods Consigned receive prompt attention, 
and desirable sections of the artesian belt, as my land is for sale on the inost favorable of terms,, jtS'Mcrehandise of every descrii.tion purchased, fist- 
ic „., i.-4-„ „r (,„„ on K AAft »™™ ' isfaution fruarantted. Levoe, opposite S. S C. R. U. 

Jn quantities of from 20 to 5,000 acres xiepot, Stocbto.v, i'.m,. 

No?, iis, 2: 

fil;i . 


ro .Main Street, Sroenios, C.vL' 

.-. to I'. r n.iv. 

■ ■ roid 

mosto. 1, fit- 

ted il. till: l...~t >1\ le for tiiea.e loiin /ii .-i l piildic 
Free coach from all trains and steanibjata to the hotel. 

Address all llterury and business correspondonc* 
atjd drafts for this pajier in the name of the Arm. 

Volume XXVII.] 



The engraving on 
this page gives a 
spirited view of a 
man in a position 
which all who know 
it by experience will 
appreciate. Bucking 
is a vice common to 
equine nature, but 
developed to a great- 
er or less degree ac- 
cording to the nature 
of the beast. Perhaps 
there is no jirettier 
bucking in the world 
than is done by the 
hroncho-i of our coast 
and yet other regions 
may approach it, for 
our illustration is by 
an Au.stralian artist, 
and embodies obser- 
vation in that coun- 
try. In the picture 
•a half-broken colt is 
rloing bis liest to 
unseat bis rider, who 
however, despite the 
plungings and curv- 
ctings of his steed, 
sits as serenely in 
the saddle as if he 
were in a chair. To 
the bush-l)red native 
youth there is no 
greater pleasure than 
that of handling an 
unbroken colt, and 
the lust for power 
inherent in man is 
gratified bj' the 
struggle that takes 
place between 
and rider, invariably 
ending in the latter 
ol)taining a mastery. 
This result is not al- 
ways attained with- 
out a few falls, but 
such occasions elicit 
from the unfortunate 
horseman's compan- 
ions nothing but 
jeers and gibes. An 
unfortunate towns, 
man on a visit to 
the country affords 
a rare opportunity 
for sport, and the 
unfortunate Individ 
ual generally finds 
himself astrfde a 
well known buck- 
jumper, a)-d his dis- 
comfiture is gener- 
ally the result. AVith 
head down, heels up, 
and back arched, this 
equine demon con- 
torts himself into 
all kinds of positions 
until the incubus is 
got rid of, and as 
soon as the rider 
lands on the ground 
he_ thoroughly, real- 

I Number 3 

izes the truth of 
Mark Twain's de- 
scription of his ad- 
ventures with a 
Mexican plug, when 
he says tliat "after 
the performance was 
over. one hand 
sought the base of 
lus stomacli and the 
other the crown of 
his head, but he still 
wanted several more 
hands for otlier af- 
flicted spots." Our 
artist has caught 
thoroughly the posi- 
tion, and depicts ac 
curately the action 
of the horse. 


.\ Nkw Potato. — 
Some time ago Prof, 
i^. (i. Kumford, of 
Portlandville, N. Y., 
wrote to Prof. J. (;. 
Lemmon concerning 
the queer behavior 
of one of the Ari- 
zona potatoes sent 
him, and also of seed- 
ling potatoes derived 
from the seed-balls 
sent. Now comes the 
announcement in the 
Oa r diner 's Month It/ 
that the French have 
a new potato from 
an island at the 
mouvh of the l.a 
Plata river, thst be- 
haves in a similar 
manner. The one de- 
rived from the Ari- 
zona stock grows 
about a foot high, 
robust ; leaves in 
tlirees, i. i\, a pair, 
with an odd termi- 
nal one, instead of 
several pairs like tlie 
common ones. But 
the most ouriou.s 
character is to be de 
scribed. Out of the 
axils of the lower 
leaves, to the hight 
of four or five inches 
from the ground, 
tliere springs out 
long, small, wire- 
like stems, entirely 
leafless, and with 
sharp, iiecdle-like 
points. These stems 
bend down and pen- 
etrate the earth, to 
bear at their ends 
the tubers. Those 
are round, white, and 
with very smooth 
skin. All are double 
the size of the tuber 
planted. Thus wo 
have a new species 
similar tothe French 


f AeiFie [^URAL p>RESS. 

[January 10, 1884 


Prehistoric Animal Remains. 

Kditoks Tkess: — For several years 1 have 
been of the opinion thata one horned herbiferous 
animal existed in remote antiquity, or more 
probably before antiquity began, of such 
gigantic proportions that the elephant, or even the 
mastodon, were pigmies in comparison. Some 
years ago the fore leg bone of a monster ani- 
mal w as unearthed at Lagrange, in this county, 
from a hydraulic mine. It was nearly three feet 
in length, about three in circumference at the 
knee and near two feet at the smallest end. 1 
believe it was sent to San Francisco. 

.V few years after the discovery of tlie bone, 
an individual exhumed an ivory tusk, or more 
properly a horn, on l>ry creek, about eleven 
miles southeast of the town of ( )akdale. The 
tinder succeeded in unearthing between ten 
and cl.'ven feet of the hoin. It was forty-five 
inches at the large end in circumference, and 
nine inches in diameter at the small end. Both 
ends were evidently broken oil'. Tlie horn was 
much decayed and had crumbled away to a 
great extent and must have been a great deal 
lari'er and longer when the animal carried it. 

A few years after the finding of this horn, a 
son of Dr. Booth, of O.akdale, discovered, about 
t KO and a half miles west of where the large 
liorn was dug up. on a branch of Dry creek, the 
baby of the large animal who sported the large 
horn. The bones were embedded in a coarse 
hardpan, and the water of the ereek 
liad washed the vegetable matter, or mold, 
and gravel away, leaving the head and 
most of the fore ciuarters of the animal exposed 
to view. The head was down stream. Its shape, 
formation and size could be plainly discerned, 
and the position of the horn, in reference to the 
nasal bones, was well defined. The horn was 
attiichcd to the iiead about eighteen inches 
above the end of the nose, and was about five 
inches in diameter where it started out. 1 suc- 
ceeded in unearthing four feet of it, to where it 
entered a conglomerate strata, hut it soon 
crumbled into small pieces. The head resem- 
bled the rhinoceros more than the elephant. It 
hid not the vaulted and cellular skull of the 
1 ttter animal. In size the head was much largei 
t' a half barrel, and considerably longer (it 
was actually much larger than I describe it ). 
The lower jaw was gone, but four molars, two 
large and two small, were left. The larger ones 
were live l\v six inches on the surface. The 
enamel was as Ijright and perfect as when the 
animal was living. The smaller were evidently 
of no use to the animal. They appearetl to 
have l)een inserted about five inches in the jaw. 
The fore leg bones were twenty inches long. I 
have one of the molar tectli in my possession 
now, and some of the fragments of the bones. 
The large horn first mentioned would weigli in 
the life of the animal fully 1.50 pounds. 

I have no doubt that this huge monster was a 
distinct species never before discovered or de- 
scribed. The facts I ha\ e brieHy attempted to 
give can be verified by a number of witnesses. 
The large horn was taken to Stockton, wliere 
little attention was paid to it, and the finder 
was accidentally killed. What become of it I 
am unable to state. ivl. H. 

Oakdale, Cal. 

Suisun Valley Notes. 

KuiTuKs Pkess; — Suisun valley, situated mid- 
way between Vaca and Napa valleys, is now 
attracting attention as one of the best fruit 
growing regions of the country. About all the 
fruits of this latitude are here grown in al)un- 
dance and of fine flavor. The soil of the valley, 
including the foothills and tablelands above the 
lower hill?, is rich, various and suitable for a 
great variety of crops; but owing to the perfec- 
tion of growth and maturity of crops, general 
attention is di'votud to fruit growing. 

.Mr. .Tames \V. Keams, living at the head of 
.Suisun valley, informs me that at his i)lace frost 
is rare later tlian March, or even in .March; 
that volunteer potatoes grow large enough to 
eat by the middle of March. .Mr. Beams says 
that last season he planted corn among his 
young trees -apples, peaches, apricots, plums 
and prunes and found the corn crop (|uite a 
detriment to the growth of his trees. He ad 
\ ises that no crop should be plante ( in young 
orchards or among young trees that does not 
comi; oil' by the middle of June. 

,Iohn Campbell, living in the valley, last sea- 
son planted part of his young orchard of 
peaches and apricots in corn th<! "Prolific" 
variety. The trees in the part so planted made 
only a moderate growth, while those growing 
in the part not so planted, in apparently ex- 
actly the same kind of soil, and with the same 
cultivation, were very vigorous and thrifty, 
forming limbs much larger and finer in appear- 
.'ince than those grown among the corn. Trees 
of the same varieties under each of these con- 
ditions show the same distinction. 

If. D. Tisdale says that a few years ago he 
tried ljudding the peach on almond stocks 20 
in number. In the operation he used several 
varieties of the peach, principally Heath cling. 
The trees bore fruit at three years old, and 
have now borne four years in succession, in- 
cluding 188.S, The peaches have each year, 
Mid without exception, badly mildewed, Also 

the growth of the wood lacks vigor. Other 
peaches in the immediate vicinity grown on 
their own stocks do well. The soil where grown 
is of excellent quality- a deep, dry, sandy loam 
on the banks of Suisun creek. 

.1. H. Collins, of Suisun valley, recommends 
the Morris white peach (cling preferred), as the 
best variety for peach stocks. It is a rank 
grower, long lived, withstands excessive moist- 
ure better than other varieties, and is tough 
and hardy. Mc. D. 


Lake Connty Wool Growers. 

According to the Lower Lake Hiill< ihi, the 
wool growei's of Lake county held a meeting 
last S itiirday to organize a county association 
to act in conjunction with the State Association. 
Mr. H. t'heney, of tiuenoc, was chosen 
Chairman. It was decided to permanently or- 
ganize a county associ.ation . A committee ap- 
pointed for that purpose submit the following 
to all sheep men for their earnest consideration : 

We, the undersigned committee appointed by 
you to draft an address to the wool growers of 
I^ake county, setting forth tlie aim and object 
of this association, commence our task wishing 
that it had fallen into more competent 
hands, but hope the will may be taken 
for the deed. This association has but one 
aim and object, and that is, to m/.« !/ir prirr 
of irool. To do this, we propose to co-operate 
with the State Wool (irowers' Association, 
wl'ich was formed at the .State Fair at Sacra- 
mento last .September. We cannot all attend 
the meetings of the State .Association, because, 
by the very nature of our business we are 
scattered far and wide over the surface of the 
land. The remedy for this is strong, well- 
supported county associations. If our liusiness carried on in thickly populated neighbor- 
hoods, we should long ago have had a strong 
organization, but we have not, and this fact has 
been taken advantage of by our natural enemies, 
the wool merchant and manufacturer, to depress 
anil ruin our business by means of the very 
government which we farmers are taxed so 
heavily to support. Could anything be more 
unjust Y Not at all. Wc richly deserve it all. 
Here is a business employing its thousands of 
men and its millions of capital, "going it 
blind," raising wool by the ton year after year 
and selling it barely above the cost of produc- 
tion, when we might just as well earn a fair 
profit in the business, if we worked together 
and intelligently. But just as long as we let 
a lot of conmiission merchants run the business 
to suit themselves, just so long will they keep 
the price of wool down. It is needless for us to 
iliscuss the bitter experience of the past year. 
We all know how the manufacturers combined 
at \\ ashington last winter and induced Con- 
gress to reduce the tariff on wool, and we all 
know how it feels to sell good fall wool at ten 
cents per pound. How among the crowd of 
senators and representatives not one could be 
found working for us. N ot one but stood there 
with his mouth open, while we, the sheep men, 
away off in the backwoods, who voted for him, 
and who pay him a handsome salary, were be- 
ing mercilessly robbed, and yet not one of these 
men, who go there for the express purpose of 
serving their constituents, gave us any warning 
of what was coming. 

To prove that this is no overdrawn picture, 
we point to the State of Ohio. Representative 
Converse, of Ohio, stood up in his seat in Con- 
gress and stated that he wished to introduce a 
bill restiiring the duty on wool to that of the 
tarilf of l.SOT, stating that the matter was of 
the utmost importance to his constituents; that 
the of Ohio, with its 4ti,000 wool grow- 
ers, had lost at least one million dollars on one 
shearing through this action of ( 'ongress, and 
that woolen goods were no cheaper in conse- 
quence. .Now, fellow wool growers, where is 
this to stop? If the manufacturers can, by the 
use of the government machinery, bring" our 
wool down from twenty cents to ten, why can 
they not bring it from ten to five? They can, 
and, if they see lit, they will. We are like a 
blind giant; we are all body and no head. We are 
not half as smart as they are. They are com- 
bined, know what they want, and work 
and push for that object until it is attained. 1 )o 
not think for a moment, fellow sheep men, that 
you are working for yourself and your family. 
Not much; you are working that the New Eng- 
land manufacturer may grow richer and richer 
while you are growing wool at ten cents, and 
you all know what that means. If times were 
hard and business depressed, we would not mind 
it; we know how to grin and Ijoar it jii-it as well 
as any other class of men, but when « j look 
around we see the I'nitcd States literally roll- 
ing in wealth, and every business in a prosper- 
ous and thriving condition; then we feel that 
our work and our capital shall bring their fair 
return or we will know the reason why. Now, 
fellow sheep men, we ask you to join vis on the 
12th(l:iyof .January, KSSf. Combined we are 
irresistible; scattered we are nothing. We 
wish to make 3very sheep man in 1 ,ake county 
a membe"-. Come and join us; it will pay you 
the best of anything you can do. As we said 
.before, our sole aim and object is, by all legiti- 
, mate means, to raise the price of wool. Com- 
mittee — Ricliard Keatinge, .Joseph Chrisman, 
I Daniel A, Hanson, Vicholas Bhe]ftn, 

JI[he 'V'iJ^eyare). 

Grapes for Raisins, Table and Ship- 

The following review of varieties of grapes 
suitable for raisin making, for table use and for 
shipping to distant markets is from the forth- 
coming report of Chas. .A. W'etmore, Chief Ex- 
ecutive \'iticultural Officer of California : 
Kinds of Raisins. 

Our French friends would have ditticulty in 
translating the heading "raisin grapes," as 
they say rruKbi when they mean grape, and we 
say raisin when we mean dried grape. The va- 
rieties used for making raisins, or grapes pre- 
served and cured by drying, are very few in 
general practice, although all varieties may be 
dried and might serve some useful purpose when 
so preserved. For practical use only the Mus- 
catel family, the .Sultanas [Sullaiiifh) and the 
Corinths are used for curing by drying, when 
; intended for the so-called raisin market. Popu- 
larly the products of these varieties are known 
as raisins, sultanas and currants; but there is no 
good reason for the classification, as all are 
raisins, or dried grapes. Markets, however, 
become commercially technical. 

The ordinary so-called "raisins" are made 
from the several varieties of the muscatel. 

The Sultanas are made from the so called 
.Seedless .Sultana. 

The currants are made from several varieties 
of seedless grapes, generally known as Corinths; 
the woril currant is simply a corruption of the 
word Corinth. 


I confess that I approach this subject with 
much diffidence; both local experience and the 
literature of arapes as to this plant are con- 
fusing. The Viiinolili' places under one cate- 
gory, as of one family, the Muscat of .Mex- 
andria, the Muscatel (Jordo Blanco, etc. Count 
Odart describes the -Alexandria as bearing 
round, and the .Muscatel as bearing oval berries. 
In this State I believe there is little or no 
difference between what is sometimes called 
.Muscat of .Alexandria, White Muscat and 
.Muscatel Oordo Blanco, That there are differ- 
ences in the so-called Muscat, 1 know very well; 
but I refer to those that are in popular use in 
the raisin vineyard. 

Colonel Hirazthy imported, among others, 
the Muscatel; this was propagated widely 
throughout the .State, but the places where it 
found lodginunt are not known from those that 
sheltered the Alexandria, with few exceptions. 
The distinctions of names appear to be lost, and 
vinegrowers appear to be indiscriminately call- 
ing the same variety under both names. I 
believe that the so-called Alexandria in most 
cases is the same as the so-called (Jordo Blanco. 

A curious coincidence happens in the case of 
two dirterent importations, direct from .Spain, 
of the (Jordo Blanco. These were made by .Mr. 
Wm. B. West, of Stockton, and the Natoma 
Vineyard (.'ompanj', of Folsom. In both cases 
the result was unsatisfactory, the fruit not 
e(j nulling the variety we were already cultivat 
ing. In respect to the importation made by 
Mr. West, it should be said that the result 
obtained from propagating his imported variety 
appeared to differ in various [jlaces, and that it 
did not find a congenial home in .Stockton. 
With the Natoma Company this was different, 
for with them the variety in general use was 
successful, while their imported stock was a 
failure so far as the (|uantity of the crop was 

Now, I am inclined to believe two things, 
viz : 

That the so-called .Muscatel Oordo Blanco, 
White Muscat and Muscat of Alexandria, 
where they show the true oval shape, are all 
one and the same stock, and that if there is any 
apparent difference in them, it is due only to 
varying conditions of culture, pruning and age 
of vine: and 

That our original stock of Muscatel came 
from a superior growth, yr spoit, such as is not 
uncommon with other variotics. It is possible 
to perpetuate by cuttings the peculiar charac- 
teristics of a single branch of a grape vine; a 
good selection of cuttings resulting in superior, 
and a bad selection in deteriorated vines. 
\\"ith the .Muscatel, particularly, I believe 
we ought to use great care in the selection of 

The Muscatel, according to the Vii/nrron 
J^rorrnral, perishes rapidly in soils that re- 
main stagnant wet during the winter. It 
flourishes best in warm, drained soils, where 
the climate is characterized by a dry atmos 
phere and a comparatively even range of 

1 believe that in Fresno it should not be 
subjected to summer irrigation, nor should it 
anywhere be suffered to ovor-bear. .Some of 
the places in this .State most celebrated for 
awhile for their raisin products are now far 
behind the new plantations. I believe that this 
retrogression has been due mainly to two 
causes — viz: First, the natural weakness of the 
vine as it grows old; second, forcing it to over- 

Large, fine, sweet and pulpy raisins should bi; 
produced by managing the natural forces of the 
vine, by skillful pruning, by ])roper fertilizing 
and by maintaining the soil in its proper condi- 
tion of warmth. A slight winter irrigation 
may be advantageous in some jilaoes, but neavy 
BOftking of the soil at any time, unless it be very 

gravelly, and especially summer irrigation, must 
certainly tend to a gradual, if not rapid deter- 
ioration of the fruit. As the vines grow older, 
their fruit will ripen later, have less saccharine, 
and summer irrigation will only increase the 
difficulty. F^xcessive vegetation will result in 
late ripening and fruit devoid of sufficient 
saccharine. Without sufficient saccharine, the 
Muscatel cannot be properly cured. As the 
vines grow old, the proper sii:e and sweetness 
of berry must be regulated by reducing the 
charge upon the vine: when showing signs of 
weakness, it should not be forced by water to 
swell its berries abnormally, but should be 
shorter pruned and fertilized with proper 
materials, such as potash, and the too liberal 
use of phosphates and ammonia should be 
guarded against. Vines, short pruned, ripen 
earlier andsweetcr fruit than those long pruned. 
The apparently weak growing Muscatels not 
irrigated, on the red lands of San Diego county, 
ripen sweeter and earlier grapes than does the 
same variety in rich, moist black loams in the 
same county, and in places where the foliage is 
more luxuriant; the same comparison was 
noticeable durintt the last vintage between the 
Muscatels of unirrigated .Mesa lands of San 
I )iego and the rich bottom lands of Yolo county. 
I make this extreme c.unparison because it 
illustrates the theories presented best. The 
truth is, I believe, that the fruit is favored in 
one place, not only by climate, but also by soil 
and a moderate development of vegetation, 
while in the other, the fruit is sacrificed by the 
forcing process practiced and by excessive vege- 
tation. In Fresno, where the fruit ripens e-arly, 
it may be well to give .Muscatels nmch space 
and to stimul.ite vegetation; liut in the rich 
soils of Vdlo bottom lands, if well cured raisins 
are desired, 1 believe that the vines should be 
planted closer t 'gether, pruned closer and not 
suffered to boar heavy crops, and that irrigation 
for the purpose of increa»ing the yield should 
be discontiiiui d, while proper fertilizing should 
be practiced. The effort to get large crops will 
destroy the fortunes of many ambitious raisin 
planters. Three tons to the acre of fine, well 
ripened fruit, will make any reasonable man 
rich enough. 

The ^'olo planters I l>elieve are going in the 
wrong direction; instead of planting farther 
apart, let thimi plant closer, prune severely and 
avoid excessive irrigation. 

In Fresno they will suH'er if they irrigate too 
much. Where the Muscatel will not stand with- 
out summer ir. igation and without excessive 
winter soaking, cither abandon it, or graft it 
on some variety that i;an stand the proper test. 
Where it is a question of drought, or where the 
berries do not set well, I suggest grafting on 
the vigorous roots of the I'ilif ('alifonnrii. If 
the grapes ripen too late, I suggest trying the 
exi>erimeut of grafting on the Vili» Hi/iaria, 
which, ungraftcd, staits early an<l ripens early. 
Perhaps some gain in time of ripening might be 

1 believe that vines subject to conhin- may be 
cured of this defect by grafting on certain stocks 
not so atllicted. This is true respecting some 
vines in France and may be true of the Mus- 
catel. The only heavily laden Mallinks that I 
have heard of during the last season were th'-se 
of Mr. .Motcier, of Lake county, which were 
grafted on the Vilh Cal.i/ornv'a. 

In making^ raisins, many pick their fruit too 
early. Don t doit; better risk total failure 
than surely to make an ill-cured product, (ien- 
erally those who pick latest, if the grapes aro 
in good condition, get their raisins cured first. 
Don't plant Muscatels, if intended for raisins, 
on soils which maintain luxuriant vegetation 
Late in the season. Don't force a late and lux- 
uriant vegetation artiticially. Don't try to get 
larger crops than your climate will well ripen 
without artificial summer aids. Don't plant 
your vines too far apart, nor prune them long, 
unless your grapes ripen very early. These are 
the precepts I have learned by my observations 
of this variety. In future years I may be pre- 
pared to s,iy, Don't plant Muscatels in this or 
that district. 

If long pruning will ever be practicable for 
the Muscatel, I believe it will be after the 
(.'haintre .system, which encourages even and 
early maturity, according to French experience. 
Therefore, I would advise those who iiavt. Mus- 
catels planted in rows twelve feet apart to ex- 
periment without delay by this method. 

I am well aware that the people of Riverside 
chviin that their atmosphere is so excessively 
dry in summer that they cannot rely on winter 
irrigation, Imt that they nmst also irrigate in 
summer. If this is absolutely true, it only 
proves tiiat Riverside is in all respects an ex- 
ceptional place. I sh:dl still believe, until con- 
vinced by actual experiment, that, grafted on 
the Californica or .Arizonica, the .Muscatel will 
make bctt. i fruit there with only winter irri 
gation than it does now by present methods. 
(Jertainly, "f do believe that Riverside raisins 
would be finer if closer pruning and less irriga 
tion were practiced. 


This vine, called superfluously the ■■.'<i-cdless" 
Sultana, is becoming generally popular; but 
we have not yet seen w here it is destined to 
produce the best results for drying. For two 
years Mr. Blowers has been selling his .Sultanas 
to the wine makers, as I understand, because 
they coulil not be dried, or because they did 
not ripen early enough. 

I believe, myself, that the greater part of 
the Sultanas in the State will be maile up into 
wine. What that product is destined to prove 
for us, is difficult to jiredict. Only one 
sample from Nnpa county of iMlticicut ngo 1ms 

January 10, 1884.] 


been seen to test its quality there; an in- 
different sample has been seen from Yolo 
county. These samples indicate great pre- 
servative qualities and usefulness for blends 
with some acidulous and aromatic wines 
of lighter character. Wherever it attains 
sufficient maturity, -Ahich does not seem 
to be the case in the Yolo and Napa samples, 
it might succeed well as a type of so-called 
sherries. This result would no doubt 
be attained in Fresno, San Bernardino 
and similar districts, where grapes attain 
great saccharine percentages at an early 

The seedless raisin made from this grape is 
valuable in confectionery. It can never have 
as wide a use as the Muscatel for drying pur- 
poses. It bears so abundantly that it is entic- 
ing to planters. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that its record for extraordinary fruitful- 
ness is based on its yield in very fertile lands, 
wlipre it is common to boast of tonnage per 
acre, and where, at the same time, it goes to 
the winery instead of to the raisin trays. These 
stories of extraordinary yields must always be 
received rum graiio salis. When the vines are 
ten years old, and in places where drying in the 
sun is practicable, we shall hear less talk of 
quantity and more disposition to try to claim 

The Sultana, undoubtedly a very valuable 
variety, should be valued, however, only where 
some profitable and certain result can be at- 
tained by its use. Where it can be ripened 
well for sun-drying, it is no doubt of great 
value; where it can be ripened sufficiently it 
will make, I believe, a certain kind of sherry; 
but sherries, unless very fine, will never have a 
very large market. Where fermentation of 
white wine is difficult, it tnay be used to advan- 
tage in vats of other varieties of white wine 
grapes ripening at the same time, or may be 
worked together with delicate wines after first 
fermentation. Its superior value, if any, as a 
light white wine unblended, remains to be 

It recfuires long pruning. It appears to have 
its native home in Persia, and to be cultivated 
also in Turkey and (ireece. In France it is re- 
corded as a failure in fruiting by Count Odart. 
Considering its native home and its (Jrecian 
success, I shall confidently expect it to succeed 
best in this State in such climates as that of 
the coast valleys of San 1 >iego, and parts of 
Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. Persia ap- 
pears to be celebrated for seedless varieties of 
grapes, large and small. This disposition to- 
ward seedless fruit, I believe to be local rather 
than to reside in the variety. I have, I be- 
lieve, reason to say that the coast valley of 
San Diego, and perhaps those of Lower Cali- 
fornia, will prove the true homes on the Pa- 
cific for seedless fruit. It is there that I ex- 
pect we ahall succeed, if anywhere, with the 
Corinths. It is there that a seedless lemon has 
already been originated, and that grafted Sicily 
lemons show a tendency to become seedless. 
It is there also that the Muscatel shows less 
development of seeds, and, by continued prop- 
agation, they may become like the famous 
Huascer raisins of Chili. Count Odart de- 
scribes many varieties of seedless grapes in 
Persia which make the celebrated Schiras wine. 
Strange to say, the Pacific Coast promises to 
prove an epitome of all creation. 

The Corinths. 
'I'here are three varieties of the Corinths — 
white, red and black. All of these are seedless 
by reputation ; but, so far, experience shows 
that they rapidly change character in this 
State, and develop more or less large berries 
with seeds. When they thus chanfje, they 
also lose their wonted compactness. Wliat the 
cause of this change is has not been satisfac- 
torily explained. If all the berries, as in the 
original compact and seedless conditions, should 
set well, the large berries with seeds could 
scarcely occur ; therefore I am inclined to be- 
lieve that rouhiir is the primary cause of the 
change. If this be true, there will be more pro- 
bability of preserving the seedless type, where 
there is less coH/(n-c than elsewhere. I cannot, 
therefore, too strongly urge our San Diego 
planters to experiment carefully with these va- 
rieties. If they succeed, they will have added 
still another peculiar industry to their advan- 
tage and great profit. Their home in (ireece is 
not far from the influence of a gentle sea coast 
climate. The conditions of successful culture 
near the sea are l) found along our extreme 
southern coast. 

Table and Shipping Grapes. 
Under this head I shall, at present, write very 
little. AVe have, I believe, scarcely developed 
any positive knowledge on the subject, of com- 
prehensive nature. The description of varieties 
of vines are fullest in the French books, but of 
the varieties of shipping grapes, such as we may 
cultivate, France knows comparatively little. 
In all the books, I cannot recognize by descrip- 
tion our Flame Tokay, l<;mperor and Klack 
Ferrara. I can find no true description of the 
Almeria, the well-known green grape commonly 
imported in barrels from Spain. The Pdack 
Prince I have not yet located. From record 
and tradition I am led to lielieve that there are 
many most valuable varieties to be found in 
Asia Minor, Persia, and countries even farther 
east, the possession of which would enrich us. 
If the State would send a competent person 
throughout those countries to gather specimens 
for us, the investment would, no doubt, be the 
most profitable one that could be undertaken 
for the benefit of our farmers. If some one of 

piir wealthy mpn wopW jl^vote, Sfty ?30,000 to 

making such a collection, I will undertake to 
demonstrate to him that it would prove profit- 
able to him through the sale of vines and cut- 
tings propagated. There are vineyards in this 
State now receiving an annual income of several 
thousand dollars from the sale of cuttings at 
ordinary prices. Will not the press give this 
suggestion a wide circirfation? If I could find 
the man who would support such an enterprise 
with ample funds, I would gladly undertake 
the direction of the work as a business propo- 
sition, with full confidence in repping individual 
as well as public profits. There are more vari- 
eties of vines grown in Italy than in France, yet 
we know very little about them. 

Of the varieties now known in this State valu- 
able for table and shipping purposes, we should 
make two classes, viz. : 

F"irst — Those which are best suited for the 
home and near markets. 

Second — Those which are suited for long 

It happens that those varieties which are the 
most palatal)le and delicate are not very dura- 
ble; hence, these must stay at home, and will 
therefore have a limited market. It happens, 
also, that even in the home market grapes are 
valued often more for their apjiearance than 
their delicacy and flavor. This last condition, 
I believe, will change with time. 

For the Home Market. 
Of varieties of real excellence, we have the 
several kinds of Chasselas, Black Prince and 
Muscatel. The Black Hamburg, Malvasier 
(black) and Mission are also valuable. 

Of varieties serviceable for early and late 
pickings, but not of particular merit otherwise, 
are the Sweetwater, Magdalene, Black July, St. 
Peters, for early, and the Verdal for late fruit. 
For Distant as Well as Home Markets. 
Of good shipping and keeping varieties, suit- 
able for long transportation, as well as filling 
certain local demands, we ha\ e the Muscatel, 
Flame Tokay, Cornchon, lilack Ferrara and 
Kmperor. There are also some curious vines, 
such as the Zabalskanskoi, but we know little 
about their productive properties. 

I am now testing the Cinsant — an early 
black variety from the south of France, valu- 
able both for wine and shipping. The same is 
being done at Folsom by the Natoma Com- 
pany. Next year we shall know its period of 
ripening with us, and may test its shipping 

The Aramon, now being tested also in the 
same way, will probably prove of value as a 
table grape, as well as for the wine maker. 

The Almeria is being tested, but gives un- 
satisfactory results generally on account of 
fouliire. It might succeed well in S m Diego 
county. Its home is Malaga. lL«illprovea 
fortune as a late keeping variety whenever it 
succeeds well. 

Some of the American varieties, such as Isa- 
bella, Goethe, etc., will always find a home 
market of limited extent, which should not be 
neglected. Few of them, however, have yet 
been tested here. 


Those who desire to produce table and 
shipping grapes should remeniber that trans- 
portation facilities are prime requisites; for the 
home markets, the vineyard should not be far 
from the centers of population, and should be 
on lines of easy and quick comnmnication. 
For Kastern markets, it should be on or near 
some grand trunk line of railway, and the 
planter should have enough products to make 
up car-load lots. It is doubtful whether the 
future shipping grapes will come from irrigated 


Olive Oil Making. 

Elwood Cooper writes to the Santa Barbara 
Pre.fs, as follows: 

The berries are dried before crushing , as it is 
necessary to evaporate a portion of the water. 
If, however they are left out on the tree until 
shriveled, which is proof that necessary evap- 
oration has already taken place, no drying is 
needed afte picking. This late picking is not 
best, as mentioned in a previous article. 
If dried by the sun, it requires about fourteen 
days. This plan cannot be depended upon, ex- 
cepting years when fruit is early ripe, and we 
have continuous sunlight, with moderately 
warm weather. By artificial heat ranging from 
110' to l.'W, the drying can be done in less than 
forty-eight hours. The crushing and pressing 
should follow without delay — that is, the fruit 
taken from the drier in the morning should be 
crushed and pressed the same day. Long in- 
tervals or delays in the process from picking the 
fruit to expressing the oil tends to rancidity. 
To make perfect oil requires a perfect system 
in the whole management. The capacity of the 
press, the crusher, the drier, and the number of 
pickers should correspond or be about eoual; 
all fruit picked during the day should be in at 
night, cleaned the following morning, and go 
into the drier immediately after the previous 
day's drying is taken out. The heat or tem- 
perature of the drier ought to be so graded as 
to complete the work in forty-eight hours, and 
it is better that it should be under 130" rather 
than above. Kcononiy will necessitate in the 
busincHB !\ syptPlTl the flifferent branches Pf 

the process admitting of no delays from the 
beginning to the end. 

My drier has capacity of 500 square feet of 
surface, and will contain at one time 2000 
pounds of olives, equal to five pickers of 400 
pounds each per day and as much as the crusher 
and press I am now using can work. 

The almost universal method of crushing the 
berries is by a heavy stone, similar to a mill 
stone, which is rolled round on the edge in a 
deep circular groove or trough, and by its 
weight does the crushing. A beam passing 
through the eye of the stone, and working on 
a journal in the center of the circle with a horse 
attached to the outer end of the beam, is the 
simplest way to do the work, and the plan that 
I have adopted. The circumference of the 
trough depends somewhat on the size of the 
stone. The one I am using is four feet high, 
six inches thick, and the diameter of the trough 
in which it works, six feet ; the length of the 
beam fifteen feet. This crusher is amply 
sufficient for an orchard of one thousand trees, 
but too small for my purpose. It cost about f .30. 

A stone five feet in diameter and two feet 
thick would crush in eight hours a sufficient 
quantity of berries to make 100 gallons of oil, 
and by working it night and day, the crop of ten 
thousand trees. It would be better, however, 
to have two stones half the thickness of the 
above, one following the other in the same 
groove. The horse should work on the outside 
of the building containing the crusher. 

To make 100 gallons of oil each day would 
require two good presses. The one best adapted 
for the purpose as far as I have seen, is that 
used for making oleomargarine. Such presses 
could with very little expense be worked by the 
horse power used for crushing the berries, so 
that one man could do all the crushing and 

The press I am using is an old-fashioned 
wooden beam press, such as used in the New 
England and \liddle States for making cider. 
The beam is 'Hi feet long, and with a heavy 
box filled with rock suspended at the extreme 
end, the power can be increased to l.")0 tons. 
The press with the differential pulleys cost 
about §1.')0. Such a press cannot be improved 
u])on for expressing the oil, but the additional 
labor and the time lost in changing is so much 
greater than what would be required for the 
oleomargarine invention, that the latter would 
facilitate the work, and be cheaper in the end, 
besides taking up so much less room. 

The crushed olives are put in the press in 
cheeses about three feet s(juare, and three inches 
thick, with wooden slats between each cheese. 
Ten or more cheeses can be put in at each press- 
ing. I use coarse linen cloth to contain the 
crushed olives. 

The fluid that is expressed is put in largs 
tanks, and left for sixty to ninety days, when 
the oil will separate, and being lighter w ill rise 
to the top, where it can be drawn off. The 
pomace after the first pressing is re-crushed, 
and by pouring hot water over it, a second (pial- 
ity of oil is expressed. The refuse can be used 
either for fuel, for feed for pigs, or for making 
still a third quality of oil; if for the latter, it is 
thrown in vats, boiling water poured ovei H, 
and left to ferment, when the oil still remain 
ing will be liberated and rise to the top. 

Kllwood Codi-kk. 

Orchard Notes. 

FiuTOKs : — The fruit interest is still 
unabated. Many purchase dormant buds, as 
they come cheaper and come into bearing nearly 
as soon as one-year old trees. Pruning is now 
in progress, and it re(|uiresall the best faculties 
of the mind as well as the experience of others, 
to accomplish it in the best way. Take, for 
example, peaches. No two kmds of peach trees 
have the same habit in growth. Some incline 
to grow tall, some low and bushy; some have 
fruit buds well distributed in the branches; 
others have the fruit buds almost at the ex- 
trenii' V. My aim in pruning is to cut back all 
over the tree, leaving it in a conical shape, and 
leave only fruit buds enough for the next crop, 
as I have found by experience that to undertake 
to thin out fruit in the summer time in an ex 
tensive orchard is a laborious and expensive 
job and seldom done. The above applies to 
peaches and apricots only. 


In planting an orchard we want a succession 
of fruit, so as to be employed fully through the 
fruit season. For early plums have the Peach 
or Bradshaw, also the purple Duane and Mc- 
Glaughlin. The Hungarian prune comes in mid- 
summer, and for shipping it has scarcely any 

My succession in peaches is as follows: For 
early: Briggs' Early May and Hale's Early; for 
midsummer I have the Crawford Early and 
late .lones' seedling and Orange Cling; for late 
peaches I have Late George Cling and Salway. 

It may be of interest to state the amount 
taken from 2.50 Late (ieorge Cling peach trees 
four years old. I picked over 1,;}00 boxes, and 
sold them for $1,000 clear of freight and boxes. 
It is the most profitable peach I know of, but it 
is subject to mildew in some localities. 


The Little French prune is a very valuable 
addition to our fruit list. My trees this year 
averaged me 50 per tree in dried fruit. Per- 
haps a short sketch of b'^w I manage mine 
would be of interest. I pick them as soon as 
they come to perfection, for if they are left too 
long there is danger of early rains. In scalding 
t\\\ I take cn? pan of pptash to twenty fiallopa 

of water. Dip your basket of prunes in about half 
a minute — sufficient time to cook the skins — 
and the ley will corrode and make it rough and 
tender. Then dip your prunes in cold water to 
rinse them from the alkali. To prepare them for 
market, when they are perfectly dry dip them in 
boiling water a short time and pour them in a 
box to drain. Have caddies to hold about 20 
pounds; lay a layer carefully in the bottom, then 
fill up and press with a lever. 'I hey will bring 
an extra price that way. 

I procure water from the Natoma Water and 
Mining Co., of Folsom, for irrigating purposes. 
Land that was thought to be almost worthless 
has by the judicious use of water been made 
to produce the most abundant crops of fruit, 
corn and melons, and by that means has become 
very valuable. 

Some talk of an over-production of fruit. I do 
not apprehend any danger, for the reason 
that the men who put their whole mind and 
energy into the business, who think and study 
the whole system of fruit growing, are few, con- 
secjuently the men who produce a good article 
of fruit can always sell it. 

Routiers, Cal. Mo.NTcoMiiuv Pike. 

How to Use the Home Made Incubator. 

Ejiitors Press: — In the first place be sure to 
get fresh eggs, and sort out all unfertile ones. 
After the eggs have been in the incubator two 
or three days you can tell every egg that is not 
fertile. By placing the small end to the eye, 
looking toward the sun and moving the heail 
up and down, you will see a dark spot floating 
on the top of every fertile egg. Any egg that 
remains in the incubator perfectly clear until 
the fourth day may as well be taken out for 
use or for market, as it will never hatch. The 
eggs must be kept at a regular heat of between 
102" and 105". After the third day take out the 
egg drawer once a day and let the eggs cool down 
to about 70' or 80 , but not lower than ().5". 
Turn the eggs every four or five hours during 
the day by moving the frame on which the eggs 
rest backward or forward a couple of inches 
as indicated in the instructions for making the 
incubator. It is all done in a trice; it will be 
well to do this once during the night, and see 
that the temperature is up to the proper grade. 
Be careful that it does not rise above 105', as 
there is e\ en more danger of killing the eggs by 
over-heating than by letting the temperature 
run a little low. 

After the third day set two or more soup 
plates or tin pie pans of water on the saw-dust 
in the ventilator, under the eggs, to moisten 
them; and from the ninth to the twelfth day 
sprinkle a little tepid water on the eggs by 
hand, in addition to the evaporation from the 
water in the pans. From the twelfth to the 
fifteenth day hand sprinkle them twice a day, 
and thereafter three times a day until they 
hatch. The water acts on the lime of the shells 
to make them brittle. It is best not to have 
any fire in the incuba'cor-room, which may be a 
wood-shed or unoccupied room in the house. 
Study your lamps to learn about how 
high to turn the wicks in order to 
keep the temperature just right, and 
observe the thermometers in the front and back 
of the egg drawer frequently. See that the es 
cape pipes in the heater do not slip down so 
close to the zinc bottom as to check the draft, 
lietter keep them from one to two inches above 
the zinc. When the chicks arc hatched keep 
them in the incubator from 12 to IS hours, but 
not longer. Put them into tlie brooder and 
give them their first food when they are about 
IS or 20 hours old. Use bread crumbs wet 
with milk, -nnd feed regularly at intervals of '.i 
or 4 hours from ,5 o'clock .\. m. to 9 o'clock v. v. 
Do not overfeed; give them only what they will 
cat clean. When old enough give dry grain. 

Artificial Mother. 
Make a box about or 4 feet square and 5 or 
() inches deep, with a board top and zinc bottom. 
Some tack a lamb skin to the inside of the top 
of this box and do not use artificial heat, but 
the genei-ally approved plan is to use one lamp 
and tin flue like those used in the incubator, 
for warming a brooder of this size. Bore several 
small auger holes through the top as escape 
flues for the heat; or better still, arrange three 
or four tin escape pipes of an inch diameter, as 
was done in the heater of the incubator, di op- 
ing them down to within two inches of the bot- 
tom of the box. Next cut a strip from some 
old blanket, or other coarse, soft woolen stuS', 
and tack it around the lower edge of the box so 
that it will hang down about four inches all 
round. Slash it at intervals of three or four 
inches, so that the chicks can push through it. 
Now set blocks two inches thick under two cor 
ners and three inches thick under the other two 
corners, and your brooder is ready for use. 
Keep the temperature up to 80' or 90'. 

Keep it thoroughly clean, and move it from 
one dry place to another every day or so. Dust 
the chicks occasionally with sulphur to keep oil' 
vermin, and smear their feathers here and there 
with paraffine. On one side of the brooder 
there should be a "run" for the chicks to exer- 
cise in, which may be a box covered with laths 
on top and sides, but with space next to the 
ground to allow them to run out. For protec- 
tion against rats, at night cover the whole 
brooder with a close box, perforated with amall 
auger holes for ventilation, \V, AV, .Hi.iss 
Duartn, Jan, fi, 1S8I. 


p>AeiFie R.URAL f RESS. 

[January 19, 1884 


C'orrcs|ioiKlciKe on (Jranjrc principles anJ work anJ re- 
ports of traiis:ii tions of suliorilinate Unuigcs arc rcaiwct- 
fully solidtud for this department. 

New Year Counsel. 

Hope niui trust; press on, brother; 
Fear not what to-morrow has in store, 
On pale regret shut fast the door; 
Be thy loolv upward ever - 

Press on, brctlicr I 

' 'Oh, my past !" I-el go thy jiast ! 
Is it dark? 'I'hen turn thee to the hght; 
Mark yon radiance flashing pure and white. 
While fades thy gloomy mc-in'ries fast- 
Press on , brother ! 

".So weirv! " Rest thee then from strife; 
Why i hargc thy heart with things th,»t st irve and 
strain ? 

Thou geitest heaviness with worldly gain, 
Content makes sweet the humblest life ■ 
Press on, brolhc: '. 

"Mv duty !" Yes, do that well. 
No more s rc(iuired. Though needest not yearn 
For higher sphere. Zeal there will earn 
Thv meed— and sound thy vici ry's bell— 
I'ress on, brother ! 

— Phreiiologiial Joiiriutl. 

2. "I w ill do all in iny power to assist in mak- 
ing it interesting, either by singing, iilaying, 
reading, writing or speaking, as the case may be." 

( )tiieers should take careful lieed ot and obey 
the instructions given them by the installing 
oilicer. If each would bear his share of the 
necessary work of the (1 range, it could not help 
but be a success. Success or failure depends 
upon each individual member. 

Grange Leaflets— No. 14. 

;\Vrittin (or the Ri ual Pkkss l>y Cuka Dkmi.\u.| 
Resolutions for the year 18S3 have glided 
away on the swift wings of time, and from 
every paje of the newspapers and in every 
place we are confronted with the figures 1884. 
AVe wonder what this new year may hold for 
us. AVhether it be joy or sorrow we know not, 
■and it is one of the wise provisions of a kind 
Heavenly Father that we do not know what 
the future holds in store for us. 

We must not pause to repine over the failures 
of last year; we must not tarry to grieve over 
misspent moments; we must be up and doing 
with a heart for any fate, and a firm determina 
tion that the record of the present year shall 
show a better standaril in the scale of human 
perfection. .Altliough we may never reach that 
perfection, in each heart there is a desire to ar- 
rive .as near as possible to it. There are some 
who have lost this desire because of the want of 
encouragement froin those around them. It is 
our duty to lend a helping hand to all who are 
stumbling over the stony places and being 
pierced by the thorns by the roadside, .lust so 
often as we render assistance to a struggling 
brother we add to our own happiness and 
reach one step nearer to the perfection we 

The custom of a general New Year greeting 
that prevails amongs us is a blessed custom, and 
a boon of encouragement to any fainting heart, 
for certainly the hearty ■' Wish you a Hapi>y 
Xew A'ear," that meets one on every side with 
the dawning of the new year, and the merry 
voices of the little ones, ringing with gladness 
as they too come wishing us a glad new year, 
cannot fail to awaken a feeling of happiness in 
the heart of the most stoical and morose spe- 
cimens of mankind. 

We, who are Patrons, should make a few reso- 
lutions for the coming year, and then resolve 
to keep those resolutions. From the last >.'a 
tional (irange came a complaint that there 
was a want of punctuality among the State 
( rrangers in making their reports, and conse- 
quently the NationaM irange officers were un- 
able to make tlu:ir reports complete. This 
f.«ilt is not of the State (Ir.nnges so much 
as of the Subordinate (Iranges. ■'^ecreiaries 
should be punctual in making their reports to 
the State (iranges. Individual I'atrons should 
be punctual in the performance of all of their 
duties. Surely every oue would be careful to 
look after his duties if he would but rcfli-ct a 
moment upon the Subject and fully realize tiiat 
the members of his (!range, the State < Irange, 
and the National (irange are greatly incon- 
yenieiiced by his singular neglect of the duty 
imposed iijion him. 

Every one should try to l)e punctual at the 
apointed time. When the nTimbers come strag- 
gling into the (irange room one after another, 
especially in small (iranges where it takes 
nearly all the regular members to make a <|uo- 
ruin, those who came first arc greatly discom- 
moded and the day is nearly spent before any 
work has Ijeen accomplished. 

I)j not be so as to think that you are 
of so little eoi]se(|Uence it makes no difference 
if you are late. You are of great conse(|uence, 
even if you .say nothing; your presence is a 
great help to the officrs whom yoii have chosen 
to be your leaders during the year: they are of 
no use without you; the oHicers alone cannot con- 
stitute a Orange. They must have your assist- 
ance and encouragement, else their efforts will 
prove fiuitless and your Orange become a dead 
letter in the alphabet of Oranges. 

( you, as farmers, afford to do without the 
social and educating influences of the(;range? 
Are you williiig to go back into the state of iso- 
lation in which the farmer pursued the "even 
tenor of his way" before the era of the Order «f 
1'. of H., which should lie loved ai\d encouraged 
by every fanner in the luiul So, resolution No. 
1 Bhould be, "1 will be punctual and constant 
in my attendance jn the Grange this year, " No 

Grange Duties and Aims, 

The following excellent address was delivered 
by Bro. I. A. Wilcox on retiiing from the Mas- 
ter's chair of San Jose Orange: 

It becomes my piivilege, Worthy Ma.ster. on 
surrendering this chair, to make a retiring ad- 
dress. While 1 may not dignify what I shall 
say as a speech, I will not let the occasion pass 
without s< ni : suggestive remarks. 

You ;iro aware, sir, that the position you are 
assuming is a responsible as well as an honor- 
able one. While your supporters are in their 
places, well trained and ready to perform their 
respective duties, and a fair breeze fills the sails 
of the ( irange craft you are about to direct as 
skipper or captain, and while you find yourself 
in smooth waters, vou may need no chart or spe- 
cial reckoning l>y the aid of which to direct your 
course; but the skillful navigator will not only 
take his chart and compass aboard, but he will 
ever be on the alert for shoals and sunken 

The craft you are to sail was only lately re- 
launched and refitted, having a new keel, rud- 
der and center-board, as well as new jibs .anil 
halliards. We have been sailing pleasantly 
along the mainland for a year or more in quest 
of passengers merely; but you will now be ex- 
pected to put forth into deeper waters iu search 
of freight also. You will be expected to sail 
along abreast of the (irange fleet on new ad- 

It is to be hoped, sir, thi-.t you will ever find 
the needed subalterns and deck-hands present, 
ready and willing to cheerfully man the sails 
and assist in taking in freight and passengers, 
and help to keep the vessel from the trough of 
the sea and the breakers near shore. One thing 
I may promise you, that in case of emergency 
you will be likely to find a supernutnerary on 
lioard willing to render every assistance re- 
iiuired, and to " stand by the main sheet," and 
act as cabin-l)oy as well. Kut I hope, sir, that 
you will find your otticial supporters promptly 
on hand, in rough as well as pleasant weather, 
aiul, however far you may dritt from shore, you 
will have the goddesses, 

Ceres, Flora and Pomona, 
.-Vt your back, to cheer j'ou in your course. 

Vour passenjjer list is now large, and the 
good cratt w ill contain many more if your sup- 
porters keep to thuii post of duty; but if they 
become weakened or disabled, or turn truant 
and leave the craft to your especial manage- 
ment, you will still stand by your colors with 
fineness, never losing your reckoning, and tak- 
i..g your own watch on deck if neces.sary, so 
that when your cruise is ended you will bring 
the vessil safely into port with a valuable cargo 
on board— every spar intact and every plank 

.\nd now. Fellow I'atrons of Husbandry, es- 
pecially those who have been helping to equip 
and man this Grange vessel, to you let me say 
a few words. It is for us to see that the little 
waif we have fitted out shall l»e kept right side 
up, and in good trim. By our aid alone suct^ess 
will be assured to those yho are to assume the 
management the coming year. We have been 
sailin.; under clear and pleasant skies, and our 
hearts have l>een made glad by our fellow 
workers from abroad, who have repeatedly come 
to break bread, and drink at the Orange fount 
with us. 

I trust that you have wisely chosen from 
among your active members those who have a 
heart iu the Orange cause, and who will pro- 
vide profitable work during their stewardship. 
If you continue to initiate new members, your 
time will not be impiofitably employed. If, on 
the other hand, your attention shall be turne<l 
chiefly to business work, you will find eiiuallv- 
as much to employ your time profitablv. If the 
purpose W high, the work done will partake of 
that character; but in any event our t»nic, how- 
ever spent here, will not be wholly lost. 
Though we may scarcely be able to see it at the 
time, the good seed plantc<I will germinate and 
ripeu into a future h.arvest. Progress is often 
slow and imperceptible to the close observer; 
but let us ever bear in mind that progress is 
made by investigation and discus.sion, and while 
widest freedom of opinion must ever be 
tolerated, prudence and wisdom would dictate 
that we should all be regardful of the rights 
and opinions of others. The hall in whicU •ao 
meet is 

Our Grange Farm. 

Here is where the mental and nwal work 
must culminate. AVhere else iu this broa.l 
earth IS there a workshop equal to this? -a 
shop for brain work- where mind meets mind 
in consultation and candid deliberation, un- 
trammeled by i>arty bias, ef,ch intent on the 
good of all in the canst of labor. But let us that nothing in life is legitimately 
accomplished without physical or mental exer- 
tion. (Jf the physical portion you have quite 
enough in your home duties. .A. little relaxa- 
tion now and tlien from manual labor will tend 
to impart health to body and miml " - *^ 

Labor itself Is pleasure, but too' much work 
I ia not ponduoive to health or happineBs. We 

should ever bear in mind that while the waut ' 
of suitable exercise is enervating, a reasonable ' 
amount of mental exertion imparts strength to | 
the reasoning powers as surely as does suitable 
exercise of the physical give strength to the i 
body. Without this discipline, the human 
mind will not be fitted to grapple with 
and solve the practical problems of life; and 
he may be said to be no less a mon- 
ster who is all . mental, than is he 
who is all physical in his development. ■ 
The perfectl n of hunum culture is attained 
when neithc- mind nor body is cu'.tivated or ex- 
ercised at the expense or neglect of the other. 
Lot us, therefore, devote a portion of our time 
to mental and social culture in the );ran<;e: for 
nowhere else can we, as I'.itrons of Husbandry, 
do it better than here. .Mental labor is asi)otent, 
and to us as valuable as manual labor. What- 
ever belongs to us toilo, wc must do ourselves, 
or pay others for doing, whether it be the work 
of the body or the mind: and if we do not do 
our own thinking or planning, what assurance 
have we that the work will l>e done to our own 
liking and for our interest, any more than will 
be our other work, if we do not attend to the 
details ourselves? It has been wisely said, that 
lie who by the plow would thrive, 
Himself must eiltier hold the plow or drive. 
In other words, he must have a hand in his 
work, in all matters that concern him. 

A\ ith all our b.iasted privileges, under our 
republican system of government, if we neglect 
to give our personal attention to public as well 
as private atl'airs, and fail to exercise a super- 
visory care o\ er the political affaiiB of the coun- 
try, we will be no better off than were the serfs 
of the R'.Hsian autjcrat. Individual effort, 
such as is appropriate within our own gates, 
implies co-operative etlort as well. The .")00,- 
OOH members of our Order in the United States, 
representing so large a share of the gross popu- 
lation, earnestly united in a common effort, 
ought to i)e able to checkmate and overcome all 
obstacles in t'.iu way of advancemeut to a higli- 
er plane of existence, and to a higher position 
among mankind; and co-operation is the only 
means by which this can be i.ccomplished. 
Organized effort will control all oppressive 
monopolies, which are especially organized for 
the purpose of living and luxuriating on the 
products and rewards of labor. 

broke bread together, even as one family. Din 
ner, as may be supposed, was heartily enjoyed, 
and the steaming hot turkeys were a happy 
innovation upon the usual cold meats of like 

Vallejo's installation of officers was witnessed 
by friends and children; said service being per 
formeil by Brother Adams, assisted by .Sister 
Lander, both of Alhambra (irange. This first 
meeting of the year was left iintramineled by 
business, and its sacred birth hours were dedi- 
cated to those social duties that form no small 
or diminutive blocks in our superstructure. 

Knjoyment gave wings to the hours, and the 
hall clock pointed to half past three, giving 
timely warning that neither boat nor car wouM 
wait for the laggard, even though the laggards 
were enrolled in that great moving progressive 
army of workers who court the help of dew, 
frost, sunshine, rain and hail to make bread for 
the world. .\t four o'clock we left Vallejo, 
and with the help of another w.aiting hour at 
Vallejo . I unction, had nighttime and the twink- 
ling stars to attend us home. So happily, pleas- 
antly, and, we hope, profitably, end th our rec- 
ord of New Year's daj' with \'allejo ( irange. 

-Mr.s. .Maki.a B. L.vnder. 

Martinez, .Jan. 7, 1884. 

First Day of the Year with Vallejo 

KiiiTiiRs I'kess ; — Knowledge seems to lead 
to the classification of all nature, beginning 
with tlie tiniest whorl of formation and ending 
only when is clasped the whole circle of crea- 
tion. All classes of men are tending to a combi- 
nation of like puq)0ses on the strength of the 
accepted fact, "In Union there is .Strength," 
hence we find in the midst of the tillers of the 
soil a cla.sBifying elemental power who are 
framing for themselveB a record to which their 
children and children'!* children will in the 
future refer with pleasure intermingled with 
pride. This latest society combination, com- 
monly called the (iranger, i» alive to the fact that 
in the more remote past work ruled mercilessly, 
time was an unrelenting driver> and that life 
was but a battlefield in which play and recrea- 
tion had no po«t of honor. Times change, gala 
iliys come and go, and are acoapted as Ides sed 
milestones along the rough pathways of life, 
bridging over, as it were, the many "weary days 
that into each life must fall.' The full import 
of such restful growing days pen of mine cannot 
paint: preceding them expectation lays the first 
sills of this bridging span: then comes an almost 
unreal realization of the full pledged pleasure- 
day, to l>e followed by a crowning exaltation 
of being only to be measured In proportion to 
the depth of soul reached or touched. 

Two more such milestone days, Christmas 
and -New Year, are iliiiling backward, aixl the 
seething v/aters of ISS,'! have ».ifel\ launched 
I our Orange craft into tUc unknown driftiu" 

Seven Alh»m'..ra I'atrons— by the by, wag not 
ni-ri H «n unlucky number in ancient suporsti 
tiou this same seven, spite of all omen.'!, and 
without the proverbial (iranger 's basket (our 
trust for said l>asket being across the waters) 
boarded the train at Martii^e;., N o'clock on the 
morning of the Ist day of .lanuary, tlie initial 
day of the year 1884, and in eight or ten min- 
utes w-ere in Tort (Josta; changed cars for 
Vallejo .t unction, there taking the .hii'ia. w ith 
the privilege or necessity pcrhap? of waiting one 
hour. This sixty miimtce Of trial on the side 
of patience we hajo was inightencd by meeting 
Bro. Allan's from San Francisco, whose hope of 
the day was also vested in the \'allejo (irange. 
Tongues rested not, minutes sped, the JvViu 
loosed her mooring.-;, and but a short time and 
we were landed iu \ allejo, a minature city set 
upon perhaps more than seven hills, and famed 
for once Ijeing the capital of our Oolden Htate. 

-Vt the door of the (irange hall, and the first 
to give a weloaming fiand was our faithful 
brother Deniing: and uflt a w hit behind him in 
work or »\elcoii)e were the Sisters Deming in 
trjo titill other brothers and sisters of this 
Vallejo household made us gla<l that the seal of 
the Grange linked man and woman into one 
brotherjiQod, and that though rivers and bays, 
or even miles spanned our intervening distance,' 
yet, in fulfillment of Patronistic prom^wsj 

Grange Elections. 

Mai;.noli.\ OiiANtiE, I^'o. 2t>l. - I). Bilderback, 
M.; J. R. Nickeson, (X; L N. Richie, L.; C. 0. 
Ragsdale, S.; Mrs. D. Bilderback, A. .S.; Mrs. 
0. C. Ragsdale, C.; J. W. (iautier, Treas.; May 
F. Bilderback, .Sec; (i. W. Cunningham, (i. K.; 
Mrs. J. R. Nickeson, Ceres; Mrs. >I. L. Nich- 
olas, I'omona; Minnie K. Iliggins, Flora; Mrs. 
B. B. Nickeson, L. .\. S. ; B. B. Nickeson, Or- 
ganist; Mrs. (i, W. Cunningham, Trustee. 

Nation Ai. Kam h ORAX(iF.. - -T. .1. Swaync, 
M.; Thorn IS Walker, O.; .Miss A. W. Baker, 
L.: .1. F. Parker, S. ; 8. C. Field, A. .S.; Charles 
IIubl)ell, I,'.: H. .lennie Barnes, Treas.; W. C. 
Kimball, Sec; L. Riberts, (i. K.; Mrs. S. C. 
Field, {'eres; .Mrs. .J. F. Baker, Pomona; Mrs. 
Mary Morse, Flora; Mrs. .Josephine Walker, L. 
A. S. 

OnA.s.s A'allkv (iRASdK, No. '2.'>(>. — .lohn T. 
Rodda, M.; .J. W. DeOolia, ().: .lohn Roland, 
L.; A. (i. Leman, H.: Charles Mill, A. S.; .Miss 
Annie Manson, C. I .Albert Mattenon, Treas.; .1. 
W, Stuart, Sec: David Bryon, (i. K.: .Mrs. 
Mary Williams, Pomona: Miss Mary Totteu, 
Flora: Mrs. Lydia Matteson, Ceres: Miss Ma- 
mie Williams, L. A. S, 

Sa.nta Rosa (iRAXOE. F;. W. Davis, M.; 
John Adams, (). ; Oeo. W. I>avis, L,; Otto Ort, 
S.; L. .1. Hawkins, A. S.; Sister E. A. Rodg- 
ers, C; J. Ort, Treas.; Wm. S. P. Coulter, Sec. ; 
Lee Adams, (!. K,; .Sister O. W. Davis, (^^eres: 
Sister Lizeie B. Davis, Pomona; Sister .Amanda 
Moore, Flora; Sister Minnie Coulter, L. A. .S. 

Langshans Again. 

Editoks Pkes.s.— In No. 5 Rukai. I saw 
two articles in rcg.ird to premiums taken on l-ang- 
shms at the late exhibition. As for myself, I am free 
to admit the f.ict that I took a ))rcniium on stock 
bought of Mrs. Raynor, and am perfectly willing 
that she should have the credit of raising them, for 
I am of the opinion that had all the premiums 
awarded Langshans been assigned her, it would 
hardly have overrated Mrs. R's merit. With due re- 
sptct to all breeders of this noted and noble fD«l, 
for surely I have no heiirl to Wotind the feelings cl 
any, I think it would be hard to find a breeder of 
any note who has not had and taken prires on some 
of the beautiful birds bought of .Mrs. Kaynor, and in 
justice to her, think I can truthfully say thai no one 
breeder has imported and raUcd anything like the 
number of fine I<ai'gshins as has .Mrs. K.. and 
wliich have so greatly added to the populaiity of 
Langshan fowls on this coast. \ l3RiiKt)KR. 

San Jose, I'al. 

[Now let this matter rest. .Such controvers- 
ies are not in the interest i>f poultry advance- 
ment, and we hope hereafter our correspondents 
will refrain from introducing personal interests. 
Mrs. Raynor still maintains the truth of her 
statement that the male birds taking premiums 
were bred by her. — KniTous 1'kes.s.] 

LeIc-f.steR .'^liKEi'i — Thost desiring new blood 
for their flor'ks will be Interested In the adfer 
tisenient ol Leicester sVirtep by Harriot, tiigley 
A' Co., In another column. This small lot of 
sheep were recently imported and are now of- 
fered for sale low to close an account. AVo are 
tidil that they are an exccllont lot by experts 
who have seen them. The general value of the 
Leicester sheep is know n to our ro.aders, and 
no doubt this notice will attract the attention 
of those who can use this breed to ailvantage. 

Sati ki^v;s with the Ki uai., 
I have been taking the paper so long tljat \ 
don't see how I can very well ilo without it, 
and have come to look forward to .Siturday 
night and the Ri kai. I'kess with an assurance 
of a pleasant and profitable time. Kspecially 
am I interested in articles on grass and all 
kinds ut live stock. - P. D. Jdnkm, AVildflower 
Cal. ^ : 

(iov. ,STAM-(iKii'« .AYK.siiiRE.'i. — We hear that 
(ieorge Hement, Jr., bas gone to A'ina, Tehama 
county, to take charge of 0.ov, .Stanford's herd 
of Ayrshires. (ieorge has had 'a long experi 
once with h^ father, who is the well known 
Ayrshire breeder of Redwood City, and will no 
(loubt dq pood service in his new fiold. ' 

January 19, 1884.] 



Los Angeles. 
ViNKYAiiD Work..- -Hira/d : 'J he pruning 
of the vineyards throughout the agricultural 
portion of the city will be finished in a little 
less than two weeks at the present rate of pro- 
gress, the farmers receiving about forty to fifty 
cents per huundred vines, according to their 
ability. In Analieim the pruning is about fin- 
ished, while in the largest vineyards scarcely 
two-thirds is accomplished. When the snrall 
vineyards are finished the pruners will go on to 
the large one.^, and the work will be expedited, 
so that a m mth more will probably see all of 
them with ^hort canes. The plow follows the 
removal of the canes immediately, and is fol- 
lowed by the cultivator in about two weeks, and 
the plow again in the same length of time, lightly 
stirring the soil both for the receipt of mois- 
ture and the natural irrigation from beneath by 
capillary attraction. The canes start so quickly 
that this work is generally completed in about 
a month, so as not to injure the buds. The 
last irrigation by good vignerons is about the 
last of April. Others in igate during the sum- 
mer and get $15 a ton f >v their grapes, while 
winter irrigated will bring •S20. Still most of 
these irrigated in the summer are very old 
vines, and liave been irrigated in that manner 
for many years, and will produce but few grapes 
if the old custom is not adhered to. But the 
owners of new vineyai'ds hiive learned better. 

SoROHUM Notes. — Anaheim Gazette: A cou- 
ple of years or so ago it seemed as if the grow- 
ing of cane and the making of syrup would be 
very generally gone into by the farmers of the 
county, and just why that industry is not in 
greater favor with agriculturists we cannot 
comprehend. Certainly the results obtained by 
those who have steadily grown the cane will 
justify others in giving part of their laud to its 
culture. Mr. .7. Y. Anderson, of Westminster, 
has raised the cane for years, and finds it the 
most profitable crop lie has ever grown, although 
he has raised 100 bushels of corn to the acre on his 
rich peat land. His best record is l.'!4 gallons of 
syrup from half an acre, and 200 gallons to the 
acre i.s a common crop. He finds it impossible 
to supply the demand for the syrup, which he 
sells at wholesale at 05 cents per gallon. Tlius 
the gross income from an acre of cane is .SI 30. 
The cost of boiling the cane is not great, nor 
are the necessary boilers and furnaces expen- 
sive. Witli the assistance of two men lie 
can make 75 gallons of syrup a day, and for 
fuel he uses the stalks of the canes after they 
have been run through the mill— bagesse, it is 
technically c.iUed— and thus a formidable item 
of expense is avoided. In enumerating the vir- 
tues of this crop, it should be stated tliat the 
seed is far better than wheat for chicken feed, 
and tliat for that purpose the seed from an acre 
of cane is equal to that much corn. ]Mr. .Ander- 
son has supplied a number of his neighbors with 
seed, and has agreed to work up tlieir crops on 
shares. He charges nothing for the seed, as 
only a pound to an acre is required. 

Mr. F. A. Gates, of (iarden (irove, has also 
grown the cane very successfully, and has 
rented a tract of laud in North Anaheim, al- 
together different from the character of soil in 
his neighborhood, on which he will plant sor- 
ghum this year so as to see on which land it 
thrives best. 

It did not need the experiments of the De- 
partment of Agriculture to demonstrate vhat 
sugar can be made from the sorghum cane. It 
granulates readily, and if the refineries of San 
Francisco were not under the knightly thumb of 
Sir Claus Spreckles, of the Sandwich Islands, 
they would long ago have given encouragement 
tn the farmers of this county by offering them 
a fair price for the syrup in its "masli ' styfe. 
Santa Baruaia. 
Lar(;e (}vpsum Dei'o.stts. — Independent: The 
tendency to do away with irrigation is likely to 
receive an immense impetus by the opening up 
of the immense deposit of gypsum on the Cas- 
malia rancho. This magnificent property was, 
until a few years back, a part of one estate in- 
cluding tlie .Tesus Maria rancho and some adjoin- 
ing acres, amounting to in the neighborhood of 
50,000 acres. The Casmali, consisting of some 
5,000 acres, was sold by the proprietor, .1. Ben 
Burton of this city, to Messrs. Merritt and 
I'hu'nix. Tliese gentlemen have made a dairy 
ranch of the fine land, and leased the peculiar 
deposit of gypsum which is found u])on it to a 
San Francisco firm engaged in the manufacture 
of plaster of Paris. The source of revenue from 
the mine cannot be a small item for those en- 
gaged in manufacturing it into a commercial 
commodity. The firm, Lucas & Co., of the 
(; olden Gate plaster mills, jjay but $1 ,000 for the 
privilege of mining themineral for twenty years. 
Tliis is a cheap price, but inasmuch as a fine road 
from the landing to the mine is constructed 
by them and is a great convenience to the 
proprietors of the ranch, the latter men are de- 
riving great benefit from the chance riches. The 
deposit is said to be inexhaustible in quantity, 
and it is this fact that makes its presence so 
important to this coast. It is, of course, under- 
stood that not a great <iuantity is required to 
supply the want which is required for building 
and ornamental purposes; and in this respect 
the presence of gypsum in this country war- 
rants no particular stress. But it is its (juality 
as a fertilizer which makes it of incalculable 
advantage. It is that property which it has of 
giving the earth upon which it is thrown, and 

with which it is mixed, a greater power- of re- 
taining moisture, and a productive power in- 
creased in a marked degree that makes the sup- 
ply of it in inexhaustible quantities so impor- 
tant. Especially has this valuable mineral the 
power of nutralizing alkali in land. Besides 
the immense number of now unproductive acres 
east of us in the interior of this State which, 
from tlie presence of alkali, now poorly repay 
cultivation, it is possible that even the deserts 
of Arizona and Utah may be made fertile by 
this .Santa Barbara jewel in the rough. 

That this picture is not overdrawn, we refer 
to an experiment made with different soils, and 
witli and without gypsum. The trial proved 
that a dry soil fertilized with the Casmalia pro- 
duct would preserve in vigor plants which with- 
out its presence withered promptly and died. 
Kditors Press: — Crops are not suffering. The 
dews, fogs and frost are keeping the soil mod- 
erately damp. The heat of noon makes a growth 
which equals ordinary years. The season is not 
yet so far £;one as to cause anxiety for a fair 
crop. Plowing and seeding on the plains has 
almost terminated. Among the footnills barky 
is still being put in extensively. IJry seasons 
are the foothill farmers' richest harvest, owing 
to better prices, and because they are liable to 
catch the rains prevalent on the higher Sierras. 
We have never known a downright failure 
amongst the foothills, which is the only advan- 
tage they have over the plains. Also, they are 
more favored by having a variety of crops. 
Orohardists are extending operations as if they 
believed in the future of our county and a rail- 
road in the near future. Hugh (^uinn is putting 
out peach trees enough to cover five acres. 
Wm. Neighbor, Mountain Pass, has contracted 
fof 700 peach trees. Wm. (ioodwiu also keeps 
up with the times in improvements, taking out 
many old trees and substituting new and 
better varieties. The nurseries all over the 
State will be fully taxed to supply the increas- 
ing demand all over our foothills, from one end 
of the State to the other. Tlie peach seems to 
be the most profitable fruit, when soil and other 
conditions are favorable for raising choice 
brands. Some few orohardists cultivate the 
peach for drying purposes, and find that natural 
fruit is the best and easiest to handle — the pits 
being perfectly free, and free from tliat half- 
cling, mushy nature of the budded fruit. 1 
cannot agree with your correspondent in last 
issue, regarding the productiveness of the fig. 
I have some thirty trees, some of them nearly 
thirty years of age, and of large dimensions, 
but I never could realize such a yield as "1,000 
pounds" to the tree. The half of that is a 
large yield, and I pick and gather figs to 
save for market, so that few are lost 
or destroyed except what the birds 
manage to steal. The fig is a profitable 
tree, but it is wrong to exaggerate. Pajaro's 
article is correct except the yield jier tree. 
I should like to learn something from fig- raisers 
cone ;rning their experience, as to each trees' 
pro(lui:tiveness. I may be living in a region 
where the fig does not bear to its greatest ca- 
pacity, but I thought wc had a fig climate, and 
a fig .soil. But if one thousand pounds is the 
pro(luction of any one single tree, twenty years 
old, then I will say no more of our fig resour- 
ces. Our days are full of sunshine; the weather 
is congenial in the extreme while the sun 
shines. Our nights are hoary with frost. 
A\'clls are being deepened for household supply. 
Stock in some places are suffering for water, 
and soon will suffer for feed. But the rains 
may soon dispel all fears. -.John' Tavluk. 

Imperial Barley. 

For tlie benefit of our subscribers who like to 
experiment with new varieties of grain, we have 
secured a limited quantity of Imperial barley, 
a variety produced by Priugle & Horsford, well 
known as originators of new varieties of plants. 
They represent Horsford's Imperial barley to 
be a true hybrid, (i rowed, heads 4 to 7 inches 
long exclusive of beard, often with over 100 ker- 
nels per head, and producing 40 to 00 heads jier 
plant; has yielded as high as 1 ,;i00-fold the past 
season; II j bushels have been grown from one 
pound of seed. We will send to subscribers 
who pay in advance, or to those w ho are already 
credited a year in advance on our books, from 
one to two pounds of the seed, if they will send 
us l(i cents per pound to pay postage thereon; 
or we will send it to such subscribers by express 
without charge. Be sure to write your name 
and post-office address fully and plainly in 
order that there may be no miscarriage or delay. 

Pacifk! Fruit Compan'V. — The reader cannot 
well overlook the advertisement of the Pacific 
Fruit Company which is appearing in our col- 
umns. The names appended thereto show that 
the company is compo.sed of men of high stand- 
ing both in the fruit trade and the fruit pro- 
duction. The company succeeds to the busi- 
ness of the long and well-known firm of Howe 
& Hall, and occupies their old place of business 
on Davis street. We expect the new company 
will transact an immense business the coming 
season, and that they will do it in an enterpris- 
ing manner is sufficiently attested by the qual- 
ity of the men engaged in the enterprise. The 
company has our most cordial wishes for its suc- 
cess in all the directions it has mapped out in 
its plan of operations. By the means of local 
agencies it will be represented in the leading 
fruit regions, and thus, perhaps, the grower 
will be brought nearer to the fruit trade than 

I Anuual Meeting of the Grangers' Bank. 

.\s prophesied in the Rtrai, of two weeks 
i ago, the annual meeting of the stockholders of 
the (irangers' Bank showed that the Manager, 
Mr. Montpellier, had conducted the establish- 
ment another year with gratifying results to the 
stockholders. The report showed that the bank 
had earned 10. 18 per cent on its paid-in capital, 
and of this 8 per cent was declare.l as a divi- 
dend and 2. 18 per cent put to the reserve fund. 
In recognition of this service the following reso- 
lution, introduced by Amos .Adams, was unani- 
mously adopted: 

/iesii.\-cd, That the thanks of tlif stockholders of 
I the Gr.inyers' Bank be, and the ."iame are hereby ten- 
dered to -A. Montpellier, Cashier and Manager, F. 
I McMuUen, .Secretary, and the employees under 
■ them, for tiie able and efficient manner in which tliey 
liave performed the duties imposed upon them. 

In the election of officers the following were 
elected Directors for the ensuing year: A. D. Lo- 
gan, .1. H. (Jardener, Seneca Ewer, H. M. Larue, 
C. J. Cressey, H.J. Lewelling, Uriah Wood, T. E. 
Tynan, J. C. Merryfield, Thos. .McConnell and 
I. C. Steele. .-Vs will be seen, the old Board was 
re elected, with H. .1. Lewelling in place of .1. 
Lewelling, deceased. 'The Board organized by 
electing A. D. Logan, President, A. Mont- 
pellier Cashier and Manager, and Frank .Mc- 
.\Iullen, Secretary. 

Action on the Death of Mr, Lewelling. 

The following resolutions were adopted: 

Whekeas, The great Ruler of the Universe has, 
in liis infinite wisdom, removed from our midst oin 
worthy and esteemed fellow-laborer and President, 
John Lewelling; and, The intimate relations held during a 
long business life by him with the members of this 
Board makes it fitting that we record our apprecia- 
tion of him; therefore, 

A'l solved, That the wisdom and ability which he 
has exercised in aid of our Board work, by counsel, 
service and funds, will ever be held in grateful re- 

Resolved, That the sudden removal of such a man 
from our Board, in which he has held leading posi- 

j tions for more nine years, leaves a vacancy and 
shadow that will be deeply realized by all members 
of the Boaid and its friends, and will prove a griev- 

j ous loss to this Bnnk and the jiublic. 

Resolved, That with deep sympathy with the af- 

1 fhcted relatives and friends of the deceased, we ex- 

j press an earnest hope that even so great a fiereave- 
ment may be overruled for their highest good. 

Eulogy by Director Steele. 
The following eulogy upon the late Mr. Lew- 
elling was presented and unanimously adopted: 
Mk. Presidf.NT; — There are times and occasions 
when personal merit and eminent services should be 
, acknowledged, and fraternal affection for a worthy 
brother fitly expressed. 

At our last meeting our deliberations were presided 
over by Presidejit John Lewelling for the last time. 
Our worthy brother has responded to that summons 
j which sooner or later closes every mortal career, and 
I happy is the man who can leave such a record and 
render such an account of his stewardship. 
I When speculation was rampant in our State, and 
agriculture hampered by capital combination impos- 
ing grievous burdens on our class, Bro. Lewelling 
was among the first to grasp the situation and aid in 
applying the remedy. 

.\fler mature deliljeration the Grangers' Bank came 
into being .as a matter of necessity, a bantling at 
first, but to-day a monument to the sagacity and 
wisdom of its founder, and a credit lo its manage- 
ment; with money accumulated by intelligent indus- 
try, and a business reputation unsurpassed for integ- 
rity and fair dealing, he gave his best efforts to aid 
iir making the Bank a success, not only as a finan- 
cial venture, but to accomplish the purposes of a 
noble Order of which he was an honored member. 

\% a Director, and as its President, no emergency 
ever affected that devotion to principle that cliarac- 
terized his private life; kind, courteous and gentle as 
a presiding officer, he was always true to his convic- 
tions of right. 

.\ prompt and energetic business man, he fulfilled 
every obligation with fidelity; with broad views and 
noble aspirations, he lived on that higher plane of 
thought and feeling where love flows from the 
heart unobstructi-d by sectarian creed, p.arty spirit, 
nationality or the color line. 

In his soul was garnered the knowledge of a higher 

We shall miss him in our councils and in our so- 
cial gatherings, but may console ourseh'es with the 
reflection that he has left the mortal form to gain free 
scope for his immortal power. 

The affection of his loved ones here lingers with 
him over the mystic river, and mingles with tlie af- 
fection of his loved ones who gathered to greet him 
on the farther shore. 

We may never see his mortnl form re-animated, 
but his exampk' is with us, and we may have the as- 
surance that his immortal powers, nourished and 
cultured by undying love, will expand and brighten 
in the summer land. 

Notes from the Debris District. 

ElilToHS Pkkss: At time of writing, i):l5 
1'. M., the wind is blowing ([uite hard from the 
north. F]very (lalifornian knows the character- 
istics of our north winds, and the depressing ef- 
fect they generally have on a farming commu- 
nity praying for rain. This is the third day, 
ami it is to be hoped that the morning will re- 
veal the vanes pointing in the opposite direc- 
tion. Although we have had but a phenome- 
nally small fall of rain for the season so far, yet 
I believe that the grain has not suffered to any 
great extent. The favored counties of ^'uba 
and Sutter have never known a failure of crops; 
and no true citizen is going to admit that the 
good year of '84, so nobly initiated in by .Judge 
' Sawyer's able and impartial decision, and be- 
1 sides being leap-year, is going to be the first 

year to chronicle a total failure for Yuba and 
Sutter counties. There is plenty of time yet 
for a full harvest, even with only a small rain- 
fall, if properly distributed. I will predict that 
even were there to be a total failure of crops in 
these two counties, you would hear no grumb- 
ling. ' are too well satisfied, now that the 
'exact justice has been accorded that we have 
so long prayed for. And have we not cause for 
rejoicings and congratulations? And particu- 
larly on Bear River, where, eight years ago, 
the first suit was inaugurated against hydraulic 
mining by a few determined farmers, repre- 
sented by ,fas. H. Keyes, now deceased, and lit- 
erally a victim to the vandalism of hydraulic 

The very first expostulation against this 
immense but unlawful industry was broached 
by a little weekly paper published in our then 
thriving town. What a contrast nowl and 
how it illustrates the plasticity of public senti- 
ment when assailed by citizens demanding jus- 
tice. The few days following the decision one 
could find leaders in all of our dailies uphold- 
ing the court in its decision, and congratulating 
the fanners, and even California itself, that 
the character and probity of oui" Circuit .Judges 
were abo\'e reproach and unassailable. 

It is a significant fact that this last and great- 
est decision by two of the Supreme .ludgesof 
the Federal Court upholds .Judge Keyser, of 
this district, in each and every one of his rul- 
ings. Could all our State .fudges boast of as 
untarnished a record, and as high a moral char- 
acter, we might have had our rights granted by 
the State Courts, and which would have been 
upheld by the highest trilninals. 

The writer has resided on this river for nearly 
17 years, and never until the present has he 
seen a valley property owner who felt justified 
in making any extensive, permanent improve- 
ments to home or real estate. With the bed of 
Bear river 8 feet higher than adjacent land, 
and (i feet higher than our town streets, how 
could it be otherwise? But now all are talking 
of fruit and hops. A year .ago, in anticipation 
of the decision which all were bound to have, 
one farmer planted 12 acres of hops to test the 
adaptability of our valley soils. The stand was 
poor, yet the yield was over I ,.")00 pounds dry 
hops, and of superior quality, that brought the 
highest price in S. F. market. This year will 
see 150 acres in hops within ."i miles of town; 
and the future no one may predict. 

As to the hydraulic miners, a private corres- 
pondent informed the Superintendent of the 
Wheatland .Mill Co., that the North Bloomfiehl 
mine was preparing to dirft, and that several 
hundred men would be employed where former- 
ly only 15 were. How soon are the laboring 
classes reaping benefit from what they were 
made to believe could only work them injury! 
Wheatland, Cal., .Jan. 14. M. H. Di-kst. 

Cultivation and Irrigation. 

(By .1. ('. II.) 
In every country where the dry and wet .season 
prevails there are two great factors that must be puc 
jU full force, viz., thorough cultivation or extensive 
irrigation, to raise cereals, vegetables and fruit. In 
the great basins of the lower portion of our State, 
where the rainfall is light, agriculturists will rely 
upon irrigation. To utilize the vast area of arable 
land in our valleys and foot-hills for agricultural pur- 
poses, there is but one reliable of .action, and 
that is thorough cultivation. With it the yield of 
cereals is increased over one-half, and the dry side 
hills, that were once barren wastes, have become 
sources of wealth and demonstrated that for grape 
growing and many kinds of fruit, they far surpass 
our valley lands in quality, and the yield is almost 
equal in quantity. The best exhibits of grapes and 
other fruits at the .State Fair and Mechanics' Fair of 
1883 were from the Santa Cruz mountains and foot- 
hills in Placer county and El Dorado county. A 
notable example of the system of thorough cultivation 
is shown in the "Cape Horn Vineyard," which has in 
one year by constant cultivation attained a growth 
equal to the average of vineyards of two years age. 
The famous "Mette \'ineyard," that formerly relied 
on irrigation, has discontinued it, and with thorough 
cultivation has better results. The well known Bug- 
bee vineyard, six miles from Folsom, although hav- 
ing ample facilities for irrigation, will supplant it by 
thorough cultivation. It is a setded fact, demon- 
strated by trials and experience, that the succes.s, 
growth and resources of our arid plains and hill 
sides as vineyards and orchards must follow system- 
atic cultivation. In this connection the question 
naturally presents itself: Which is the best imple- 
ment for thorough pulverization? For general use 
the .-\cme pulverizing harrow clod crusher and lev- 
eler is considered by many the very "acme of perfec- 
tion." It is peculiar in its construction; viz., first 
an adjustable leveling bar and clod crusher, behind 
which are a series of steel coulters converging in op- 
posite directions. Thus the soil is subjected to the 
action of the eruslierand levcler, and a cutting, lifting 
and turning process of double rows of steel coulters. 
It has an cutting power, pulverizing the 
earth to the depth of four inches, and leaving the soil 
in the best condition to hold the moisture .ind draw 
life and sustenance from the elements. The "Acme" 
pulverizing harrow clod cruslier and leveler is manu- 
f.ictiircd at Millington, New Jersey l>y Nash & 
Bro. To meet a growing demand for these culti- 
vators, the well known house of Geo. Bull k, Co, 21 
Main street, near Market, S. F. , have been appointed 
agents for California. 



[January ID, 1884 


[Written thg Ri RAL PuKSS by E. E. I 

Fair emerald town I a jewel placed 

Within thy setting rare. 
How soft thy upland breezes sweep, 

How sweet thy cryst;il air. 

The ancient mountain loved thee well, 

And gave for thy repose 
His fairest vale, where grows the pine, 

And blooms the mountain rose. 

Dear highland village, nesiled down 
Bene.T.h 'he mountain's heart. 

Thy cherished shades are lovelier far 
Than muffled aisles of art. 

And ne'er upon thy beauteous form 
The chilling snow-clouds fall; 

The mvrile's bloom, the violet's breath 
Come ever at thy call. 

I'hou hast no changes, heavenly place. 

No melancholy hours; 
For spring has clain'.ed thee for her own, 
.■\nd wreathed thy year with flowers. 
"*.\ town in Contra Costa Co. 

Youth and Age. 

I sang a song, when life was young, 

A song of glory, strength and fame; 
I dreamed a dream, spring leaves among, 

That in worth's roll I'd carve a name. 
The spring leaves darkened; lifegrew strong; 

The rose's bloom said s\mimer's here; 
.•\nd clustering duties grew along 

My path, and I began to fear 
That fame was ill to find. 

sweet, sweet were the summer hours, 
And blue the sky which with them came. 

1 met my wife mong the flowers 
Of leafy June — nor cared that fame 

Should pass me by, and onward press 
Her glittering way — the loving light 

In Lizzie's eyes, the golden tress 
( >f Lizzie's hair, were far more bright 
Than aught on earth beside. 

Then little children reverence gave — 

A something grander far than fame; 
.And when we laid one in the grave, 

W e whispered low the Father's name. 
Small was the hand which beckoning led 

Our hearts far from earth's glittering wiles; 
I'ure was the soul which from us fled. 

To find a home where Jesus smiles. 
And summer never ends. 

Now winter comes with falling snow; 

We galher round the bright home fire; 
We feel no lack of fame's gay show, 

For rest is all our hearts desire. 
I c'.asp a dear, dear hand in mine; 

My Lizzie's hair is silvered now; 
Her eyes with love still constant shine; 

Her children's blessings crown her brow; 
And sweet content is ours. 

— A. W. G. , in Chamlier'x 'Jciirinil. 

The Tramps and the Flies. 

IWiitten for Kcral 1'rkhs liy M. I,. W. f. 
I don't know whether any members of the 
tramp fratei-nity ever wandered into the farm- 
ing districts of the State, bttt I have heard of 
their peculiar characteristics when in San Fran- 
cisco, and I know that all the housekeepers, 
without exception, in the vicinity of Oakland, 
could tell, as I can, a long and harrassing talc 
on the text. Tramps. Perhaps the most partic- 
ular tramp with whom I have dealt rang the 
bell and asked for a pair of shoes. He sat down 
on the step to try on tliose given him, and in 
five minutes handed them back, saying: "Thank 
ye, mum, but them ain't a fit; they're too big 
for me." 

people who had removed the gate since he 
came in. 

^'oung "hoodlums" from San Francisco often 
turn up at our back doors, on this side of the 
bay. This variety of the genus tramp travels 
in "pairs, and during the winter a pair mounted 
i the back-door steps and asked for a drink of 

The tender hearted Irisli woman wlio opened 
the door recognized countrymen, and fumbled 
in her pocket to find a jiiece of money for the 
two poor young things, as she went across the 
kitclien to draw the water; but before she got 
back to the door they had flown, and the old 
woman's quick eyes instantly detected the loss 
of a half empty blacking box and a worn-out i 
shoe brush. 

Two young Jews were seen in confab near the 
gate a few days since, after which one nf them 
came to the door and asked for an old pair of 
pantaloons, saying that he had on his best, and 
was about to go to work as a gardener in the 
neighborhood and would like a poorer pair. The 
trowsers given him were old indeed, yet after 
displaying them to his companion, who had i 
seated himself in the street with his back to [ 
the fence, the first hopeful walked down the 
street and the second young man came in turn, ' 
and begged for a coat and a pair of shoes. 

Tramps are considered annoying, trouble- 
some, exasperating: but they are not generally 
supposed to be dangerous to our welfare in any 
way, and therefore it is the duty of the writer, 
before summer sets in, to give the community a 
timely warning. 

It has been made known that a certain im- 
provident company of gentlemen, associated 
together for the purpose of manufacturing fly- 
traps and flypaper, went to great expense in 
establishing their factories before they reflected 
that just in proportion to their success, one year, 
would be their non-success, in a business point 
of view, the next. In short, and as might have 
been expected, the time came when tlie flies had 
all been destroyed, and ruin stared in the face 
this flytrap and fly-poison manufacturing com- 
pany. It was necessary that a bold step be 
taken, and it has since transpired that this step 
was discovered and made. 

That company ha.s added a new branch to its 
former business. It now manufactures not 
only flytraps, but also the flies that are to be 
entrapped. In other words, before it was too 
late, these enterprising gentlemen secured the 
flies necessary to start with, and by means of a 
patent steam incubating process, are now ableto, 
and actually engaged in supplying tlie country 
with 70,000,000,000,000 house flics annually. 
Their business enlarges yearly, and yearly 
are their other and more legitimate wares 
traps and poison — more in demand. They hope 
still further to increase their facilities, but even 
now a visit to their factories is not without 
interest. The young flies, as soon as hatched, 
are mar.'fhaled in .squads and placed under the 
tutorship of a competent old fly, who teaches 
them to wade in butter, swim iii cream and 
molasses, buzz around a sleepy man's nose, and 
crawl, hop, walk, skip and jump over, around 
and upcn a bald-headed man's cranium. 

It will be readily unilerstood that without 
these little accomplishments the flies would not 
be half the nuisance that they are, and it would 
not be so necessary to get rid of them by means 
of traps and poison. So bald-headed men are 
hired at four dollars a day for the young flies to 
practice upon. 

This fly factory is situated in New .lersey, 
and when the Hies have completed their educa- 
tion it becomes necessary to distribute them 
over the country. Agents are hired for this 
purpose, and these agents are called tramps. 
Here, then, is the real origin, history, nature 
and true inwardness of the tramp. He is found 
everywhere, as he is paid to be, from Maine to 
Florida, from New .lersey to California; and 
while he is lounging around, begging for din- 
ners and dodging the wood piles, lie is also 
watching his chance to leave behind the door, 
under the steps, or in any other corner, a card 
bearing two or three thousand flies, which the 
first day of warm weather will set to flying 
around. The tramps carry a good supply of 
these cards up their ragged sleeves, and an in- 
dustrious tramp is said to distribute more than 
30,000 flics in a single day. These facts are 
simply appalling, and there is only one way of 
stopping the nefarious busines.", viz., to kill all 
the tramps as fast as they make their appear- 
ance in town. It would be impossible to find 
anything worse than this to set at the score of 
the tramps, and we are indebted for so much 

sites are liable to infest the human body and 
to produce there any discomfort or disease. It 
is already suspected that many of the cases of 
death from (ricliimr which have occurred in the 
pork-packing districts of the ^Veste^n States, 
have been tracable to the transporting agency 
of flies and not to the eating of pork. 

The other day I was idly examining several 
objects under the microscope. I was delighted 
to see the pollen, yellow and dust-like, on a 
portion of a flower, resolved by my instrument 
into a regular mass of tiny, perfect and trans- 
parent egg-shaped bodies or cells, the prettiest 
little eggs in the world. A piece of the leg of 
a fly on the flower interested me so much that 
I examined closely .several others, and what I 
saw I did not find particularly pleasant to view. 
Imagine a large leg with coarse pores in the 
skin and covered rather closely with strong 
black hairs, these hairs glued together 
in places with dust and other impurities, and 
even harboring tiny worms, and then ask your- 
self, as I am doing, why we do not take a more 
determine<l stand to rid our kitchens and our 
dining-table of the little pests, in so laudable 
an endeavor it would even seem justifiable that 
we should exterminate the tramps. 

The same week an Italian stopped to beg "an 
onion and a leetle salt " to eat with a piece of ' knowledge to an enterprising newspaper, which 
bread; and an old Frenchman leaned upon his ' a few months ago exposed the particulars, 
cane wnth one hand. an<l removed his hat with ! ,V scientific gentleman of England, well 
the other, in the most polite manner imaginable, I known to the world, has shown us, however, 
as he asked for a pocket-handkerchief I that the flies themselves are far more noxious 

One member of the fraternity was sitting ' in character than is commonly supposed. Gan- 
upon the doorstep vvhcu the door was oj^ened, [ iirow in the hospitals, and many other diseases, 
and he remarked, in an easy, off hand manner: are due solely to the propagation in the human 
" ' ' ' 'I have called ' system of animal germs of life which are in the 

air at certain times and places. These minute 

' Ah I good morning, madam 
this morning to propose that you do me a little 
favor. I will explain that I am suffering from 
chronic dyspepsia, and sleeping around in the 
fields makes me worse, and therefore it would 
be a real gratification to my feelings to have you 
lend -.lie the price of a passage from here to San 

We may have been hard-hearted, but his feel- 
ings were not gratified that morning. 

One dilapidated straggler from the ranks of 
the "tramp brigade" found the front door, but 
could not discover the gate again, and went 
staggering about the dooryard for some twenty 
minutes, tumbling against the fence in various 
places, and mumbling imprecations upon the 

disease germs the house fly is more often than 
not the means of establishing in a human lodge- 
ment. And it certainly has never been pleasant 
to reflect that the same little creature which 
we find swimming in the milk-pitcher may have 
been, not so many hours ago, teasing some un- 
fortunate patient in the small-pox hospital. 

The fly itself harbois parasites in the shape 
of animalcuhi' which are visible under a very 
ordinary microscope, and which, when part of 
the fly is immersed in milk or water, will float off 
into the liquid for awhile and then return to 
the fly's body. Experiments are now being 
made to determine, if possible, if these fly-para- 

Growth of Temperance. 

The rapid growth of the cause of temperance 
in Washington is noted by a correspondent of 
the Springfield HfinMiran, who alludes to the 
fact that "the three leading candidates for 
Speaker formerly used stimulants, sometimes to 
excess, " and adds : 

Two of them are now total abstainers, and have 
been for some years, while the third only uses 
wine in a moderate (piantity at his dinner. I 
can count a dozen Senators who used to tipplfc- 
who have not drank a drop in two years, and 
there is not a Senator, with perhaps an excep- 
tion or two, who is not prudent and most tem- 
perate in the use of liquor. .Nearly all of them 
do not touch anything except a light Mine at 
dinner. It is so in the House. It it so witli 
most of the public men. There has grown up 
a sentiment that a man is a fool who uses liquor 
immoderately, and that he is better oft without 
any of it. Three years ago I saw one of the 
most brilliant members of the Senate staggering 
drunk in front of Willard's hotel. The other 
day 1 saw that he left his champagne untouched 
at a dinner. Said he : "J haven't touched al- 
cohol in any form for three years. I woke up 
one morning realizing that pretty much all the 
temperance lecturers have said was true, and I 
simply said to myself that 1 have had enough. 
And I have. I have never seen the time, from 
that day to this, that I have not felt a repug- 
nance for liquor." Garland, the learned lawyer 
from Arkansas, is a teetotaler. Said he : "I 
was passing by the cemetery near my home one 
day, and I saw the graves of a dozen brilliant 
men who began life with me, every one ot them 
hastened to his end by whiskey. I made up 
my mind that I had drank my share, and stop- 

Till-. Phenomena of De.^tii.— .A. Philadel- 
phia physician has made a special study of ti.e 
phenomena of death, both through his personal 
observations and those of others, and his con- 
clusion is that dissolution is painless. "I 
mean," he explains, "that it approaches as un- 
consciously as sleep. The soul leaves the world 
as painlessly as it enters it. Whatever be the 
cause of death, whether l)y lingering malady or 
sudden violence, dissolution comes either 
through syncope or asphyxia. In the latter 
case, when resulting from disease, the struggle 
is long protracted, and accompanied by all the 
visible marks of agony which the imagination 
associates with the closing scene of life. Death 
does not strike all the organs of the body at 
the same time, and the lungs are the last to 
give up the performance of their functions. As 
death approaches, the latter gradually become 
more and more oppressed; hence the rattle. 
Nor is the contact sutliciently perfect to chimge 
the black venous into the red arterial blood. 
.\n unprepared fluid consequently issues from 
the lungs into the lieart, and is thence trans- 
mitted to every other organ in the body. The 
brain receives it, and its energies appear to be 
lulled thereby into sleep — generally tranquil 
sleep— filled with dreams which impel the dy- 
ing to murmur out the names of friends, and 
the occupations and recollections of life." 

The StrCvTi-re of Hair. — A single hair now 
enables the anthropologist to judge in wliat 
division of the human species he will class its 
owner; there is no mistaking a Chinese for a 
European, or either for an .\frican. The cross 
section of this single hair, examined microscopi- 
cally by Pruner's method, sliows it circular, or 
oval, or reniform. Its follicle curvature may 
be estimated by the average diameter of the 
curls, as proposed by Moseley; its coloring mat- 
ter may be estimated by Sorby's method. There 
has been even a systematic classification of man 
published by Dr. W. Miller, of the Novara ex- 
peilition, which is primarily arranged according 
to hair, in straight haired races, curly haired 
races, etc., with a secondary division according 
to language. Though we cannot regard such a 
system as good, the wonder is that it should an- 
sW'Cr so well as it does; indeed, nothing could 
prove more clearly how real race distinctions 
are than a single bodily character should form 
a basis for rationally mapping out the divisions 
of mankind.— A'. B. Taylor, in Natur< . 

Unheard Music. 

Men say that far al)0\ e our octaves, pierce 
Clear sounds that soar and clamor at heaven's high 

Heard only of bards in vision, and saints that wait 
In instant prayer with godly-purged ears; 
'I his is that fabled music of the spheres. 

Undreamedof by the crowd that early and late 
Lift up their voice in joy, grief, ho|Je or hate, 
The diapason of their smiles and tears. 
The heart's voice, too, may be so keen and high 
That Love's own ears m.iy watch for il in vain. 
Nor part the harmonies of bliss and pain. 
Nor hear the soul beneath a long kiss sigh, 
Nor feel the caught breath's throbbing anthem die 
When closely twined arms relax again. 

— Atliinlif Monthly for January. 

Teach the Girls to Sew. 

iWi-itteii fi.i- Ri-K.iL Prk«« by Mary Kiddell Corley.) 

1 know that the young girls of thirteen and 
fourteen will hold up both hands in holy horror 
as tliey see the heading of this article; neverthe- 
less, though sewing machines are abundant, 
it would 1)6 a good thing if every woman could 
do beautiful hand sewing. 

1 did not always see the value of the accom- 
plishment; I certainly did not find pleasure in 
ac(juiring it, au<l in these days when artistic 
ideas are so many and so various, it seems a 
hard task to convince the girls that neat sewing 
is really a beautiful art. 

My mother was a nice needlewoman, and 
when 1 was very young I was made to under- 
stand that that was to be a part of my educa- 
tion. 'J'o promote industry, I was promised a 
workbox, and one Christmas it came— strong 
and substantial, complete in all its parts, with 
thimble, cotton, needles, and all other accesso- 
ries. As long as the holidays lasted and I could 
look at and admire it, it was all very well; but 
when the real work days came, it was quite a 
ditt'erent matter. 

It must have been in the early summer 
weather that a rule was made - like unto those 
of the Medes and Persians that 1 should 
devote a certain time each day to sewing. 
How I di<l hate it. to be sure, bi-t there was no 
escape for me. So with the pleasant summer 
sounils coining in through the open windows, 
I sat and learned to hem and overseam and fell, 
and when the time was over, solaced myself by 
sliding down stairs head foremost, or riding 
down the banisters like a boy. I remember that 
I was very expert in both performances. 

I learned to do very good work, but I never 
learned to like it; and later on, would practice 
industriously at the piano for two or three 
hours daily -a choice of evils to c.=fipp the 
necessity for sewing, w ell aware that l„ijg 
as the piano was heard I should be left un 
disturbed. All cutting out and fitting I 
shirked without a scruple; and, as it was some- 
how, ilone for me, I took very little thought for 
the future. 

Hut a time came, as it docs to most girls, 
when there was work to do without the motlicr's 
skillful hand todirectit. The vicissitudes of life 
found me, at last, thrown upon my own re- 
sources, and I ha<l to "cut and contrive" in 
more ways than one. So many garments as the 
wee ones needed, not to speak of my own indi- 
vidual wants! Fortunately I had a very happy 
heart and some courage, so I managed to do 
much nice and beautiful work, but it was often 
after a weary struggle that a little cloak woulil 
fit to my satisfaction, and often and often 1 
wound up a busy day with a distressing nervous 
headache, which left me prostrated for days, 
w hich might have been avoided if I liad had the 
feeling of certainty to begin with, which only 
comes after long practice. Many were the mis- 
takes, followed by much ripping and sore 
"groaning in spirit." 

One winter I spent in a little out of-1he-w.iy 
village in North Carolina, in a little tumble- 
down hotel, where I tunicil my old dresses, and 
managed in the most <k:lightfully ecouomical 
fashion. I even made a new cloak out of an 
old one, with the addition vf a little bugle trim- 
ming, and then I did actually feel that I was de- 
veloping into a genius. 

That same winter a lady in Rileigh took the 
trouble to send me a few fashion items, which I 
pored over with some perplexity, as it was really 
of very little use to tell me that certain styles 
of bas(jucs were worn, when I hadn't the least 
idea how to cut one. Finally, I did send for 
paper patterns, and from that time out found 
them of infinite use to me. 

There is no doubt that sewing, like many 
other things, comes more naturally to some 
women than to otliers; for I had a sister who 
needed no pressing, but went to her own room, 
locking her door against all socially inclined 
intruders, cut and fitted and trimmed, coming 
out after two or three days' seclusion with an 
elaborately trimmed, fashionable looking dress, 
a joy to all bfiholtlers. and a special satisfaction 
to the mother who had one troublesome young 
lady's wardrobe off her hands. 

And now, as I am prosing along, I am re- 
minded of a remark matlc by a laily friend the 
other day: "Yes, there was Susy White sit- 
ting, serenely writingof thebe.stmethodsof man- 
aging children, wliile Bobby and W^illy were 
' raising ( 'ain ' right under her nose .' " For, you 
see, from clergymen down— for even they are 
mortal - we sometimes preach what we do not 
practice, and I have a tall daughter of seventeen 
who hates sewing quite as much as her mother 
ever did. 

I remember one day giving her such an edify. 

January I'J, 1884.] 



ing lecture — winding up by saying, "Why you 
do not even know how to turn a neat fell!" 
when she quietly turned to me with the 
(]uestion, "What is a fell '!" It is not the piano, 
with the three hours pr:ictice, that saves her — 
it is painting, and she declares that she never 
intends to sew, she will make money enough by 
her brusli, bye-and-bye, to have all her sewing 
done for her. 

1 hope she may, but then it is well to be able 
to mend a stocking very neatly, or even a glove 
or a rent in a dress, and it isn't every one who 
can have some one to do those little things for 

After all, I amnotsure that an artistic "^Mrs. 
• lellyby" isn't quite as bad as a literary one; 
and a dress or :ipron covered with paint may be 
the sign of as much discomfort a.'^ some other 
things we mad of. I think that all of the 
artistic and beautiful work of the present day, 
much as I love it, and lovely as it makes a 
home is not worth the entire sacrifice of the 
dainty needlework that our mothers believed 

If girls would just strike the happy medium 
it would be such a good tiling. Let them paint 
their lovely plaques and panels, palettes and, but give a portion of the twenty four 
hours to the putting on of a stray button, and 
the neat mending of an untidy-looking hole, 
even if an odd bit of painting will pay for the 
making of the dress which a stylish girl must 

The future may hold an easy life, when it 
will be possible to satisfy all beautiful, artistic 
tastes, and it will be well if some of the 
abundant means can be spent in making a poor 
seamstress happy with plenty of work and good 
wages; but even then it will be a good thing if 
they have some ideas of their own, and the skill 
necessary to enable them to direct her work. 

On the other hand, they may be of the many 
who find life a long struggle with "seam and 
gusset and band," and then it is that the skillful 
fingers make much out of nothing, and then the 
wife is verily a helpmeet to her husband. 

I know a very bright, happy little woman, 
who is also one of the busiest 1 know, who is a 
perfect wonder to me because of what she ac- 
complishes. I spent a portion of a summer in 
the same house witli her one year, and saw how 
many things her hands found to do, and how 
well ^lie did them. She had three children, 
one a child of six months, and she was never 
idle, except for an occasional hour's reading. ] 
She did all of her own sewing, even her dress | 
making, a great deal of fancy woi k, and painted I 
very fairly besides, earning enougli money with ' 
lier brush to help a husband who was, I am 
afraid, a rather shiftless fellow and not quite 
worthy of her. 

She made the most of her life, and while 
realizintr she had a beautiful talent that 
was worth cultivation, she quietly did her 
natural woman's work as well, never content 
that her children should be ragged or untidy 
while she went into ecstacies over a sunset or 
painted flowers on a plaque. There was a 
place and a time for everything, and she was a 
joy and a blessing to all who knew her. 

I sometimes grow impatient when I see the 
time spent on the "crazy qnilts" of the day, 
though they are really very beautiful, and as a 
recreation will do very well, but I believe in 
the useful work first, and then the fancy work 
is a fascinating extra which I like as well as my 
neighlwrs. Still, by the same rule of contraries, 
there is a "crazy (juilt" in full operation in my 
own house, which is encouraged, like the work- 
box of my childhood, as a promoter of industry 
which may lead to better and more useful 

Another triumph of American engineering 
over natural difficulties is the cantilever bridge 
across the Niagara river. This is one of the 
most remarkable works of modern times, and 
has the longest double track span in the world 
— !)00 feet over the river — and will be opened to 
travel early in December. The idea ot span- 
ning the (leep gorge of the Niagara with a 
bridge built out -.with arms approaching eacn 
other from opposite shores was a bold one. But 
the work has been prosecuted without serious 
mishap or delay, and the first railroad bridge on 
this principle is now so nearly finished that it is 
pronounceda completely successful undertaking. 
The building of the bridge has been regarded 
with great interest by engineers and railway 
managers in various parts of the world. Every 
American will take an honest pride in this grand 
achievment of his countrymen. 

"Y^OUJ^G BoLKS' C[0LU.]^N. 
The Puppy's Mishap. 

There was once a little puppy 

That was curiously inchned; 
He nosed about and nosed aboiU, 

To see what he could find. 

One day upon an ash heap, 

An old tea-pot he spied; 
Forthwith he poked his head in, 

To see what jvas inside. 

The puppy's ears were very large, 

The teapot's mouth was small; 
When he tried to pull his head out, 

It would'nt come at all. 

The puppy barked and whined and liowled, 

.\iid kept up such a clatter, 
John and IVlary running ca : e 

To see what was the matter. 

John took the puppy in his arms, 

,-\nd tried to keep him still; 
Then Mary seized the tea-pot, 

And both pulled with a will. 

But all their efforts were in vain ; 

His dogship found out then 
'Tis easier to get in a scrape 

Than to get out again. 

"We'll take him to the tinninn's," 

Then master Johnny cried; 
So dog and tea-pot in his arms, 

Doun the long street they hied. 

Then all the people whom they met 

Laughed till they nearly cried; 
They'd often seen a tea-pot, but never 

With a pupjiy's head inside. 

The tinman quickly plied his shears. 

And set the pappy free; 
The way he ran back up tlie street. 
It was a sight to see. 

And now, whene'er his puppyshi|) 

A curious thing has spied. 
He puts his nose in as before. 

But ki^eps his ears outside. 

— '/'/•//' 

An Immense D.\m. — A French engineer in 
Brazil has lately been selected to construct 
what will probably be, when completed, the 
largest dam in the world. The main dam will 
1)6 !>40 feet long by .38 feet high, and two smaller 
ones will close side depressions. This work 
will, it is calculated, back the water over 1,500 
acres, and retain 14,000,000 cubic meters of 
water, suilicient to provide for all tHe cattle of 
the regions during three years, and for the irri- 
gation of .'),000 acres of llat Ijottom land along- 
side the river bed below. The rivers of Ceara 
How in the wet season alone. 

TliK Ei.KCTRic LiciiT. — More than a dozen 
steamers plying between New York and Liver- 
pool are fitted up with electric lighting machin- 
ery. I'robably three times as many are so fitted 
out on the vaiious other lines of ocean-going 
steamships. The British steamers are largely 
supplied with the Siemens and Swan appa- 
ratus but the other systems are well repre- 



"Lost your situation? How did it happen, 
my boy r" 

" ^^'ell, mother, you'll say it was all my old 
carelessness, 1 suppose. I was dusting ihe 
shelves in the store, and in trying to hurry up 
matters, sent a lot of fruit jars smashing to the 
floor. Mr. Barton scolded, and said he would 
not stand my blundering ways any longer, so I 
picked up and left." 

His mother looked troubled. 

"Don't mind,' mother ; il can get another 
situation soon, I know. But what shall I say 
if they ask me why I left the last one ?" 

"Tell the truth, .James, of course: you 
wouldn't think of telling anything else 

"No I only thought I 'd keep it to myself if 
I can ; I'm afraid it may stand in my way." 

" It never stands in one's way to do right, 
.lames, even though it may seem to, some- 

He found it harder than he expected to get 
a situation. He walked and incpiired until he 
felt almost discouraged, till one day some- 
thing seemed to be waiting for him. 
A young looking man in a clean, bright 
store, newly started, was in want of an 
assistant. 'I'hings looked very attractive, so 
neat and dainty that .lames, fearing that a boy 
who had a record for carelessness might not be 
wanted there, felt sorely tempted to conceal 
the truth. It was a long distance from the 
place from which he had been dismissed, anil 
the chances were slight of a new employer ever 
hearing the truth. But he thought better of 
it, and frankly told exactly the circumstances 
which led to his seeking the situation. 

"I must say I have a great preference for 
having neat-handed, careful people about me," 
said the man, good humoredly; "but I have 
heard that those who know their faults, and 
are honest enough to own them, are likely to 
mend theui. Perhaps the very luck you have 
had may help you to learn to be more careful." 

"Indeed, sir, I will try very hard," said 
.James, earnestly. 

"Well, I always think a boy who tells the 
truth, even though it may seem to go against 
him — (iood morning, uncle. Come in, sir." 

He spoke to an elderly man who was entering 
the door, and .James, turning, found himself 
face to face with his late employer. 

"Oh, ho!" said he, looking at the lioy, "are 
you hiring this young chap, Kred'r" 

"I haven't yet, sir." 

"Well, I guess you might try him; if you 
can only," he added, laughing, "keep him from 
spilling all the wet goods and smashing all the 
dry ones, you will find him reliable in every- 
thing else. If you find you don't like him, I'll 
be willing to give him another trial myself." 

"If you think so well of him," said the young 
man, "I think I shall keep him myself." 

"Oh, mother !" said .James, going home after 
having made an agreement with ihis new em- 
ployer, after such a recommendation from his 
old one, "you are right, as you always are. It 
was telling the truth that got it for me. Whi t 
if Mr. Barton had come in tliere justafter I had 
been telling something that was not exactly so 1" 

"The truth is always best," his mother; 
"the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
I the truth." 

Salicylic Acid as a Preservative. 

The very extensive use of salicylic as a pre- 
servative of foods, wine, beer, cider, etc., and 
its use internally in the form of salicylate of 
soda as a medicine, especially for rheumatism, 
has been the subject of no inconsiderable discus- 
sion in medical journals, and among the medi- 
cal profession in general. 

The French Society of Hygiene recently made 
it a matter of extended discussion, in the course 
of which it was claimed by >T. Durand that the 
addition of salicylic acid to beverages should be 
considered a punishable fraud, unless a label 
clearly indicating its presence was placed on the 
vessel. While salicylic acid is a very desirable 
agent for the prevention of fermentation in cer- 
tain industries and as a medicine in some dis- 
eases, its use should be restricted to these two 

It was urged that this acid has a very unfor- 
tunate influence upon the human system, giv- 
ing rise to affections of the ear and even some- 
times producing complete deafness. 

The society after consideration appointed a 
committee to investigate the subject, who re- 
ported as follows: "After having carefully con- 
sidered this suliject and studying the analysis of 
several substances containing salicylic acid, the 
committee would report that they find this sub- 
stance dangerous, not only from the pernicious 
effect which it produces on the .system, but also 
because its use permits the fraudulent introduc 
tion into foods of other objectionable materials, 
more or less unhealthy, especially in the wines 
of dried grapes and in beer. 'The committee 
concluded that any alimentary sub.stance, solid 
or liquid, containing the slightest quantity 
whatsoever of salicylic acid or of its derivations 
should be considered dangerous, and that its 
sale ought to be prevented by law." 

The French Minister of Agriculture and Com- 
merce incorporated the above report in an edict 
which he has just issued, asking the perfects of 
the different departments to adopt proper meas- 
ures for the suppression of tlie sale of articles 
containing salicylic acid. 

On the other hand a very prominent (lerman 
journal pertinently comments on the French 
edict by observing that the latest researches of 
Brof. Kolbe ("which appear to be entirely un- 
known to the French") very clearly prove that 
salicylic acid in the ([uantitics used for the pre- 
servation of food is entirely safe, and that no 
second thought need be given to its employ- 

The Prof. Kolbe above alluded to, has discov- 
ered a new and synthetical method of preparing 
this substance from coal tar, instead of from 
willow, as its name indicates. Whether this 
circumstance has an influence in prejudicing 
his mind in its favor is a matter which per- 
haps, should be health taken into consid- 
eration. But our readers have now both the 
French and (icrman side of the question, and 
must determine tlie matter for themselves, or 
await further investigation. 

A New kok Nkiir.\i,i:ia. — The 
latest agent introduced for the relief of neuralgia 
is a one per cent solution of hyperosmic acid, 
administered by subcutaneous injection. Jt 
has been employed in Billroth's clinic in a few 
cases. One of the patients had been a martyr 
to sciatica for years, and had tried innumerable 
remedies, including the application of electricity 
no fewer than 200 times, while for a v hole 
year he had adopted vegetarianism. Billroth 
injected the above remedy between the tuber 
ischii and trochanter, and within a day or two 
the pain was greatly relieved, and eventually 
quite disappeared. It would be rash to con- 
clude too much from these results in the face of 
the intractability of neuralgia to medication, 
but if it really proves to be as efficacious as 
considered, hyperosmic acid will be a 
therapeutic agent of no mean value. — Lniirrl. 

X)OMESTie €[eOJS10MY. 

Salmon Pcddino. — One can salmod, two 
egg.s, one table-spoonful melted butter, one cup 
bread crumbs, pepper, salt, minced green 
pickle. Pick the fish to pieces when you have 
drained off every drop of the liquor for sauce. 
Work in melted butter, seasoning, eggs and 
crumbs. Put into a buttered bowl or tin cake 
mould, cover tightly with a tin-pail lid or 
plate, and set in a dripping-pan of boiling 
water. Cook in a hot oven — tilling up the 
water in the pan as it boils away with more 
from the tea-kettle — for one hour. Set in cold 
water one minute to loosen the pudding from 
the sides, and turn out upon a hot platter. 
Make the sauce by adding to a cupful ot drawn 
butter, the liquor from the can, a raw beaten 
egg, a teaspoonful of chopped pickle, pepper, 
salt and minced parsley. Boil up and pour 
over the pudding. (II' A ivi.sECTiiiN.--]'. Bert, late Min- 
ister of I'ublio Education in France, publishes 
an article in defense of vivisection. He says 
that savants do not resort to painful experi- 
ments upon the bodies of living animals except 
with heavy hearts. They do it unwillingly, 
and are often forced to control their own suH'or- 
ings while so engaged. I'hey are also bitterly 
opposed to all perversion and abuse of such ex- 
perimentation by heartless or incompetent per- 
sons. Science, however, he says, cannot dis- 
pense with vivisection. It is for the benefit of 
humanity, and essential to the progress and de- 
velopment of human knowledge, and all ettbrts 
to prevent its perversion or abuse by legal re- 
straints and regulations must prove useless and 

TiiK Yelt.ow Fever Funiuts. — fJr. Domingo 
Frere, of Kio .lanerio, claims to have discovered 
the yellow fever fungus. He has named it 
Cryptocacus Zaiithogenicus, and finds that 
animals inoculated with it soon show all the 
usual signs of the disease before death and on 

Cream Fritters. — One pint of milk, the 
yolks of six eggs and whites of two eggs, two 
table-spoonfuls of sugar, half a pint of flour, 
three heaping table-spoonfuls of butter, half a 
teaspoonful of salt, a slight flavoring of lemon, 
orange, nutmeg or anything else you please. 
Put half of the milk on in the double boiler, 
and mix the flour to a smooth paste with the 
other half. \\'hen the milk boils stir this into 
it. Cook for five minutes, stirring constantly, 
then add the butter, sugar, salt and flavoring. 
Beat the eggs well and stir them into the boil- 
ing mixture. Cook one minute. Butter a shal- 
low cake pan and pour in the mixture half an 
inch deep in the pan. Set it away to cool, and 
when cold cut into small squares. Dip these in 
beaten egg and in crumbs, place in the frying 
basket and pl.inge into boiling fat until they 
are of a golden brown. Arrange on a hot dish, 
sprinkle sugar over them and serve very hot. 

CiiirivEN Cream. Pound the white flesh of 
a fowl into a pulp, pass it through a horsehair 
sieve, put it back into the mortar, and work 
into it the yolks of three or four eggs and a gill 
of cream ; flavor with pepper, salt and gr.-ited 
nutmeg, and, if liked, a suspicion of shalloti 
When the mixture is perfectly amalgamated, 
butter a plain mould, arrange thin slices of 
truttles at the bottom and sides of it by press- 
ing them on the butter, then put in the mixture, 
which should only half fill the mould. Tie a 
piece of paper on the top, place the mould into 
a saucepan half filled with hot water, and steam 
it for an hour and a half ; serve with truffle 
sauce. TriifHes may be omitted altogether, 
and the dish served with tom.ato sauce. 

Lai:er beer, M'hich thirty years ago was prac- 
tically unknown in this country, is now made 
by 2,500 immense establishments, with over 
$150,000,000 of capital invested. The value of 
this production each year is over 1200,000,000. Steak. Take one pound of large 
and tender steak, free it from all bone and 
gristle and scatter over it bits of batter, salt 
and pepper, a little sage and finely chopped 
onions, over which a little boiling tarragon or 
common vinegar has been poured; over that 
spread a thick cushion of mashed potatoes, 
well seasoned with salt, fresh butter and milk. 
Poll the steak very tightly, with the potatoes 
inside, fasten with strong tape and put into a 
baking pan with a large cupful of beef-tea stock 
or gravy, into which has been placed half a 
wineglass of port wine. Serve with a rim of 
mashed potatoes and watei cressess as a garnish. 

Tai'ioca Cre.vm Soi l'. -One quart of white 
stock, one pint of cream ormilk, one onion, two 
stalks of celery; one-third of a cupfulof tapioca, 
two cupfuls of cold water, one tablespoonful of 
butter, a small piece of mace: .salt, pepper. 
Wash the tapioca and soak (iver night in cold 
water. Cook it and the stock together very 
gently for one hour. Cut the onion and celery 
into small pieces, and put on to cook for twenty 
minutes with the milk and mace. Strain on 
the tap'oca and stock. Season with salt and 
pepper, add butter, and serve. 

AiM'i.K Cheese. Pulp any number of appler, 
and to every pound of pulp add a pound of pow- 
dered sugar, the grated rind and juice of four 
small lemons, and four well-beaten eggs. When 
the ingredients are well mixed put them into a 
stew-pan in which butter is melted in the pro- 
portion of one ounce to every pound of the 
mixture. Stir it over a moderate tire until all 
the butter is thoroughly absorbed; then pour 
into pots or moulds. If tied down like jam and 
kept in a dry but not a hot place, it will keep 
for many weeks. 

Bkki' Croqi'ettes. One cup of lean beef, 
half a cup of the fat, half a cup of 
cold boiled or frietl ham, a piece of 
onion as large as a silver dollar, one tablespoon- 
ful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, a pinch 
of sage and a little gratad lemon-peel, ( 'hop all 
as fine as possible, or put through a mincing ma- 
chine. Heat with half a cup of stock or cold soup, 
and add one egg well beaten; form into cro- 
quettes; roll in egg and bread crumbs, and fry 
in boiling lard. 

Drtei) Peach Pie.- An excellent pie can be 
made of dried peaches, fjct the peaches soak 
in cold water all night, stew them in the same 
water until so soft that you can mash them 
fine, add for one pie two tablespoonfuls of 
sweet cream and a little more than lialf a cup 
of sugar — too much sugar destroys the flavor of 
the fruit, liutter may be used instead of cream, 
but if possible use cream, it gives such smooth- 
ness to the filling. 


[JanuarV 19, 1884 


W. B. EWER. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Oijtce, S52 MarlcetSl.,N. E. cor. ProntSl., S. F. 
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Advertising Rates. 1 week. 

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special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

Our late s forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Entered at S. F. Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter 

1 month. 3mos. 
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DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 


W. B. EWER. 

0. H. STORM O. 


.Saturday, January 19, 1884. 


EDITORIALS. — Buckinjr, 45. The Week; The 
Fanners' Triiinipli; Anti-Muat Katers; What has been 
>iived the ('•■untry; The I'cistal ToleuTaph; I'niversity 
Orchard, 52- Annual Sloctin); "f the Grangers' Bank, 
49, I'tiiwonous and Troublcsttnne I'laiits of Califor- 
nia-No. 53- 

Ibl-iDSTRATIONS. — The fiuik .lumper and hii- 
Kider, 45 Biirke's Lupin -I.upiuns Buikci; The Liver 
Kluke, 53. 

E.STOM<>LOGIC&L.-Sheep Rot or Flukes, 53. 
CORRESPONDENCE. — Brehistoi-ic Animal Ke- 

]ii lins s-ii-iiii \ N )tes, 48. 
SHEEP AND WOOL.— Lake fount} Wool Orow- 

irs, 48. 

THE VINEYARD. -Cirapc.^ for Riisins Tabic and 
Sliippini;, 46. 

HORTICULTURE. -Olive Oil .Making; Onhard 
Ni.ttH, 47. 

POULTRY YARD. -How to I se the Home Made 
Incubatiir. 47. 

sel: UraiiKe Leaflets- Nn. 14; First Day of the Year 
with \'alk-jn (traiii:**; Granire Elections; Orange Duties 
and .\inis, 48- 

&.GHICULTURAL NOTES — From the various 

counties of (.'alifornia, 48-49. 
NE'WS IN BRIEF -I'n pa'je 49 and other pages. 
THE HOME CIRCLE. -Clayton; Youth and Age 

(I'.ictrv); The TrMuips and the Flies; Growth of Tcnipo- 

ruiiL-e; I nhcard .\lu.sic-; Te.ich the Girls to .*<gw, 51. 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— The Puppy's Mis 

Irap: Truth, 51- 
GOOD HEALTH.- iSalii ylic Ar id as a I'reservative; 

A Nu« Trvatiiient for Neuralgia; Defense of Vivisoc- 

lion; The \'ellow l''over Fungus, 51. 
DOMESTIC ECONOM'X. Salmon Pudding; Cream 

I'rittLis; I'liii ken Cream; fot-tto Steak; Tajiioca Cream 

Soup; .Vpplu cheese; Beef t'rouuettes; Dried Peaeh 

I'ie, 51. 

THE FIELD. -Distribution of Plants and .Seeds, 54. 
MISCELLANESOUS. — Yegctable Eiaporation- 

Inipoveri.tluneiit of I.and; Tlie Corinth Onal, 54. 

.Mining Debris, 55-51. Stockton Manufactures, 62. 

Business Announcements. 

Han esters -L. f. Shippee, Stoekton, Cal. 
Itanches for Sale- I'at ilie Coast Land Bureau, s. F. 
Harvesters— David Young, Stoekton, Cal. 
Leather Belting— H. N. Cook, S. F. 
Harvesters -Powell « Hurd, Stoektnn, Cal. 
S-'eds -Hiram Sibley Co., Kochester, N. Y. 
Bilz' Excelsior Phaeton — Frank Bros., S. F. 
Wager Peueh Hull « .MeManamon, San Jose, i a'. 
Seeds— Peter lleclderson Co., New York. 
.S'ursery— E. Gill, Oakland, Cal. 
.Musie— Oliver Ditson iS: Co., Boston, Mass. 
Sheep for Sale — Harriot, Bigley & Co., S. F. 
Cream Separator (i. G. Wieksnn & Co., S. F. 
Boss Tooth— Souney Bros., Saeiameiito, Cal. 
Feathers— National Feather Duster Co , Cliieago, III. 
(iang Plows, etc.- J<.hn Caine, .Stockton, Cal. 
Jacks lor Sale A. M. & E. W. Crow, Modesto, Cal. 
Fruit Trees-. I. l". Bogue, S. F. 
I'oultry H. S. Kirk, .Sacramento, Cal. 
Seeds— G. \V. Park, Fanettsburg, I'a. 

See Adverlininq Columnn. 

The Week. 

.still dry, but nothing suffering yet. 'I'his is 
the substance of the news we get from different 
parts of the upper half of the State. The ex- 
treme southern counties are doing well, and 
liave had a shower during the week, -while we 
liave watched the clouds in vain. 'IVee plant- 
ing is much restricted by the drouth; in fact, 
many of the nurserymen can only dig trees 
after irrigation, and orders are Ijeing filled 
ratiter slowly. 'J'hose who have calculated on 
subsoiling for orch.ard planting have had to 
hold their good resolutions in abeyance. Some 
have succeeded in getting their trees well in by 
irrigating along the proposed rows and digging 
deep lioles as soon ns the soil came in proper 
condition, blatters are, on the wliole, rather 
dull and quiet, and much expectation is being 
indulged in, its character being dark or bright 

according to individual dispositions. There is, 
of course, plenty of time yet for rain to secure 
good crops, for it is the latter rain -which as- 
sures the outeome ordinarily. The State is 
generally in good financial condition and pre 
pared to draw on its purse or fill a ne-w one, as 
events shall require. 

The Farmers* Triumph. 

As a supplement to this issue of the -we 
give the full text of the decisions in the debris 
case, which virtually rescues the valleys, the 
stream and the harbor from ruin by mining de- 
tritus. It would be hard to conceive of any- 
thing of i;reater or more wide reaching value 
to the commonwealth than this decree of the 
( 'ourt. It is not merely a present advantage. 
It is not only the rescue of homes and lands just 
released from jeopardy, but it lays hold upon 
the future, and orders that for generations 
these rich heritages of the State siiall be freed 
from menace and real injury. It gives the 
surety that investment and enterijrise in these 
favored parts of the State shall be protected, 
and the people who fifty or a hundred years 
years from nov.- shall dwell in the great valleys 
and beside onr noble streams will know better 
than we ho-w great a boon is given the State by 
the decision which lias just been rendered. 

Now, that this glad result has been reached, 
we cannot refrain from expressing our hearty 
congratulations to the few strong, resolute and 
determined farmers who undertook the -R'ork of 
saving their homes and benefiting the State. 
When they first lifted up their voices against 
the evil ljut few would listen, but they quailed 
not; afterwards when the full opposition of 
wealthy corporations was brought to bear 
upon them, they did not -waver. Content in 
the justice of their ca'.ise, and trusting to the 
future to prove it, they went forward, step by 
step, until they now stand covered with honors 
and their victory completed. Xo one can help 
admiring thsm for their zeal and courage md 
perseverance, and rejoicing with them in their 
triumph. It is little wonder that the bells 
rang and bonfires blazed in the towns of Sutter 
and Vuba county. Such outward demonstra- 
tions are but the natural expression of the re- 
joicings which fill hearts -when impending 
dangers are removed and anticipated evils 
swept away. 

After the first outburst of relief there suc- 
ceeds, as might be expected, a general disposi- 
tion to go forward with improvement and de- 
velopment. Our Sutter county correspondent 
gives a little glimpse of this disposition in our 
columns this week. It is delightful to think 
of the change -which will be wrought in aU the 
district whicli has been so long menaced , Prop- 
erty will increase in value; industries of all 
kinds will be quickened: prosperity will bless 
all classes of workers. The event and the 
results which will ensue will be themes for 
rejoicing for generations. 

Anti-Meat Eaters. 

Perhaps we have all been inclined at times to 
look upon the anti-meat eaters as a harmless race 
of people, who, from a (jueasy stomach or an 
over sensitive conscience, had made up their 
minds to deny tliemselves certain good things 
which the rest of the world enjoy with- 
out compunction. No one is ugly enough to 
grudge them their dish of oatmeal and apple 
sauce, and all must admire the heroism that 
can look over a bill of fare replete with all 
sorts of provocatives of ajipetite, and pick out 
asparagus, turnips, potatoes and cauliflower. 
And if it be true, as many imagine, that a 
lierbaceous diet produces a sweet, placid and 
patient frame of mind, we would all bo glad to 
see our wives and neighbors take to Graham 
bread and fruit. 

No doubt many are inclined to watch this ex- 
periment as a scientific curiosity, in order to see 
how the law of lieredity may affect the meat- 
eating propensity of the race. The shape of 
certain teeth seem to be in the way, but then, 
as Darwin's law of variation in the direction 
of the best is said to have sprouted the fins of 
fish into the wings of the eagle, developed men 
out of apes, and Webster's Unabridged from the 
chatter of monkeys, it would require a very 
hard heatled man to doubt that the carniv- 
oracity of the race may be cured, or at least 
greatly abated. 

A very agreeable writer on vegetarianism, 
whose pamphlet lies before us, insists, from 
data that certainly looks very plausible, that if 

meat-eating were wholly dispensed with there 
would noon come a time when human nature 
would get rid of all the rude, ((uarrelsome and 
combative ways of our fathers. Total de- 
pravity would run out. There would be no 
more ugly husbands and cross wit'es. Fighting 
and homicide would cease: even ( 'ongress would 
become a happy family. It is blood that en- 
genders all these bad propensities. He also de- 
clares that tliere • -would be a wonderful 
elevation of mental power, as it is cer- 
tain that a vegetable diet possesses more 
phosphates the best fuel for the lirain while 
meat produces morbid humors which hang in 
a thick fog around the "dome of thought and 
palace of the soul." Literature, religion and 
politics would drop their beefy polemics, their 
dogmatic style, and sparkle with truth and 
beauty, like a crown radiant with diamonds. All 
tolerance would cease; there would be an in- 
creased refinement of manners, for the apparent 
reason that a vegetable diet tends to exalt the 
nervous sensitiveness. It is said a well edu- 
cated vegetarian has become so delicately or- 
ganized that he can smell a meat-eater a rod 
away, and detect in sermon, editorial or song 
the odious flavor of pork or codfish. Now, if it 
really be true that a vegetable, watery diet en- 
larges the brain, clarities the intellect, gives 
wing to imagination, promotes sweet reason- 
ableness in style and temper, we take great 
pleasure in recommending its use to all of our 
editorial contemporaries. 

What Has Been Saved the Country. 

Those letters of Mr. Huntington to which we 
recently alluded, are proving just as unfortunate 
to the railroad ambition and greed as we 
anticipated. It is an old maxim that when 
rogues fall out honest people get their dues, 
and whether tlie railroad people are rogues or 
not, their Imsiness methods, as disclosed by Mr. 
Huntington's letters, are certainly of that 
nature. 'J'he people of the country evidently 
have no doubt on that subject, and even the 
Congressional conscience, which has the 
name of being rather a seared affiiir, has 
been quickened, and the number of Congress- 
men who are willing to lend their approval to 
Mr. Huntington's plans, are ridiculously few. 

The latest news from AVashington shows that 
the old Texas land grant, which the Southern 
Pacific concocted, is passing irrevocably beyond 
their grasp. .\ dispatch of Wednc-^day morn- 
ing says; 

Huntington's overwhelming ilefeat to-day 
foreshadows the certain setting aside of the 
grant of 1.5,000,000 odd acres expressed in the 
original Texas Pacific land grant. The unani 
mous report of the committee, made this morn- 
ing, has shaken the railroad ring to its very cen 
ter. The members now xee their inability to 
resist the anti-railroad tide. Huntington has 
made a feeble fight. The argument of {'.en- 
eral I'ryor, submitted yesterday, was one of 
the weakest ever made before any commit 
tee. It was simply a. bit of idle rhetoric, 
made in the most perfunctory and common 
place manner. The unanimous action of the 
committee will send the report on the grant 
through the House in a great hurry. It is not 
believed that '20 votes could be rallied against 
it. It is probable, therefore, the bill will be 
passed upon next ivlonday, when a suspension 
of the rules will be in order. There is such a 
panic in Congress at the more mention of the 
name Huntington, that it is positive the bill 
will be passed by such an overwhelming major- 
ity that tlie Senate will not dare to delay its 
passage. The vote to-day disposes of all flun- 
tingon's claims and leaves liis large lobby here 
out of employment. 

There was something like 17,000,000 acres of 
land involved in this scheme of Mr. Hunting- 
ton and his associates. It seems that the pub- 
lic will be saved this good slice of the 
government domain chiefly because the 
trial now in progress at Santa J^osa gave 
sucha clear exposition of the -H'ay in which 
the railroads obtain their grants from Congress. 
Viewed merely as a business proposition it 
would seem that the railway firm made a great 
mistake in fighting Mrs. C-jlton's claim. They 
could better have given her several millions 
than to have had all their games uncovered. 
The result is, however, a public benefit, and 
must be so considered. 

The Postal Telegraph. 

The commendable movement toward the es 
tablishment of a government postal telegraph is 
gathering strength in Congress and can liardly 
fail of realization because of the genera) interest 
taken by the legislators and the universal ap- 
proval of public sentiment. Tlie e.xtortionate 
charges of the old monopoly act as an effectual 
bar upon the use of this means of communication, 
except in business matters and other urgent af- 
fairs. It should be available for ordinary uses 
and can easily be made so by government enter- 
prise, and not otherwise. Hon. C. A. Sumner, 
Congressman from this State, has long urged 
the measure in public and private, and will 
push it vigorously, now that he has a seat in 
the arena where such enterpises can be real- 
ized. In a late issue we gave outlines of the 
various means proposed to gain the desired re- 
sult. Other propositions have since been iutro^ 
duced in Congress. A Washington speoisd^ ofc 
■Fanuary 1.3th, says: 

.Messrs. Hubbard, Converse and Howe of 
Massachusetts, Ivnery of New Hampsliire, Mc~ 
Curdy of New York, Palmer of Illinois, Blakely 
of Minnesota, and Pollock auJ Bell of Wash- 
ington are named as incorporators in the bill in- 
troduced by .Senator Dawes forming the United 
St.ates Postal Telegraph Company, the object 
of which seems to be to absorb all telegraph 
companies at present in operation and to be em- 
ployed by the Postmaster-(ieneral to serve the 
Postofhce Department as a postal telegraph. 
The main features of the bill are as follows: 

First.- The new company may purchase any 
lines of telegraph now in operation in the 
United States on such terms as may be agreed, 
and within a year from the p.-vssage of the bill 
shall purchase such property at a valuation -|oi 
be fixed by five competent and disinteresited 
persons, and the selling company may take stock 
of the new company in payment. The new 
company may also build lines of its own. ' 

Second. The Postmaster-Ceneral is directed 
and obliged to contract \\ ith the new company 
for the transmission of telegraphic matter 
through tlie postoflice at tiie charges fixed in 
the bill if the bill becomes a law. Therefore 
the Postmaster-Ceneral is left with no discre- 
tion. He must employ the company and pay 
its charges as fixed in the bill. 

Third. These charges are 25 cents for 20 
words for any distance under 500 miles; 50 
cents under 1,000 miles, and 75 cents for over 
1,000 miles; night messages, 1 .000 miles or less, 
■25 cents, and 50 cents for a greater (li.-*iaiice. 

Fourth. -Telegrams are to l>e received at 
postolhce and transmitted by telegraph between 
postal telegraph offices, which are to be all 
postotfices in telegraph circuits. 

The list of rates given in this bill show how 
great a public benefit will be secured. It can- 
not come too soon. 

Tub Df.iiris Decision. — The Eivnitiij Bulle- 
tin gave the first complete publicatien of the 
ilebris decision in this city. The /litlle/in is 
usually ahead of other dailies on matters of real 
interest and value, and commendably slow in 
lending its space to sensations. It is enterpris- 
ing ia matters of true interest in the daily line. 

University Orchard. 

We have frequently alluded to the University 
orchard of standard fruits at Berkeley, and the 
valuable work which is being done by Mr. 
Klee, under the direction of Professor ililgard, 
in testing and describing the various varieties 
of fruit which are as yet but little known in 
this State, but wliich promise to be valuable. 
We have had outline engravings of some of 
these fruits, and no doubt the attention of our 
readers his been attracted thereby to this 
branch of Professor Hilgard's work. We are 
now pleased to announce that scions of the va- 
rieties now growing at llerkeley can be had on 
application, as well as a large .selection of 
plants, trees anil seeds, which are de.scril>ed in 
full upon another page o< this issue. 

Scions of the following varieties of pears, not 
much known in this State, but deserving to 
be more witlely tested as to their adaptation to 
different localities, can be supplied as follows : 
Brockworth Park, Madame Trevey, Beurre 
de I'Assomption, St. Andre, Doyenne Robin, 
Marie Louise d'Ccclcs, Fulton, Stevens' (Sen 
essee, Kutter, Andre Desportes, Howell, Para- 
dis d'Automne, Beurre P.oso, De Tongres, 
.Tones' Scsdling, Mt. Vernon, .Sheldon, Mau- 
rice Desportes, Figue D'Aleiicon, America. 
Conseiller de la Cour, Kpine Dumas, Mad- 
ame Loriol»' de Barnj', Beurre Oris 
d'Hiver, Duhamel de Monccau, Anne Ogerau, 
Souvenir du Congres, Calabasse Monstreusc, 
Doyenne Ikiussoo, Napoleon the Third, Pitmas- 
ton's Duchesse D'Angouleme, St. Micliael Arch- 
angel, Fondante de Noel, liiichesse de Bor- 
deaux, Louis Vilmorin, Belle Lucrative, Beurre 
de Waterloo. 

Also the following plums which do remark- 
ably well at Berkeley; Morocco (very early); 
Ontario, Prince of Wales, Wangenheim prune. 

Scions of most other established varieties of 
orchard fruits, except cherries, can also be sup 

January 19, 1884.] 



Poisonous and Tronblesome Plants of 
California— No. 3. 

Leninunj. ) 

' Mead- 

IWritten for the Rural Prkss by J. C. 

Luplnus Burkei-" Burke's Lupin 
ow Bean" - "Sun Dial." 
"The Assyrian came down like a wolf on the 

With tliis bold simile Byron begins one of his 
niost celebrated battle poems. 

The devouring character of the wolf caused 
its name— i«;w(.< in Oreek— to be given to a very 
large and interesting family of plants. But, 
like certain architects, who builded wiser than 
they knew, so this name of lupinns is preemi- 
nently fitting, since the habit of stealthily and 
persistently attacking the sheep-fold by wolves 
is closely imitated by the lupines that so fatally 
invade the farmer s fields. They swarm on the 
borders of meadows, hover along streams, rally 
around springs, deploy among rocks, charge in 
open fields, flourish anywhere that a chance 
bean may be planted by bird, beast or man. 
No spot of ground is too poor for lupines, and a 
rich, loamy meadow is their especial delight. 

The plants may be readily known by their 
digitated leaves; that is, their leaves are divided 
into many leaflets radiating from a common 
point, giving the plant one of its vernacular 
names, " sun dial." 

Its flowers are pea-blossoms, often large and 
beautiful, growing in spikes. The fruit is a flat 
pod, filled with beans. 

The higher regions of Caflifornia are infested 
by several species of lupine. Some form tufts 
or rosettes on the ground, composed of dozens 
of their peculiar sun dial leaves, from the cen- 
ter of which the spikes of flowers arise but a 
few inches high. Others throw up a dozen or 
more stout, large-leaved stalks, two or three 
feet high, efl'ectually preventing the growth of 
other plants over a wide area. 

In certain meadows occur swamps of lupine 
.^o rank that the mow ing machine cuts through 
the mass with difficulty, leaving a heavy swath of 
greeu stalks that require many days of turning 
and drying before cured, and then the product 
is nearly worthless for hay. Some of tlie pods 
will be ripening their beans in haying time, so 
the turning about and raking serves to widely 
disseminate the troublesome plant. 

As the species of lupine under discussion is 
perennial-rooted and very prolific of seed, it 
were wise in the farmer, when this insidious 
enemy first appears on the borders of his mead- 
ows, to at once institute vigorous measures for 
its complete annihilation. Thoughtlessness or 
indifference has doomed the richest portions of 
■certain valleys to the production of worthless 
crops, witli the added entailment of interminable 
labor. The lieadquarters of the large genus, 
hipinus, is Western Anieiica. Out of about 100 
species known 60 are found in California. Two 
only extend northward into British Colnmbia 
and Alaska, one to the States east of the Miss- 
issippi river. A dozen are found southward in 
Mexico, a few more e.xtend down along 
the Andes, while three or four species only, and 
these annual, are indigenous to the Mediterra- 
nean region. 

Because Western America is the head quar- 
ters of the lupine, here in California is found the 
greatest diversity of form and character; render- 
ing the species very difficult to distinguish. 
\Vhy diversity of character is connected with — 
is evidence of — head quartership is a very inter- 
I'sting topic, which it is not pertinent to discuss 
it this time; an entire article would not exhaust 
the subject. 

• Vll species of lupine in America are trouble- 
-ii Mi and damaging because of their persistence 
ind abundance, connected with their nearly 
worthless qualities for forage; but none are 
known to be poisonous, as are a few other 
plants of the great pod-bearing family to which 
it belongs. 

The few annual species referred to as indige- 
nous to the Mediterranean region have emigra- 
ted so far and left home so long ago that they 
have become peculiar in several respects. For- 
tunately for the reputation of the family, they 
are well-behaved annuals, producing abundance 
of beans which are excellent food for both ani- 
mals and the human family. The ancient 
Romans extensively cultivated these species, a 
custom still continued by the Italians, especially 
of the state of Tuscany, where fields of lupine 
are cultivated as assiduously as are the allied 
alfalfa fields of California. 

The "loco weeds" of Central California grain- 

fields are species of the genus Astragalus, be- 
longing to the same great family of Pod-bearers 
as the lupines, but, as the loco-weeds and their 
mischief have been described from time to time 
in the Rur.^l, they will be dismissed here with 
this mere mention. 

The figure of Lupinus Burlcei given herewith 
is one-half to one-fourth natural size. 

A Cotton Picking Machine. — The first bale 
of cotton ever picked from a field by machinery 
was exhibited Oct. 30, 1883, at the Charleston 
Cotton Exchange, and attracted general atten- 
tion . The condition of the cotton is pronounced 
by cotton men to be as good as the hand-picked. 
The cotton has the same grade. What a 
world of thought, anxiety and wealth has been 
expended to secure the above noted result, and 
what a change it will produce in the agricultural 
labor of the South. It is to the cotton planter 
of tlie South what the grain reaper is to the 
farmer of the North and West. The mechanical 
cotton picker will not strike or go off to camp- 
meeting v hen the crop is ready for harvest, 
but will take the place of thousands of too 
often indolent colored laborers. It will in the 


Sheep Rot or Flukes. 

Cause, Nature and Cure of the Disease. 

[Written fur Rdrai, I' by T. H. Mkrkv. I 
Mr. Theodore Meyer, a prominent farmer of 
Humboldt county, in this State, has lately met 
with a serious loss by the death of hundreds of 
his sheep from a disease with which they were 
not familiar, and which is even now creating sad 
havoc in his flock of high-graded sheep. He has 
sent me a bottle containing, in alcohol, about 
fifty specimens of the parasite, with a request 
that I should investigate the subject. I have 
done so, and avail myself of your columns to 
give the result of my investigation, that others 
may take warning and thus save their flocks; 
and not only this, but to induce others who 
have had experience with this disease to give 
your readers the benefit of their experience. 

As soon as the bottle was handed me I recog- 
nized the old enemy known as the "Rot" or 
Flukes (IJistoma hepatinim), that English flock 
masters have had to contend with 


BURKE'S LUPIN— Lupinus Burkei. 

end prove a blessing to the colored people of 
the South, for they will be compelled to seek 
other channels of labor which will require of 
them greater cultivation and use of their mental 

Wire Fenck TELKGR.\PHiNt:.— An experi- 
mental work has been going on for a short time 
along the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad 
Brancli and the Brandon Branch, about thirty 
miles in length, the object being to determine 
whether or not the barbed wire of the fence on 
either side of the road can be utilized for tele- 
graphic purposes. The fence wire was placed 
fn proper condition for a sufficient distance to 
make a satisfactory test, the wire being run un- 
der the surface at road crossings. Superin- 
tendent of Telegraph Simpson decides that the 
plan is not practicable. Telegraph work can be 
done over the fence wire at this time, he says, 
but during the winter months, when huge snow 
banks completely cover the fence, the line would 
be ni.ade useless. There are thousands of miles 
of wire fence along the Western lines, and it 
has been contended that they should be utilized 
for this purpose. 

SnRiNK.\r.E in lumber varies according to the 
tree from which it is made. Oaks will shrink 
in drying one-halt inch to the foot; while the 
redwoods of California show no perceptible 
change, and the heavy Eastern or South Ameri- 
can woods lose but little. 

damp pastures and during periods of excessive 
rain. The specimens before me average three- 
quarters of an inch in length. They are the 
shape of a pumpkin seed, about the same size, 
and particularly resemble a flounder with the 
tail and fins cut off. We here give an illustra- 
tion showing the average sized fluke, upper and 
reverse sides. 

The Liver Fluke. 

No. 1 shows the upper side, with the eye, 
mDiith, and an opening resembling the gills of 
a fish. From this part two miin and several 
lateral veins may be traced even with the naked 
eye. But when examined through a microscope 
their entire organism may be easily traced. No. 
2 shows the reverse side of the same fluke. It 
will be seen that on this side it has neither eye 
nor mouth, which increases its resemblance to a 
flounder. They are exceedingly voracious, and 
when making a post-mortem examination of a 
sheep, on reaching the seat of the disease, in 
the liver, the flukes are found in the gall and 
bilial ducts, and appear annoyed by being dis- 

turbed in their work of death, and raise then 
heads and flop about like fish when first caught. 

Symptoms of the Disease. 

As soon as the flukes have grown to a suffi- 
cient size to afi'ect the health of the sheep it 
may be detected by the appearance of the 
mouth, nose, and head of the sheep. The gums 
and lining of the mouth turn to a yellowish 
color, as if jaundiced; the eye is dull and luster- 
less, and opening the wool the skin will appear 
inflamed, and when dead the wool is easily 
pulled from the skin. Internal inflamation cre- 
ates costiveness in the sheep; the animal be- 
comes dull and languid, with loss of appetite. 
As the disease progresses the loins become 
weak — this is the last stage; it falls and death 
ensues, sometimes in two or three days, at 
other times in as many hours: 

Internal Appearance 

The sheep being dead, the next step is to in- 
vestigate the immediate cause by a post-mortem 
examination, which will at once reveal the 
cause of the death. Here I can do no better 
than to quote from Youatt, well known as a 
learned writer. 

When a rotted sheep is examined after death 
the whole cellular tissue is found to be infil- 
trated, and a yellow serous fluid everywhere 
follows the knife. The muscles are soft and 
flabby, and have the appearance of being 
macerated. The kidneys are pale, flacid and 
infiltra'ed. The mesenteric glands enlarged, 
and engorged with yellow serous fluid. The 
belly is frequently filled with water or purulent 
matter, the peritoneum is everywhere thickened, 
and the bowels adhere together by means of an 
unnatural growth. The heart is enlarged and 
softened. The lungs are filled with tubercles. 

But the principal alterations of structure are 
in the liver. It is pale, livid and broken down 
with the slightest pressure, and on being 
boiled, it will almost dissolve away. When the 
liver is not pale, it is often curiously spotted. 
In some cases it is speckled like the back of a 
toad; nevertheless, some parts of it are hard 
and schirrous, others ulcerated and the bjUiiVry 
ducts are filled with flukes, 

Here is the decided seat of Ih? disease, 
and here it is that the nature of the malady is 
to be learned. The liver attracts the principal 
attention of the examiner; it displays the evi- 
dent effects of the acute and distinctive inflam- 
mation, and still more plainly the ravages cf 
the parasites with which its ducts are filled," 

From this plain and comprehensive descrip- 
tion of the condition of a sheep dead from the 
ravages of the flukes, given by Prof. Youatt, 
the examiner, will easily recognize the disease. 
The number of flukes differ. As many as 900 
have been taken from one sheep, while at ti nes 
fifteen or twenty have been sulucient io c lui* 
death. Waiters on the subject allege that the 
flukes have the power of reproduction; but tlii.s 
I doubt, as the fluke is but the larval state o{ 
the slug, as the butterfly follows the caterpil- 
lar. It is true that the flukes will be found in 
all stages of growth in the dead sheep, from 
the size of flax seed to those of one inch in 
length; and this fact may have misled investi- 
gators into the theory of reproduction, but i i 
my opinion the sizes indicate the length of tinw 
that has elapsed since the eggs of the slug were 
swallowed by the sheep. 

Causes of the Disease. 

'I'liis disease first made its appearance in En g- 
land during the excessive wet winter of 1829-30, 
when it is estimated that tiro millions of shei \t 
died, or were destroyed by thi-i disease alou . 
And again it made its appearance in England in 
18r)2 53, which was also a winter of excessive 
rain which well nigh deluged the country . 

H. S. Randall, LL. D., in his able work on 
sheep husbandry, says that he has never wit- 
nessed a case of rot in the United States. 
However true that may have been at the time 
of his writing, it is not so now ; for in the wet 
pastures of Plumboldt county are scattered the 
germs of this dread disease. Whatever doubt 
may have existed as to the cause of this disease, 
there ought to be none now. A slug or species 
of snail, found in swamps and wet lands, lays 
its eggs, these adhere to the blades of grass, 
and thus pass to the stomach of the sheep. 
Others contend that they float in the water 
about the edge of swamps and pass with the 
water drank into the stomach. Be that as it 
may, there is no doubt but this is the origin of 
the fluke. From the stomach the minute eggs 
pass from part to part, and finally find a lodge- 
ment in the liver. Here they grow and develop 
and proceed with their work of destruction 
until their victim succumbs and death ensues." 

To prove that this theory is the correct one, 
we cite the fact that sheep fed on high, dry 
pastures never have been known to have the 
rot. While it killed millions of sheep in England, 
not a case was known in Scotland, where the 
sheep pastures are mountainous and well 
drained. In England the rot also made its ap- 
pearance among sheep fed on pastures that 
were part dry land and part swamp; but when 
the swamps were fenced so that the sheep had 
not access to them the disease disappeared. 
Peculiarities of the Disease. 
Strange as it may appear, it is nevertheless a 
fact, that the first result of this disease is to 
cause the sheep to lay on flesh and become fat. 
Youatt recomends the sale of sheep thus dis- 
eased to the butchers to be slaughtered and 
sold for food. It is said that flock-masters in 
England sometimes purposely exposed their 
sheep to this disease that they might thus be 
fattened for market. I had a better opinion of 



[January 19, 1884 

our British cousins, and hope that some of our 
grasping sheep men may not he led to follow 
the example of their vile practice. But lest I 
may be charged with slander of our said cousins, 
let me again quote from the learned writer. 

Youatt, after recommending the sale of 
sheep to be slaughtered for mutton, even after 
they ai-e know n to be affected with this disease, 

•'It is one of llie characteristics of the rot to hasten, 
and that to a strange degree, the accumuLition of 
flesh and fat. I.ct not the farmer, however, push 
his e.\perinient too far. Let hitn carefully overlook 
each sheep daily, and dispose of those which cease 
to make progress, or which seem to retrograde. 

"It has already been stated that the of the 
rotted sheep, in the early stage of the disease, is not 
like that of the sound one; it is pale and not so firm, 
but it is not unwholsome, and il is coveted by certain 
epicures, who. perhaps, are not aware of the real 
slate of the animal." 

I will give the epicures the benefit of the 
doubt, and believe that they knew not that 
they were eating diseased meat. 

Preventive and Cure of tbe Disease. 

Having givei? the causes and effects of this 
disease, I will now proceed to give the remedies 
which experience has established as best, and 
at the start I will state that when the sheep is 
suffering from the disease in its advanced stages 
no remedy will save it, and the best thing the 
owner can do is to kill it for tlie pelt and tallow. 
The disease being a local affection, it is not con- 

Luckily, the remedy is cheap and always at 
hand. It is salt, strong coarse salt. I'lace 
abundance of it in troughs where the sheep 
can easily have access to it. If it is found that 
the disease is making rapid progress, then the 
following preparations should be made: At 
once remove the sheep from the past- 
ure where they have contracted the dis. 
ease. If tliere is a salt marsh handy, 
that is the very best place for the sheep; 
if not, remove them to a high, dry pasture. 
I^et them feed on the salt marsh grass, and in 
addition, nights feed them on good hay, and 
plenty of salt also, for. after all. this is the main 
remedy. The following are prescribed by com- 
petent authorities; Make a mixture of epsoni 
salts, "2 ozs. ; turpentine, I oz. ; pulverized gin- 
ger, .\ oz.; mix with a pint of molasses water, a 
quarter of this at a time is a dose for a sheep, 
or this, saltpetre, li oz ; powdered ginger, 1 oz. : 
carbonate of iron, oz. ; salt, I pound; boiling 
water, '.i quarts; mix thoroughly and when cold 
add 9 ozs. of turpentine, shake it up well and 
give each sheep allected 'J ozs. of this mixture 
every four days for four times. 

I believe that I have now writ- 
ten all tliat is necessary on the 
subject, and have already trespassed too much 
on your space. Preventive, after all, 
is best. Sheep should never be pastured in wet 
places, or in pastures where, by reason of ex- 
cessive moisture, snails and slug-i are found. 
Sheep pastured on high, dry pastures never 
were known to be affected with this disease. I 
hope that some of our extensive flock masters 
will give your readers the benefit of their expe- 

San Krancisco, January 14, 18S4. 

Insect Snare Wanted . 
• Kditor.s I*iti:s.s: — I should lil;e to abk Messrs. 
Chapin, Cooke, Dwindle, Hilgard and other 
parties, through your instructive colunms, 
whether som : kind of mixture could be pre- 
pared that would withstand the drying action 
of the sun in summer when applied to the lower 
portion of the trunks of trees, and even vines, 
in the form of a narrow ring, with a paint brush, 
to prevent red and yellow mites and other in- 
sects from ascendinj. Even if two or three ap- 
plications should bfre(|uired during the summer 
to keep it from drying up, it would then be 
cheaper in every way than spraying. — M. Dkn- 
ICKK, Fresno, Cal. 

Cabbage Lice. 

Editors Press: — Can you or some of the readers 
of the Press tell me what to do for my cabbages? 
'ITiey are badly troubled with little green lice. I'hcy 
get on the young leaves, the leaves curl up around 
them, and the plant is ruined. I tried lime and 
ashes, but it had no effect on the little jjesls. — W.H., 
Santa Barbara. 

The are a number of remedies. Cayenne pep- 
per sifted over the iilants is an old remedy, and 
said to be very effectual. .Syringing with soft- 
soap suds will kill them as will the application 
of buhach, either in powder or effusion. To- 
bacco tea is also a dead shot for this class of ver- 
min. If our readers can speak from satisfactory 
experience we woidd be glad to hear from them 
as requested. 

Mutual .\ntai.(>m>m in Wood. — It is inter- 
esting, and may be instructive to some, to learn 
that certain kinds of woods, although of great 
durability in themselves, act upon each other in 
such a way as to produce mutual destruction. 
Experiments with cypress and walnut, and cy- 
press and cedar prove that they w ill rot each 
other while joined together, l>ut on separation 
the rot will cease and the timbers remain per- 
fectly sound for a long time. 

Stockton Nur.series.— The well known- and 
long established nurseries of W. B. West, of 
Stockton, are now owned by F. B. Clowes, an 
experienced nurserytnan and a man of spirit and 
enterprise. He has a good stock, including a 
good supply of the true Smyrna fig from im- 
ported cuttings, obtained about two years ago 
through the I;. S. Consul at Smyrna. 

Distribution of Plants and Seeds 

The following plants will be ready for dis- 
tribution from the University on February 1st. 
They will be forwarded by express to psrsous 
applying, in lots consisting of the number of 
plants hereinafter mentioned in connection with 
each kind, cm remittance of twenty-live cents 
for any one lot ordered, and five cents addi- 
tional for each additional lot, to pay expenses 
of packing, etc. 

This distribution is made for the purpose of 
ascertaining the adaptation to climate and 
practical value of the several kinds in the differ- 
ent climates and soils of the State; and persons 
receiving them are retpiested to report results, 
whether success or failure, and if the latter, 
from what apparent causes. 

First — Camphor Tree of Japan (Camphora 
<tjlicinari(iii)—An evergreen tree with bright 
green, glossy leaves; of rapid growth, and 
probably hardy in the coast counties, from 
Sonoma south, as well as in the warmer belts in 
the interior where frosts are light. Valuable 
for its wood and the camphor made from its 
leaves; a handsome foliage tree. Lots of two 

( 'atalpa — ^Cntcdpn Sj>ei:io.t(i). This is the kind 
so highly recommended as a timber tree in the 
Western States. Its Urge and .somewhat tender 
leaves are rather liable to injury from strong 
winds, especially early in the season. Lots of 
two- yearling trees. 

Black Wattle of Australia — {Acacia De Cur- 
n Its). A rapid-growing, beautiful acacia, with 
feathery leaves, and valuable for its bark, "mi- 
mosa bark," which is highly prized as a tanning 
material. See report of the College of Agricul- 
ture for ISS'J, p. 109. Lots of ten plants. 

Pistachio Nut- [PiMncia Vira.) A number 
of seedlings of this tree which is as yet compar- 
atively rare in California, though manifestly 
adapted to a large part of the State, have been 
grown from seed imported last year. The 
plants are small as yet and somewhat delicate, 
and will need some nursing and a sheltered po- 
sition. Probably adapted to the southern half 
of the State. 

Caper plant- -(Ca/);jari< Spiiiosn variety 
/iicrmi-i). Thethornless caper seems to succeed 
well even at Berkeley, and would doubtless do 
much better in warm locations where it would 
not be cut down by frosts. It b^ars abundantly, 
and as a small industry, to be carried on by 
children, its cultivation would doubtless pay. 
A few plants only are on hand. 

Pear shaped (inava ( Ps/i/iMW Pyriferum). 
A small number of this fine fruit tree is on 
hand. It should be understood that this spe- 
cies is much less hardy than the strawberry 
guava {P. (kittliyanum), a.m.\ be valueless 
for any but the most sheltered locations, where 
only slight frosts of short duration occur. 

The supply of Hirilian (Siimacli iihiiJt Covi- 
aria] which it was expected to distribute ex- 
tensively this season, is as yet too small for 
genera 1 distribution, but is coming on for next 
season . 

Bamboos — (see report of the Collage of Agri- 
culture for 1 882, page 114). ( )f this interesting 
and promising group of plants, one species 
from the mountains of India ( Thamnocntnmnn 
S/Mi'liijloni.i), i.s on hand in sullicient qnantity 
for distribution: two plant.s to each lot. Of a 
number of other kinds a limited supply is on 
hand, and plants will be sent to persons taking 
special interest in the subject. The above 
plants being ((uite small, as yet, will require 
frequent watering until well established, but 
should not be planted in sour or water-sodden 

For trials in vineyards infested with the 
phylloxera, some two-year-old vines, grafted on 
the native wild vine of California, will be sent 
in lots of two each. 

For the same purpose, for trial by careful 
vine-growers, a small supply of the hardy Chi- 
nese grapevines, VHi/i Itomanet and Spinorilis 
DaviiJii, will be distributed. 

Of herbaceous plants, the following are of- 
fered: Pyrelhrvm lioscum, the Persian, and P. 
Cinerariif/oliion, the Dalmatian insect-powder 
plant. Six plants to each. 

New Zealand Flax — [Phormium Te.nax). Very 
useful in furnishing convenient tying material 
for gardens, by simply splitting the leaves; 
also a good honey plant in the southern part of 
the .State. Lots of six. A large supply on hand. 

Ramie plants of the three varieties, viz: 
Boehmeria Nivea, Boi-hmi-ria C'andiiiisuma and 
Boehmfria 7\iiacisxinui. The last named is 
said to he the most valuable, yielding the true 
ramie fiber of commerce. Six plants each lot. 

Angola Panic — (Paiiicuin f^/tfctabile, or as it 
has unfortunately been called in California, 
"evergreen millet"). Roots in one-pound 

New Zealand Salt Bush, Airipkx nummularia, 
a forage plant adapted to salty and alkali soils. 
Sec rep. for 1882, p. 117, belonging to Lamb's 
quarter group of plants, is much liked by cows. 
Ten plants to each lot. Of the seeds offered for 
distribution in a previous announcement, the 
following are still on hand, and will be sent on 
remittance of postage as noted below: Paine's 
Defiance and Odessa wheats; Scotch two-rowed 
and Imperial two-rowed barleys; Chinese buck- 
wheat. The above in one pound packages, 
postage, 16 cents. Schrader's bromas, two cts. 
jK)stage; Dalmatian and Persian insect powder 

plants, acorns of European or English oak, sent 
free on application. E. W. Hiu^ard. 

Berkeley, January 15, 1884. 

Vegetable Evaporation— Impoverisli- 
mebt of Land. 

M. Deherain, in his interesting discourses up- 
on the exhaustion of the soil by cultivation, 
makes some statements that are striking and 

In speaking of the e\ aporation of water from 
the leaves of plants, he says that in one hour, 
exposed to the sun, a leaf of barley exhales a 

j weight of water eipial to its own; and calculat- 
ing upon these hgures, "2.5 English acres of 
maize will lose, under the same cirumstances, 

I •2;'> cubic meters of water. Hales, an English 

i observer, has said that "2 English acres of cab- 

i bages lose, each day, 20 cubic meters of water? 
anil Lawes and Gilbert, in their studies on this 
subject, proved that a plant which has formed 
one kilogramme of substance within itself has 
carried in circulation through its tissues "2.50 to 
300 kilogrammes of water. 

Humus or decayed vegetable matter, is the 
body which is most ethcacious in retaining and 
keeping in a pure state the terrestrial waters. 
It can absorb an amount of water greater than 
its own weight, hoMs it more tenaciously than 
clay and infinitely better than sand. Analyses 

I show that humus abounds in the prairies, or 
unused lands, and that it climinishes greatly in 

I cultivated districts. 

M. Boussiiigault found in a pasturage of Ar- 
gentan, in a kilogramme of soil, 40 grammes of 
carbon belonging to organic matters, and only 
28 and 24 in the same quantity of ctiltivated 
land. M. Trucot found 10, 12, 14, 18 grammes 
of carbon in the districts of Limagne and .-^u- 
vergne, which were highly cultivated, while he 
rei>orts I 10, 120, 148 granunes in the prairie 
lands of the high mountains which were roamed 
over by cattle, but never received fertilizers. 

, The reasons for this difference are not difficult 
to determine. In the unused fields the earth is 
not broken up or exposed to the oxidizing and 
destructive action of the air, and the decaying 
roots, sprays, and scapes of the grass or herbs 
(Onstantly increase or maintain unchanged its 
percentage of humus. 

I .\1. Deher.ain has demonstrated the cause of 
I this loss. He divided his experimental land in- 
to parcels and devoted many of them to a con- 
tinuous cultivation. Some from 187-'> to 1879 
have borne potatoes, others corn, others each 
j year, beets. In 1878 the land planted with 
I maize, in one kilogramme contained l(i, 15, l.S 
I grammes of carbon; at the end of 1879, eighteen 
t months later, the same weight of soil gave 14.4, 
[ 10.4, 13.1, 12 :?, and at the end 1881 the amount 
[had been reduced to 8.0, 7. (i, 6. 1 grammes of 
carbon per kilogramme of soil. 
I In 1.S79 he examined the land planted with 
I beets and corn, having yielded three harvests of 
I beets and one of corn, and found the quantity 
of organic substances oscillating around 13 
grammes per kilogramme. He then sowed this 
ground with sainfoin, which remained undis 
turbed for three years and yielded excellent 
crops. At the end of the experiment he found 
the amount of carbon per kilogramme of soil 
i had scarcely changed, being in fact 11.4, 13.0, 
13.3, 12.8, 12.1, or a mean of 12.5, contrasting 
' to great advantage with the reduced amounts 
in the harrowed and turned up grounds. 

Apart from the reduction of organic matter 
in soils upon being tiiriail up, the oxidation 
I which removes the organic matter M. Deherain 
attributes to chemical change, by contact with 
air and to fermentation, but also largely to the 
activity of living organisms, plants and animals; 
for he observes, "The soil is not simply a mass, 
porous and inert, of clay, sand and humus, but 
rather a center. of organic activity." 
I Although MM. .Schliessing and Muntz have 
i shown that the formation of carbonic anhydride 
goes on in a sterilized soil, it is yet probable 
! that microscopic germs and other living occu- 
j pants of the earth are the jirincipal agents in its 
I production ordinarily. 

I These inferior beings play an important role, 
j and MM. Lawes, (iilbert, and Warrington have 
shown that the mushrooms, which at some sea- 
I sons appear in such numbers, <lecompose and 
I assimilate large quantities of the organic con- 
I tents of soils. The well known "fairy circles" 
] in fields are due to a luxuriant growth of grass 
I following the disappearance of the mushrooms, 
j which first formed them. These chemists found 
I that outside of these circles the ground con- 
tained 3.;{0 per cent of combined carbon, while 
within and after the occupancy of the space by 
j these parasites, the samples yielded 2. 73 per 
cent. This difference corresponds to almost 
9,000 kilogrammes of carbon to I hectare (2.5 
, English acres) of land. 

The Corinth uanal. 

Some further details have been received 
respecting the ship canal now being cut, 
in the most literal sense of the word, 
through the Isthmus of ( 'orinth. The actual 
length of the canal, when finished, will be just 
under fonr miles. The entrances to the canal 
will be 328 feet wide, diminishing to 72 foet, 
the depth King 2(i feet. The nature «f the 
ground through which this canal has to be cut 
is conifxjsed of three ilistinct kinds -firstly, 
froiu the (iuU of Corinth, through a plain con- 
sisting of sand and alluvial soil, for a distance of 
just over three-quaittr^ of a mile; secondly, 
through a mountain rai ge. varying in hight 
from 130 to 2(;0 feet, of the length of 2J miles; 
thirdly, beyond the mountain range to the sea, 
in the Bay of ( 'alamaki, the canal 
will traverse a little plain of the length of 
about two-fifths of a mile, composed of alluvial 
soil and rocks. The contract price of the work 
is about ;?.">, 000, 000. 

E.\ST I.VDIAS Woods. The Lomlon Timher 
Trudfis Journal has the following regarding 
East India furniture wood.s: Toon wood is 
light, soft and red, and ha^ no heartwood. It 
is not eaten by white ants, ;ind is highly valued 
and universally used for furniture of all kinds, 
and for door panels and carving. In Bengal 
and Assam it is the chief wood for making tea 
boxes, but is getting scat ce on account of the 
heavy demand. Chickerasi or Chikrassi wood ' 
is a large tree w ith bark reddish brown and 
I deeply cracked. The heartwood is hard, v.-vry- 
ing from vtllowish to reddish-brown, with a 
l>eautiful satin lustre. It seasons and works 
well, and is used for furniture and carving. 
\ Nagasar wood has dark-red heartwood, ex- 
tremely hard. It is used for building, for 
I bridges, gun-stocks and tool handles; but its 
: more general use is prevented by its great 
, hardness, weight, anil the difficulty of working 
I it. Pitraj wood is reddish, hard, close, and 
even-grained, but is little used. In Chitta- 
gong, canoes are sometime made of it. Kan- 
deb wood is light red, shining, cross-grained 
and moderately hard. It is used largely in 
|('hittagong for masts, spars nn<l rafters, and 
sometimes for small boat building. 

To Mem) Bkokes Ca>\ as.— When\as 
is b oken, rent or perforated in any part, the 
piece of canvas that is used to repair the ilam- 
age is dipped into melted wax, and applied the 
moment it is taken out, warm as it is, to the 
part, which h.-is been previously brought to 
geth«r as well as possible, and also saturated 
with the wax. With great care you tUtteu 
down the piece ; so that as the wax chills and 
concretes, the parts adhere and are kept 
smooth. The whole being made perfectly level, 
and the excess of the w ax removed, a tnastio 
made of w hite lead inixtil with starch is applied; 
for oil color docs not ailhere well to wax. The 
white is afterwards coIcm cd thin, or by washes, 
according to the tone uf the siirroiiniling parts, 
and repainted. 

In the Interest of Suffering Humanity. 

We call attenfion 
wliii-h i«* taken Ity ■ 
rert'y u]mn the w > 
restoring them to v. 
all in the line of {•{ 

a ?Hi\ \'ii-illzin 


, 11.-! ale 
nii'l il 

■urts hy S" '"!; nature her true oiiil healthy i-ontrol iti 
the human <>r):anisin. Thl>n^an(l-l <>f ni<i-,t wunilerfiil 
euros ha\e been niaile ihirini; the la>t tliirteen ^ears. If 
ycui are in neeil »i such a treatment, « rite t') Urn. Starkev 
& I'alen, IW i;irar.l street, ni la.lelphia. tn scnil yoli 
such diietniientA ami rci>ort.s >if eases as will Cnahle you 
to judge f'lr jonrself a> to it» eliii^n y in ..wn i-iise. 

All orilers for the Conipniind iixyi,'en. Home Treatment 
directed to H. K .Mathews, «l« Montgomery street, Han 
Francisco, will he niled on the same terms as if sent d:- 
rectly to m in I'hiladclphia. 

I Bi u;i.NG OF Rifle Barhel.s. -.\ board of 
I officers have tested a lot of rifles at the Spring- 
I field Armory to determine the cause of the 
bulging of the barrel, which occasionally oc- 
^ curs in practice. They lind it due to the fact 
I that the muzzk has baen stopped by sand, 
caused by resting the muzzle in wet sand, or in 
dry sand after the gun has become foul from 
filing. This arrests the passage of the ball, so 
that the pressure is increased at the point of 
swelling. It is curious that sand produced this 
result where wooden plugs, driven in tightly 
and swelled by steam, failed to do so. 

Proud of thf. Ritral. — We feel proud of the 
Rural Press. It is a paper that we are not 
ashamed to send to our friends in the East. 
Every farmer on the Pacific Coast should take 
it, and it is a valuable paper for any one to 
read. We appreciate your efforts. Long may 
you live to bless our cause. — James Blood, 
Carpinteria, Cal. 

Commercial Hotel. — This popular house, in 
Stockton, is the headquarters for farmers and 
travelers. Reasonable prices and good accom- 
modations are promised, and its locality, on 
Main street, has made it the resort for travelers 
and agriculturists. 

PiwciiKRON Buxiii Will Tell. — A. M Stein & Co., Brook - 
lyn, N. Y , handle J.UIK) hoi-ses annually, mostly heavy 
draft They say of the grade I'ercheron-Nonnans: "Wc 
handle more of the Pereheroii-Normans than of any other 
breed There is more demand for them. They give the 
best satisfaction, nn waiter hott little uf the blniid there in 
in than, (icnerully they have good feet and last better 
on our pavcment-s than the Clydesdales or other breeds. 
Tell the farmers of the West to krep their Percheron- 
Nonnan mares and ft. red them. Would advise breeding 
to I*ercheron-Nornian horses in prefereiH-e to any other 
breetl."— Chicago Tribune. Nearly 1,400 Pereheron-Nor- 
man horses have been imported from France and bred in 
their purity by,*I. W. Piinham, ftf Wayne, III., who 
v^-ithin the past few months has purchased 390 of them 
from the best breeders in France, jiai-ticular attention 
being gi\ en to l edirgecs and French records. as Plant Foou. — .A, Cerinan ex- 
change s.ays that chlorine is a very important 
nutrient for plants. To all appearances the 
chloride of potassium exceeds the nitrate in nu- 
tritive value as long as the qitantity does not ex- 
ceed a definite limit. When there is too much 
of the chloride, the quantity of chlorophyl de- 
creases, the plants ripen sooner, but the oxalic 
acid increases in quantity. In fact, it acts just 
like hydrochloric acid would. 



Full Text ot the Decisions of Judges 
Sawyer and Deady. 

The Points at Issue Legally Explained.* 

We give below the decision by Hon. Judge 
Sawyer, and the concurring opinion of Hon. 
.ludge Deady which declare<l thut hydraulic 
mining, as at present conducted, must be 
stopped. As this decisiou is important and far- 
reaching, both in its direct and indirect in- 
fluences, we take occasion to present the de- 
cision to our readers in complete form. 

Uerision ot Jiiiiiie Sa-wfr. 
By the Court, Sawyer, Circuit, Ju.lge. TWs Is a 
blllinequliy to rfSirain ilie def^DdaDts, belDg 
several raiDlDg companies, engaged in Dyrtraulic 
miniDg on tlie wf s'ei n aiope ol the Sierra Nevada 
.MountalDS, trom UiscUatgltig ilielr mining debris 
Inio the affluenis pt tne Yuoa Klver, una inio tiie 
river Itself, wneuce It is carrltd down by tiie cur- 
rent into Feattier ana Sacramento Rivers, filling 
up iheir cnanr.els an i Injuring ibeir uavlg,i'lon ; 
ana snmi-nmes, bV overflowing and covering the 
nelgbooriBg lands wiib debris, lujurlng and 
t.nreaiening to injure ana desiroy tbe lanas ani 
property ontie compiaiLant, ana ot oilicr prop- 
erty owners, siiuuie on anaadjacent toilie banKs 
01 idesp waiercuiiises. 


In Mai cn, 18M, tbe secretary oi War transmit- 
ted to Congress ibe official report or Lieuienant- 
Colonei Mendel, 01 tbi-" corps ot engineers upon 
examlnatlous and surveys to devise a system ot 
works to prevtnt tne tuitlier injury to tue navi- 
gable waters ot Calliornla from the debris of 
mines aiming from hydraulic mining," wblcb 
survpys and lepori were made in our.-UfiDce C 
tbe Act 01 Contrress, relating to rivcra and nar- 
bors, of .June 14, 1880. This report, made in Jan- 
uary, 1882, was tnrroduced lo evidence, and it has 
been quoted and rfco^nlztd by boib aides m the 
case, as showiny the injurious results ot hy- 
draulic and other mining, up to Us daie, and the 
remedies afieuiptea and suggesiea. It Is, also, 
fully conflrmert by ihe other evidt-nce In the case, 
and by tue condition ot thiues as disclosed up m 
actual inspection and observmlon, maoe by tne 
Judges Who traversed and examined i he country 
atfectfd by tbe operationscomplalnea or, in ibe 
presence and with iho consent ot representatives 
of the respective parties atd their counsel. 
Many of the fliers to rhe general statement will, 
there lore, be taken In a cdBdensea form from that 


Hydraulic mlnine, as used in this opinion, is 
the process by which a bank ot goid-bearlug 
earth and rock is excavated by a Jet oi water, dis- 
charged through the converging nozzle ot a pipe, 
upder great pressure; the earih and debris being 
carried away by the same water, through sluices, 
ana discharged on lower levels Into tbe natural 
streams ana warercourses otlow. Where the 
grravel or other material of the bank Is cemented, 
or Where the bank is composed of masses of pipe- 
clay, It 13 shattered by blasting with powder, 
sometimes trom nfieen to twenty tons of powder 
being uved at one mast to break up a bank. In 
the early pi-riods or hyaraullc mlotng, as in 1856, 
the water was dlscuarued taioug-u a rubbt r or 
canvas hose, with nozzles ot not more than an 
Inch in diameter ; but laier, upon tne Invention 
of the "Little Giant" ana the '• Monitor " ma- 
chines, the size of tbe nozzle and the pressure 
\^ere iruely itcreas^a, till low the nozzle is 
from four to nine lucues In diameter, dlschaiglng 
from Uve hundred lo one inousand Inones of 
water under a pressure nt from three lo lour or 
Ave hundred ifei. i<or example, au elsht men 
nozzle, av the Norcb Bioomflela mine, discharges 
one huDdred and eighty Uve thousand cubic re.-t 
01 waier in an uour, wiib a veiociiy ot one hun- 
dred ana nnyfeet pi-r sec ind. The exoavai itjg 
power ot Such a body oi water, oischaigea wli b 
such vloclty. Is enormous; aca, umess the 
gravel is verj heavy or artuly cmented, it Is 
much in excess ot its transporting power. At, 
some of I be mines, as at the Norm Bioomfleid, 
several ot these Monitors are workeo, much ot 
tbe lime night ana day, the st-vt-rai levels upon 
wblcn ihey bre at work being brilliantly limmi. 
naied by electric lights, the electricity being gen- 
erated by Water po'ver. a nigni sense of tne 
klDO, at tbe Norili Bioomtleld mine, la In the 
bignest decree wclm and siartilng, and u can- 
not tall 10 strike strangers with wonoer and ad- 
miration. The nmouni ot debris dlscnargeo into 
the rivers by these operations can only be duly 
appreciated by actual oos-. tvation. 


The Yuba River is a iribu'ary ot Feather River, 
entering it at MarysvUie, thirty miles ab ve the 
mouth or the Feather, where the latter Joins the 
Sacramento, it is tbe lourth river In size in the 
Sacramento Valiey, and drains about tbliteen 
Dundred and thirty square mlies ot tbe western 
slope ot lb'- Sierra Nevada .Mountains, compris- 
ing portions of Sierra, Nevada and Yuoa coun'ups 
—Its extn me breadth be'iig about ihlny six 
mtlfs, anil I'sextreme length about sixty miies, 
excluding tbetwelve miles ot its lower l ourse 
from the tootblils toiis Junrtion with F'^a'her 
River at Marysville. Tht* elevation of tne iuoa 
0>iHln above iloe-water is from two niinared feet 
ams io«vesf, parts 10 about eight tnousaod ffer, 
at the RUBimlt or the mounialos ; but the gold 
aeposiis of this basin only extend tn an elevation 
or fiom four to five thousand feet, in a belt from 
fort..V to h'ty miles wide. The upper portion of 
tbe tlVT IS dlvioert Into Ave principal oranchef, 
the North, Midale, and soutn Yubap, and Deer 
and Dry Creeks. The tlrst lour— Ueer Creek 
being nearly aslerge as the smallest main branch 
— uni'e In the mountalos before reaching the val- 
ley ; Deer Creek, not far from It ; the last, Dry 
Creek, Jolninft the main river In this valley, 
shortly after It iPOVfS the foothills. Tbe aebris 
complained of is mostly dlecbargea Into the Mid- 
dle and south Yubas and Deer Creek, ahd their 
numerous smaller tributaries. 


Tbe aurlterous deposit on the san Juan Ridge, 
between the South and Middle Yuras. embracing 
most of oetebdants' mines, and a larger part of 
tbe mines now actually worKeti being under tbdr 

—"Decision rendered in San Francisco Jan. 7, 1884. 

control. Is much tbe largest and most important 
lathe biate, aoais lavorably situated for work- 
ing, lb' beds of i he ancient channels in which It 
lies beine elevat. a several hunared leei above 
tbe beds of the Yubas aid toeir affluents, and 
the annual floods ot the Yuoi may oe re'ied on 
iocarr> oft a large portion of the debris resulting 
from mlnin!;. Sajs 'he report referred to: •• I'he 
llnijar ext.ent ot the gravi^l coantiel and us 
branch' s on this nage is about twent\ -Ave miles. 
DeO'ic'ing liberally tor tne DOrilon alrendy 
worked, and tor that too ileoply c ivpnd by lava 
to be av. noble lor hydraulic miring, ihere re- 
main, probably, not less ihHu fourteen miles of 
channel avarabie tor »a^blnl^, tiom which only 
a comparativi ly small portion ot 'he top gravfl 
has been iemov(d. Below San Juan toe gravel 
body has a surface widihof over one tnousabd 
feet, atrd Is, say. one hundred nud forty deep. 
Prom Badi-'er Hill to Blnomfleid, U IS fi>r toe 
greater portloti very much wiuer and deeper. 
At Columma bin Its suiface widih varies from 
thr^c I bousahd or tour thousand to eight thou- 
sand feet, and It 13 from tiir.'e huudred to six 
hundri'dteet „^eD. Tne gravel at Like City Is 
probably 'hree huudred or tour Hundred feet 
oeeo. At North B'oiimBild It is opened lo the 
bedrock, shown g a dfpth of more inaa three 
hutdr a feet. Roughly e>iimaiing the averaee 
width of tne remalnlnn gravfl rahtfe at four hun- 
dred yards, aud, afidf allowing lor the ponton 
worked otr, ulaciLg IIS average depth at seveDty 
yards, the suno Is ac av.raae of, sa.v, Utiy million 
yards per njile, or for rourteen miles, sayesevn 
hundred million yards." 


" Allowing for tne amount washed since 1876, 
one hundred million yards, there remain six 
hundred million to be removed ;" adding to this 
the estimated amount still remaining to be 
worked at. smarlsvlile, lower down the river, and 
the amiiuni remaining to be washed win appear. 
Says colonel Mendell : " Sf ven hundred mliliOQ 
of cubic yards may be assumed to represent iha 
amount or t;ravi-l remaining to be worki'd Dy 
b.i rtrau IG piocess, iribuiarj 10 the Yuoa " Ap- 
pro'lmately. tben, accoroine to the evlde-nce, 
over one hun.ired tnllilon of cubic yards lo thpse 
mines have been washed out, tjy the hidr iulic 
process, and the debits deposited in the Yuoa 
ana its affluents : and seveu huodred miinon 
raorereuiaiii to oe wasbtd out, and lis debris 
dHpositt-u in these watercourses in the same 


The followii'g snows some of > ne results ot for- 
mer washings, and unmistakably indicates what 
must result trom a contlnuauce of the work : 
The Yuba with its branches, and email affluents, 
were necessarily characierlzi d by heavy grades, 
the waters falllug about eight thtiUSaLO fi ei. In a 
distance or ninety or a hundred miles from Ihelr 
extreme sources roihe Feather Klver. They ran 
tUrouKb deep, rocky canyons and gorges, over a 
rough rocky ootiom, wiih treciutnt rapids, and 
waier-talls ot liteater or less uelyht, and there 
were many deep holes excavated by the action 
ot roe Water at the foot ot falls, rapios, and 
Ihe like, t he bed.Hof all these streams, from tbe 
very dumps or the higher mines 'o ihe Juncoion 
of the malo Yuba wnh Feather River, a distance 
of seveniy-flve miles or more, have all been 
nil- d up m tny teer deep— at some places lo the 
deptti of one hundred ana fltty reet.ano all the 
streams have reiiuiariy graced 
ihat a ralltoad track might bo laid upon their 
beds for the whole distance— the grade, ot course, 
heme steeper in the upper parts, but equally 


Thus the main branooes Of I be Yuba ahd Deer 
CreeK, Shady Cieck, Bloody Run, Qrlzziy 
Canyon, Humbug Canyon, and the other 
smaller tributaries, all exhibit this re- 
sult. There are manv square miles, in the 
asfgregite, In Ihe beds of these streams, 
buried many leet deep with debris, and these 
Channels are choked and cloaged wlib It— tbe 
heavier material being oeposited hluher up and 
the lighter pasolog farther down. Most of it will 
from yfar to year be carried fanhe. down, and 
uliimiiely tlnn lis way to the valley. The, traos- 
poiiii g capacity of the water, however. Is ulc- 
qual to the task or carrying oft all theaebiis at 
once, as It Is discharged into the stream, so, 
also, Ihe ordinary floods, trom year to year, are 
uoaole to carry off all the debris discharged into 
tbe streams duting ihe year; and it, conse- 
quently, aceumuiaies tiom year to jearaiont; the 
upper poriious of the watercourses, witnih the 
moutitHlDS, till an extraordinary flood comes. 
Woen such a flood occurs, it transports a much 
larger (I mount at once, ana precipitates it upon 
the valleys below. 


Vast amouats are now accumulated In the 
upper courses ot ihe Yuba and its brancbes, 
which are liable to be precipitated in Immense 
quantniFS into the valleys below, by any extraor- 
dinary flo2d— sujh as that ot 1862— that may 
hereatier occur. With reieience toihe amount ot 
thfse deccsiis remaining in the Yuoa atiove 
Marysviile, colonel Mendni. in bis report, savs: 
" Tue estimates tiy Mr. rrtanson, reported to the 
8 ate Engineer, nlve lUe estimated aeposlts, in 
1879. on the \ una, above the loothiils, as for y. 
s.x million four hunared and sixty two thousand 
one hundred cubic yaros, ice cieat bulk lu f\i>\xi 
or ten mnes; and oelow, tweniy-toree million 
two hundred and eigbiy-tour thousand— a total 
ot seveniy-one million seven hundred and lorty- 
slx thousand one hundred cuoic yardi. In the 
light or later Inrormaiion, it seems probable- that 
this estinoaie IS altpgether too low, the deposits 
In small iribuiarifs nor having been taken into 
account, and the amount in th" lower river hav- 
ing been much unaeresilmated. The actual 
amount IS rot c.ipiole of being ascertained, and 
the statements ate given merely lor the purpose 
pf Illustration." 


" At IIS escape trom the mountains, where the 
foothills recede and give width to the plain, ihe 
Yuoa spreads ou' Its load of sand and gravel over 
a plain ol flfieen I hoi'sand to sixteen thousand 
acres, which has risen uiAil It now stands above 
the level ot the adjoining country on either sue. 

" This plain has a slope of abour ten feet lo the 
mile, varying above and beiow tnls limit as you 
ascend or aescena, the slope or tne river bed be- 
ing fltteen feet at the foothills and five feet at 
Marysviile, ten mlies below. Tne s'zeB ot ma- 
leilil have some correspondenc lo tue grajes. 
ASi^ending Ihe stream, one passes to a continu- 
ally increasing averaue size ot inareilal. While 
It IS nearly all sand below, above It becomes 
neatly ail gravel, with, however, considerable 
aomlxture of oilTerintsizes everywhere. 

ihis Iriupllon Irom the mountains has de- 
slroj ed tnousands of aeres of alluvial land. The 
Slate Engineei-, in 1880, estimated ibUl tlttern 
tnousabd two btindrodand twenty acrtshid bee:; 
seriously Injured by ihete aeposiis trom the 

•' On the Yubi, tbe great deposits of gravel are 
fouod on a grnde of luiriy feet to twenty teeo to 
tbe mile, i'ne sands predominate greatly in 
slopes of ten feet and below." 


The por'lon of the valiey here referred to as 
covered with sand Is that portion ot the borders 
ot tbe Yuba Rivtr extebolog across ihe Sacra- 
mento Valley from the foothills to lis Junction 
with Feather River at Marysviile—a Distance of 
about twelve mnes. Formerly, before bydrauus 
minii g operations commenced, the Yuoa River 
ran ihroutib this parr of its course in a deepchaii- 
nel, witn gravelly no'tom irom three huudred to 
tour huuored re ei. vxide, on an average, with sieep 
banks trom ntteen lo twenty fret nigh at low wa- 
ter, on either sioe. From Ihe top ot the banks, 
00 each side, ext -noed a sii ip ol ooi tom laras i t 
rich, black, alluvial sou, on >.n average a mile and 
a nan wi ji-, upon which were situate some ot i he 
finest I'arms. oichatds .tnd vlneyaids in iSp Slate. 
Beyond into Hrsi bo torn was a second bottom, 
wtuch extended some distance to the ridce ot 
higher lanos, Ihe Whole coustitiitlng a basin be- 
tween the higher lann-oo either sme, ot riom a 
mile and a bait to ihree miles wtie. Not only 
has the channel of 1 he river li rou^in these bot- 
toms b' en fliif d up to a depth ot twenty. Ave leet 
and upwards, bui this en'ire s'llp of noi mm land 
has been tiuriea with San J and oeoris. maby fett 
de ep, from ridge to rldae of hieb land, and utterly 
rumed foi laimlng and oiner Durposes lo which 
n was betore devoied, and It has consequently 
been abandoned for soc.a uses. 


Dr. Teegardeo's lands afford a verv striking ex- 
ample ot Individual Injniles inflicted by this min- 
ing oebrls. Dr. Teegarden is a piominent citizen 
ot ifuoa county, having for some years represent- 
ed the county In the stale senate. He owned 
twelve hundred and seveoty-bve acres on the 
Yuoa bottoms, some three or four miles above 
MarysvUie, on the north side. All, except the 
seventy-tive acrr s now lying outside the levee, 
have been bunea from three to Ave feet deep 
witn sand, and utterly destroyed tor farming 
purposts; tor which lujuiies he has received no 
remuneration. He now lives in a scnall house 
near the levee, on Ihe ouisloe, which is liable to 
be swept away soould toe icVec break opposite to 
himouringan exiraordlnaiy flood. Dr. Teegar- 
den ifsnfles that the main Qiiing up was in 1879 
and 1880 ; out that i neie has been a ccnstant ad- 
dition 10 It ever since, and that, dur- 
ing the last year. It has fllled up taster 
than at any other time ; that he built tnree miles 
or levee to protect li, Dui n. proved Insufficient ; 
and that the land la nve 10 SIX feet hmber wiib 
sand and sediment on the river, or Insioe of me 
levee, than on the outside, where he lives. A 
considerable portion. Out not all. ot the loner 
bottoms ot Ihe Y'uba wete covered hi ihe aceum- 
iilatto dfebi Is drought down by the great flood ot 
1862 ; our, it uas been exi ending »na deepening 
ever since. Much, pernaps most ot it, waS more 
or less covered by 1868 or 1869. Since mat time 
levees have been built uy llie cltiz- ns or Mar.vs- 
villa and Yuba couuty alonir the rids-e oo either 
side, tor tne purpose ot "pieveniing a further 
soread or the devastation, and ror the protection 
ot MarysvUie and the adjacent country. 


In addition to toe levees so erected five years 
ago, as O'BrleD, who did the work, tesilOes, the 
miners themselves also oullt a levee for the same 
purpose, belbg the levee on the soui h sloe of the 
Yuba, from the foothills to the Hedges giade, with 
which 11 coiibectea at Hedges station, a distance 
Of eight miles, at a cost ot *86,00ii, of whiCQ sum 
the defendants In this sun paid 80 per cent, sm j. 
Is the levee which, connected with Hedges grade 
Irom I's connectuin lo the Feather Kivsr, pro- 
tects tne country trom overflow on the south. It 
brote in tnree places in Linoo lownshiip. in Juno 
last. When the English dam gave way, and the 
couoiry for a considerable oistmce oelow, ex- 
tending to the Eiizi tract, several mile.j distant, 
was flooded, wli h some though not great dam- 
age—the flood trom tne reservoir having soon 
spent Itself. Not on y has all the space between 
these levees been filled with this debus to a level 
wnh the high lanos upon which they are built, 
bill for miles ot me loner portion of tne river, tne 
filling, between the levees, is several feet above 
the level ot the surroundiDK country on the out- 
side. Toe lutervenint; space Is grown up with 
young cotionnoods and willows. 


The river has now no definite channel within 
these bounds, but runs any where over the space 
between tbe levt es, situate two to three miles 
apart, acjordtng to the obstructions Its wateis 
meet irom lime 10 time by growiLg trees, or ac- 
cumulation or drlfi-ncod, or deposits made by 
Itself, thereby raising tne bed, where it aciually, 
for a time, runs lo a higher level than the bed of 
such sun ouidlDg Channel as it has. This broad 
cnannel, or bed, such as it is, is several feet high- 
er than the lanos ot tbe surrounding countiy out- 
side the Itvees, which outside lands nave no 
ptoiecilon Irom oveiflow of tne waters or tie 
Yuoa, surchargeo wn o deorls, except ihe sienaer 
luiervening anlflclal 0iuks, so erected by tue 
people at d the miners for that purpose. The 
lanos thus already buried and Oe.sirOied are 
over Bfieen thousand acres, ori neo'i -five square 
miles; or, taking the average width, a tract from 
the foothills 10 MurysviUe. tw ive mlits long 
along the river, by two miles wide. Tae nulut; 
In tue river bed Is generally iweniy-Mve leet or 
more, and, at lu> immeolaie junction wn h Feath- 
er River at. Marysviile, IS about iwen y teei deep 
—some witness' s make h deeper— wh"re It foims 
a bar rf nearly that, dep'h across Featner River. 
The depth ot the filling is iLCteaslug year oy 
year, and raising the bed oi the river witom the 
levees higuer and nigher above the suriouudlng 
country outside ihe levees. Tue depth ot toe flli- 
iDg Increases as the river is ascendeu, tin, at 
Squaw Flat,ne=ar Park's Bar, below cimarlsv Ue, 
at the eniraLCe ot the looi bills, according lo me 
tesllmon.^ ot O'Brien, a wiii/ess lor derendants, 
It 18 one hiinareo ana flfiy leet oeep. Opooslie 
Success Flat Ravine It IS ninety, and at tne nar- 
rows above smirisviUe, sixty feel deep. The 
dpposlis coDHl u'lng tne first ntiy feet, ai Squaw 
Fut. have been there ten or twelve years, and 
tne rest has aecumuia'ed sloe. At a point near 
this, at Rose's Bar, where tbe channel was once 
nut one hundred to three huidred teetnldeln tne 
bed of the caryon, It has now been raised by ail- 
ing till It Is three thousand ftei wide. But at 
these points DO valuable lan-Ja are covered. 


The result, as (.ffectlug the navigability ot the 
waters of tne Star*, will be stated upon tne 
auihotlty of Mendell's report, which was made 
upon lustrumental surveys and actual measure- 
menis, and is amply supported by other evidence. 
The low-water level ot Feaiher River, at Marys- 
vUie, the head ot naviga'loo, has been raised 
fully nfieen ti et— at this time more— indicaiina a 
rise ot the bed ot ihe river to that height aoove 
Its toruier bed. The niMng at the mouth or 
Feat uer River, IS fully five f Pt. Says MendfU: 
"Taking fifiecn teet at MarvsvlUe aid Ave tcet ac 
the moutf,! be difference- ten tcr— is to dp adoed 
to tbe Old fall. Tnis inci eases the slope ot the 
Feaiher, in lis navigable part, tour inches to the 

mile. This Increase has Impaired tbe dep 
waierand tbe practicaouny of navigation i 
considerable extent. 

'•Applying to Ihe navigable portinn of the 
feaiber the rule aoopted trrthe minimum de- 
posit, in the Sacramento, namely , tn It lUe aver- 
age flutog IS equal to Ibe elevai ion of t fe plane 
01 low water, we W'U have, for the ihlrlyraues 
from Marjsvilieio ihe mouth, an average oepta 
of ten feet over I he bed ot tjenver. inlsfsti- 
mate is mought to be neie as in ihe Sacratnenio, 
ctnslderabiy b'-low the tact" St me wnnessss 
savitisnow fltteen fejt. Again : •' As a conse- 
quence of these charges, » higher flood line and 
g eai.f r exnosure to overflow now exists ror all 
riDirian lands on both laeserlveis. Tuis is an 
element ot considprabie Uss lo the cotjniry, but 
Its description and oist us-inn do nor come within 
the limits ot this lnvestii;aiion. * • « 


The elevarion ef the bed ot the river is not 
accompanied by an equal rise in the levl of the 
banks. The level ot the bed approacnes moie 
and more the level of the bmks. In the cases of 
the Yuba and Bear, noo-aavigaoie streams, iho 
level of the beds has risen from a depi n a number 
of teet below me banks to an elevation ot Stveral 
feet above i he binks. 

" These instances may betaken to illustrate 
the ultimate condition of the Sacratneoio and 
Feather RiVers, under a continuaaee t>t toe influ- 
ences 10 which Ihey ate now suoj-citd. Tue 
abatdonmeut ot exis log channels is a conse- 
quence to oe rippreaendea." li, la c aimed oy 
plalnilff, and the testimony 00 1 be pomt Is con- 
lliciing, that there is d nger of ihe' sacramt nto 
leaving lischanrel at Gray's bend, anj running 
some distance trom Sacnmento Ctty lothe west. 

•' In the Sacramento RiVer, a similar In us 
bed has taken oUce, from similar causps l)ur- 
Intf tne iwe n'y yea is ot mlnlEg, fiom 1849 lo 
1869. the low- water plane la the river at, Sacra- 
mento was lalsed two and nlte-ientos feet. 
During the nexi ten years of hyor iullc mining, 
from 1869 to 18(9, Ihe rise In ihis plane was 
doubled. It has raised fully six feet from 1849 to 
1881. Says Mendell : 'Asa eous->qi]enoe ot the 
elevation ot t he bed, ihe iidal u flueoce which, in 
1849. extended at least as high as the mouih of 
the Feai her, tweniy-flvemilcs ab ve Sac amenro, 
and was quite two te- 1 ai Sa' ramenio, Is now no 
longer noticeable above Heacock shoals, nine 
miles below sajr^^memo. The iide, wiinin me 
oasti thlriy yeats, ruse on iheae shoals as much 
as three feet.' » • • 


"Twenty-flve miles oeiow Sacramento the 
river olvioes into two delta channels, which utlie 
below, the intermediate distance Dy the two 
channels nelng eiuhteen miles by Old River and 
twelve miles by steamooat Siougb. 

" In the earner oa;, sot navi^ja inn, and until 
SIX or eight years ago (oetote 1881). Sieamooat 
siough was the cnaunei Uieo by all boats and 

It, IS a oartof the public his'ory of the Stale, 
with which all Ihe early set'lers are familiar, 
that for years ihe comparatively aeep-orautihc 
steamers, senator ana New World, the former 
bum to run trom New York to Ponland, Maine, 
and the latter to run on tne Atlaoiic Ocean outot 
New York, both ot which either came round 
Cape Horn, or ihrouvh the sir ills, r-in regularly 
throuKh Sieamooai Slough. This slough is aow 
nilea up, so as not to be bavigable tor the Imht- 
araught river boats lu use at, ihe present day, 
ana ns navigation abandoned, steamers L'olng by 
the logger louie or the Oid RiVer. The oeus of 
Ihe river have not only been fined and raised for 
several, out the c jaunels have been largely 
contracted In wmtb. So, also, rrotn similar 
Causes, toe shoal water lu Suisun.San Pablo aid 
San Francisco biys, and lo tue i raics or i^atqul- 
nez, have 1 rgeiy increasea, and me navigable 
channels ot these waters have been con-ideraoly 
and materially coniracied. The aebils from Bear 
River and the American of course cjm iibu e their 
snare to flu I he Sactamenio, nelow inemoutnof 
me American and steamboat Slouyh, as do some 
ot tbe bouihern rivers, lo swell me amount or oe- 
pjstMlu th'i sr.raits ot Carquinez, and Suisun, 
San Paolo ana San Franci'cu b lys, out the mines 
or tbe Ifuba discharge a mu-u larger amount ot 
debris than all i ne other mines toyttber. 

In speaking of remedial means, col. Mendell 
says : " The S'ateraeni of the ease prefemed in 
the prpcpolbg pages seems lO establish tne ne- 
cessitv of measjres ot remedy or alt. viai ion, even 
In Ibe eveu' mat no fun hereout r^bu'ion be maoe 
10 mining rfftn'Hs lu ttie beds of srreims. « • « 


"The preset vitlOQ of river-beds and routes of 
drainage requires that effective lestraint be im- 
posed upon mining detritus. Otherwise, these 
drainage lines may be expected lo suffer tne fate 
wolcQ overtook their prototip.s, the Pliocene 
rivers. whlPD were obliterateo by enormous de- 
posits brought do\,Tn oy their own cuirents. 

•' I' may be added i hat the conservation ot ex- 
isting facilities for navluanoo equally requires 
resiraintor toe flow nt sand ant gr»vei; and 
that no impori ant improvement ot toe channels 
can be expecte o un U this resiiii shall be secured. 
Under all circumsiatcts, restraint is me first 
and essential step lo any project.s, whether of ai- 
levi iiion, cooservaiioo, or improveme nt. 

'■It has been shown that in tne OPdsof the 
AmPrloan, Bear and Yuba theie are now l.ung 
many milU ins oi cubic yards of maitriai in posi- 
tions wneie it is compar^ltlvelJ harmless, and 
tnareacn yard, as a rule, adds sirae'hiiigto i ne 
volume of these deposits, DUi mai,wb'-iher any- 
thing is adtieo or BjytniDtf suoiiaoted. wriich is 
sometimes the case, deoends upon tbe vulume and 
poiver of the fl,,ons. as i rule, the mines supp'y 
more m i^enai annually I nan I he floods are i.ble 
to transpoi t over the grades in the lower por ions 
ot 'he livers. If me fioods iveie cf sufflcieni 
duration, the acciimuiunous would b- found 
lower down and in more duuger'iis pr sinons. In- 
stead Of ivlnt! in the ben ot the Y'uoa, tbey would 
be In the Feather ana sacramenio. 

The waters of the Yuoa are so chaived with 
debris that tbey are wholly unfit ror watering 
stock, or lor anv of t he uses, domestic or O'btr- 
wise, to whleh water is usually applied, wanout 
being first, laken out ot the stream aod i-.ilowed to 
stand in Some undistun ed place and settle, as 
If comes oown to Mar.^svllle, ir is so heavliy 
charged with sand as to render It unfit even ror 
surface irriga Ion. 


In pursuance of the prov.slon of ihe drainage 
Actot 1880 (Slat. 1880, 130), the State, under the 
supervision of the Sta'e Engineer and Col. Men- 
dell, as consul'^iniir enizlnec:', erected a brush nam 
for imoounding debris, about two miles in lengtn. 
across the Yuba River, from ringe to ridge of 
highland, some eight miles above Marysvlile. At 
the first ordinary flood m the following rainy 
season, a larae seciiou on the northerly end and 
two otU«r sections ton aids the south wero- swept 
away. According to the report; ot Hamllion 
Smith, Its fntflneer, to i he Norm Bloom Held Com- 
oany, made in Julj, 1881, after the oieak oy ihe 
floods, the oam was at Its greatest h'lgnt, 
rourieen teet, ''lis cost belni? in me belthbor- 
hood or one hundred ahd twenty mousind dol- 
lars," and It broke in three pi ices, aa loliows : 
'• The east embankment at the noithern tnd nas 


been washea away nearly down to the orli^Dal 
level.from tbe end ot tbe brusd work to ilie shore, 
a ol-iaDce or leur buodren leet : lUebru'^n dam 
Has bee u cut. away emirely In two i)lac»8, one 
seven hundred and alxiy feec, and ihe oiuer two 
bunoied and ibiftf re« t iniecgin, measured on 
the eri-3'-. In iwo places ihi-re are small gaps, 
but tbe louBdiiion l.i uiKtisiuroed. Out ot a total 
lenxib or ten ihousano feet ibere has, ihereiore, 
been rti-STOtea abour. one-seventb." 

Aferwara;^, curing the ary season, tbe dam 
took nrt- aDG a larife poriiOB ot 'be rf malnder was 
burned, ad impounding aam was also constructed 
by tee Stat", under tne same act, on Bear River, 
wHh similar results. Tb>-se dams, wii b connec- 
iDir ana ausMary levpcs bnln b> the Stale, are 
understood to nave cost over five hundred iDou- 
sand dollars. 

The Nortb Bloonitleld Mining Companr, defend- 
ant, has construcieo a dam to impound i>s d>-brls, 
nti.y feet bigb, near ibf jutcilon or bumDug 
Canyon wi' a tbe south Yuoa, Toe dam, not 
havirii been carried uigher as It illiei up, is now 
full, and tne deo'ls tbai has passed over toe dam 
has mild tbe canyon and souih Yuba ueiow ine 
dam to a 1<"vh1 with ibHdebns above, fo toai now 
the debris psisses aione do vn the eanyon over the 
dam without obstruccioo. aa though no dam at 
all existed at mat point, a similar dam, ereclt-d 
across sucker FUi ravine, at hmarisMUe, lo im- 
pound tbe dF>bns at the mines at that place, Is Id 
a similar cond'fioo. 


The complainaDt has owned In fee, tor more 
than twenty years, and be s'lll owns, an ui:- 
dlvldeo bait of three parceisor land, held under 
a patent ot the Uoi'cd States, ifsurd uoon a 
praut msde by the Mexican (javernm>-nt t<5 Jodn 
A. BU'ler, and ktown a» the New Helvetia grant. 
One Is a city lot snuitea m MarysvlUe, at tbe 
co'nerof D and Si cood streets, near lue busi- 
ness center or tne town, and aoout flife hundred 
feet from the levee an iheYuDa, wb'cb lor. Is 
covered bv a brii-k block or sio'es, called the 
Empire Block, ereced about. 1854 or 1855. at a cost 
01 bomewbere Oclweeti rorty thousand and 
Blx'y ihousand doiurs. F^imeriy tne 
fctf-amboat lauding was m the Yuoa nearly 
opposite tbis block, tiut now the YuOa Is 
tilled up and tbe steatnboat laoJini; Is In 
Fea' her River, opunsite YuoiCity, which is in 
suiter couo y, nearly tbr^e-murtus of a mile 
dis'aut; anomerisa tructor farming lai.d, con- 
sisting or nine hundred and nfty-iwo acre?, 
sliUttied on tbe east bank if Pt-ather River, a 
le* mllrs Celow Marysville, known as tbe E izi 
tract, upon woK h mere was lo-m^-'b- a uuulic 
sfenmonat >anoing, usf d for reeeiviog and dis- 
Cha-glng frcigbt ano PiSSergers; bu'. by reason 
Ot tbeHiiiugcji tbf l»eriolron; 'O'he depth ot 
twelve to ntieen feet, it Is now of little use. 
Tbe tnird is a tract or Ima ot seven 
hundred and twen y and Ufty-seven buu- 
dredtba acre.-, kuoAO as tne Hock larm 
trac, OD tbe western bank or Feather 
Kiver, not fat from tbe E Iza tiac, hut on tne 
opposite Pioe or tb'' river. Or tiie Eiiza traci, 
St vectv-flve acres, and of Ihe Hock tarm tract, 
flfiyacrt-8or me outicm laniB, oeing the best 
land on these tracts, were buried bydeoilsln 
]86'i atd fiubfenuent yt-ars, and th^-y are still 
coverer".. iron time to time, witb fresh deposits. 
These lands bave become covered wlib cotton- 
wood and wiil<iws and are useless for any 
agriculi ura! rurposts. omtr portions of mese 
tracts are sun within ihc levees erected and 
liable to overflow. 

About 1868, 1 be people Ot MaryRvllle found It 
necessary lo build li-vees arnunu tbe city acd 
along tbe nortb bank of Y'uoa RtVf-r to piotr ct it 
from tbe rapid i ncroacnment of me deoil.s crim- 
ing oo»b m>- Yuoa ; and Ipveis were bullr. It 
has bt-en louno D"Ce8sarj to increase ■hise levees 
in height and thickness from year to year, ever 


In 1876 tfce levee on me n irih side ot the Yuba 
brote. some three or four miies aoove tbe cny ; 
and the city and oiber lands were nit only 
flooded, i>ut a large amount ot debris wasd>-oos- 
Ited. This was the Bist time Mary.'-vllle was ever 
flooded, aitbougb tne amount ot wa tr mat ten, 
or was in tLe valley at any on» time, was much 
less than In the great flood ot 1862. So in issi, 
with much less wa'ertbib at ihf great flood, it 
rose to a blgner point at Marysviile man ever De- 
lore. This was, doub' ie.-s, owing in great part to 
the niling up Of ibr channels and elevation or tbe 
bcOs or the rivers, ano, prooably, m oart, also, to 
the geni-ial levee sysw m aoop eo lor tbe proiec- 
tlOD of tbe lands of me valleys. At the break or 
the levee and doootntf cf tbe cl y of Mar.vsvllle in 

1875, comoiainunt'.s Empire Block, In Maiysvllle, 
was maierialiy iDjur> 0. The water was ovpr four 
leet deep in l', and t^etirls from the Y^utia was d-^- 
poslicd in ir to a considerable depth. Tbe 'inoer- 
plnnlugof theceb'erot the bu idlbg was washed 
out and the root t>-li In. It, cost oeltvt-en two 
thousand und tbiee thousand dollars to put It in 
repair again. Not only this building but, many 
o'hersnad valuable basements in use prior lo 

1876, wbicn wrrt fllled a^ that time, and slice 
then the owners Of na-'etnenti In Marysviile have 
been compelled to abandon tntir u-e. The level 
ot Ihe bed or the Yuba and me water flowing iq 
It having been elevated, by mese minttg ae. 
potl's, hro7e tbe level or the floors of th" oise- 
menta of the bulidlnes in Marysvlil?, ihf water lo 
the ba-t-ments rises and talis wit b t be river, to a 
greater or l^s*" exiebi.from petculatlon, rend.-r- 
Ihg ih^m uutlt ror use, and compelling tnelr 
abandonment. So, al<n, the sewerage of Marys- 
viile aod or Empire Block has beeu grcatiyob- 
siructid and injured by tbe same m ans. In 1881, 
the water is stated by some ot tbe wimessi-s to 
have oeen four fert hiuber man lb 1875, aud eWHl 
feet hiiiher than In tne great flood ot 1861-2. Tbe 
trestle-work or tbe Dstreet bnoge In 1876 was fn 
to twelve rcet above the ground. Nnw it is flilea 
t>o tbat It IS within two to three teet or the water, 
and onecao step rrom the irestlp-worK lo 'he bed 
ot Ihe stream ; and In 1881 the flocd went over the 
brlige, oeposiiiug gravel on u. in 1881 tbe in- 
hamtants were called out In tbe nlgbt to increase 
aod stremrtben tne norm l*-vee, ano only tiy the 
most sireuuDUs exertions ot ibose ante to work In 
raising t be invees siveral feet in puces, by means 
of guony-siokg aileo with sand, did they escape 
a bleak and inuudailon ot water and sand 


The taxes of the citizens of Marysriile from 
year to year amouiit »o 'rom two to seven per 
cent upon the assessed value or their propertr, a 
large part or wblch is expended upon their 
levees, to widen and alirengtben them, and to In- 
cre.»se their heigbi. asthe height or me debris 
wl'bin tbe levee Is imreasea. Th" levee tax 
alone In Marysviue, ana in Suner county, oppo- 
site, in sime lasiances has been as high as six 
per cent. Durug tne present year a large 
amount has been expended by the clry on the 
north siaeoithe Yuoa. For some miles tbeie 
have been tbrown out let'les every few yards, at 
an angle down sireooi, by means ot iimD.-rs and 
poles restint! rn supports fastened to tbe earth, 
covered witb wi'low b ush, and pjcked witb 
sacks tilled with sand— the obj-ct b< Ing lo Cbeck 
the Dow of the ciirren', turii I', from the bink, 
so as to prevent Us cmtlog ir awav, aod by dead- 
eninsr tne current crirapel It to oeposit I's drbns 
In the S'lll waier, and ibus aid In widening and 
strengthening the levee '.tseir. Forall these pur- 
poses and to protect his property, complainant 

annually pays large taxes that would, otherwise, 
be nunec'-ssary. This levee la the only barrier 
which prevebis tbe waters of the Yuba within 
tbe levee, wbose bed Is blgber tbab the '.ands 
outside, at Bood-time from flowing over, lo»a<a 
with sand to melr lull cirrylt g capacity, and de. 
positinB Its debris In Morysviile, and from, at all 
times, Oowliig over and depositing the r load of 
sand and other debits upon me surrounding 
couutiy, whtcb Is now for some miles around be- 
low the level or 'he oio of wbat channel there Is 
wlrhln the two levees. In 1881 the south levee 
broke at Unda, seven miles above Marjsvilie. 
and the water ran down over the country ror 
Several miles, flood'ng complainant's Eiizi iraot, 
which was under water till Juue, preventing i he 
raising or a crop for that year. Any oreaitlng or 
tbe soutn levee curing a flood s^nds tbe water 
down to tbe Eiiz* tract and overflows It, unless 
the small levee oalit oy the occupant, the tenant 
or complainant, at his own expense, is sufficient 
to prevent It. 


In June last (1883), the Eogiiah dam near tbe 
summit or tbe mountains, which terms the reser- 
voir or one ot the derendante, gave way, anil the 
accumulated waters came down the Yuba In a 
torrent, sweeping everything before them, a dis- 
tance Of cighty-Qve miles in about ten hours, ris- 
ing at some pNcrs, lo Us canyoD«, it IS said, to a 
heigbtor ninety leet; and at MarysviUe, inhere 
tbe Channel is oroao, two and a bait reel. At 
Libda. s**ven miles above Marysvllie, meeting 
borne Obstruction, Us current was turned against 
the south levee, which broke at three points, the 
waters rusutng through aod down over a bioad 
aire cb of the lower plains omsioe to and upm 
the Eliza tract again. The wa'er having run out 
or the reieiviilr Id an nour, tbe torrent soon 
spent liseir, and no consioerable damage was 
done to tne Eliza tract, alihouiih couslderaolc 
damage resulted to the intervening lands, in 
this Case, boivever, the small privaie levee con- 
strue ed by me tenant ot W'ooaiuff tor the pro- 
tection of this and other labds btld by him. 
would have proiected this tract from this b'lel 
fl vjd had ihere not b-'eo a culvert, tbe gai* of 
wbicb the proprietor r fused to have shu', giving 
as a reas n ih it he nesired to sbo.v his netghtors 
wbo rerusfo to contribute to tbeexpens" o' build- 
ing this pnvate levee, i hit their lanos were in 
danger without It. Had me rivers all been higu, 
and thH torrent continued ror several days, as 
aomeilmes n»opens rrom natural causes, tbere is 
no krowiog wnal the result would have been. 
These torrents 60meTim>-s happen lo niture en 
these mouijtaln waten ourses, a? tor instance, in 
1862. the riBcrami oto Kiver lo^e between til y acd 
six y teet in Kuisom ; and in 1881 tbe sicramento 
River cut '.to waj oown 10 Us oin bOMom. And 
tbey sometimes ooniiru-- lor several days, so in 
1S81, ' ue sui'er levee broke below iho moutb or 
me Yum River, at Stiangnal bend, one mile 
aoove Aoodiuff's land, and the river oveiflowt d 
complainaui' b llock Farm tract, washing oir It.s 
son 10 many places as oeep as it had beeu 
p'owed, and d'pcsittng sediment on It. One wit- 
ness 8a\H itraVel as large as hens' eggs passed 
throu.hlUe b'eak. The Hock Farm i act was 
OV>-rflOWed in 1362, 1867-8, 1371-«, and In 1881 -the 
later overflows being aiiice the building of tbe 


The Hock farm cnuioUinant is one of the 
In the country, productngiirge cropj of grain, in 
wb'ch It has been cultivated for many years. A 
miie o-low Is 0,Ncl,'s Lindkc, at whtc". large 
amounts or grain U'-eJ lo b- sblpped. This, like 
tbe Eliza landing, has oeen destroyed, or nearly 
so, by h° ilillug in ironi from mining debris. 
The oerenoaois have attempted to show that 
mucb of me danger from ovei flows rebults irom 
ine acts of tbe people themselves, lb consequence 
or toe imo'oper system or levcelng adooten,and 
tbe cutting 1 ft by such means or some outlets i f 
wa'er, available at bigb water. There Is, as 
might, oe expected, some conflict lo the testimony 
of experisuud others on these points ; but itis 
probable that, they have not lo ail lustanees 
adopted the wisest p'ao posslole lo melr eflorts 
to protect life and property- These works are 
always erected oo tne judgment oi men, and 
rarely some difference or opinion, and 1'. 
Is scarcely pojsioie that any plan wholly iinob- 
jectionanle could be adopted. However this may 
be there can be no pos-ible doubt, that the deposit 
of mining ceurls has not ooiy gieatly augmented 
the Injuries heretofore received ; or tbatltlarirely 
enhances the dang, i ror ihe future: or tbat it is 
the erreat source ano cause or all or most cf tne 
evils wbicb are HUlI--red and ihreaiened. Tbe 
evils resuuing from tbe occasional oveiflow or 
pure water, or water deterloiated only by natural 
erosions and causes, and whicb leaves no del- 
eterlous sediment Of-bind to permanently destroy 
tbe land, are triflttg eompartd wrh ihose result- 
ing irom the aodltioo, and deposit ot the enor- 
mous amount of debris arisine irom hydraulic 
mining. At every break of the uvees on the 
Yuba, a heavy volome of water, charged to its 
full transDCrtlng cao iclty with sand and other 
oeletetlous material, is poured out ano deposited 
00 me lands over which It Hows, wteie It re- 
mains on the suosldeuce or the flooos, to work 
out Its d>-3truoilve effects. It ibTe were not a 
levee on the river, ann not a slough cut off, the 
rain'.pg debris deposited la the navlgatiie and 
nou-navigable waters or the stale, abd burying 
tbe twenty-nve square miles of land beiweeo the 
levees or the Yuba, would not only slill be there, 
but many otner square miles of the anjacent 
country would also be burled but. ror the resist- 
ance interoo-ed by the slender barriers erected 
by the p"'o()ie, tucludlog the complain-int, at 
great, cotllnuing, and ever-recurring expense, 
for their protection. 


If the great and unexampled flood of 1862, by 
bringing down In one mass the accumulations ot 
debris of previoua years, did so much— as la 
claimed by tne defendants— to flll the channel of 
theY'uoa and cover the lower portions ot lis 
bottom-lands, what must be expected should 
there be a recurrence ot such a flood, bringing 
down tbe vastly larger accumulations wiih 
which the watercourses or the mountain.s are 
now choked aod gorged, and pie^lpUailng It in a 
mass upon ttio d-'posl's n <w between tbe levees, 
which are already several reel biguerthan the 
surrounding couotrf,aod wolch levees coostl- 
tute tbe Obly barrier upoo which Marysviile aod 
tbe adjacent couotry can rely for protection ? 
A concurienee of confil.lons wnico produce such 
an exiraordmnry flood as tbat or 1862, wuicn has 
once happened, l.sllat^le lo occur again. That 
concurrence or conditions was liigu Water lo the 
Sacrameo'O and ail Ita affl icms on the flrst of 
.lanua'y. 1862 ; Immense deposits or snow already 
existing lo the mountains along toe whole water- 
shed ot t be Sacramento and Its trlbut.iries ; and a 
1/rneraIrain warm enougn to meit the snow on 
which It tell throughout the same region, coo- 
linuing ihioueh many days.wlih only short In- 
tervals, Whereby theralo ihut leii at the time, 
augmen'90 oy the water rurntsbed by the rapidly 
melting snows, was pre.clpli.atea int/i tne valleys 
belo.v, already lull, should tti. re re a recurrence 
or sucu conditions In tne prf s-ot gorijfd condi- 
tion of tbe watercourses ot 'bp state, no mm can 
safely predict, me resulL To the most casual ob- 
terver, even though out slightly acquainted with 

tbe operations ot the forces of nature, tie pres- 
ent condition of things, and the dangers to tha 
resldenra ot tbe valleys rhrr may reasonably be 
anticipated In tne future, must be anything but 


Unless the acts of the deiendants complained 
ot. In view of all their necessary consequences, 
are legal— unless they are authorized by some 
valid lafr— It does not appear to us toadml:ot 
doubt or dUcussioa that the results of those acts 
heretoiore developed, still existing and operating, 
and certain to continue and Increase in tue future, 
as disclosed by tne evidence aoi Indicated oy tbe 
preliminary statement of facts, consiliuie a 
grievous and rar-reacblng public nuisance, most 
des'rucilve in its cnaracier, or, in the terse 
language or one of complainant's counsel, a nul- 
ance, " des .rucitve, conilnuou<i. Increasing, and 
threateniot! to cooiinu", increase, and be suU 
more d' siructive." Nor can there be any doubt 
tbe complainant has suffered, that he Is si 111 suf- 
fering, ano that by a 'junHDUtnce of those acts he 
will continue 'O suffer special Injurits, peculiar 
to blms'-ir, or a character to entitle bim to eouit- 
able reiiei, Tbe nuisance is both public and'orl- 
vate. If the unlawful fliiing up or the channel 
of a nver, above the level or its banks ano of 
the surrounding country, ana burying with sand 
ana gravel, ana utterly destroying all the farms 
ot the riparian owners on ei her side, ove'' a 
space two miles wide and twelve miles long, 
along Its entire course thtough tbe sacramenut 
Valley abd across uearly an entire county ; If 
the satd and Kravf-l s' sent down is, also, only re- 
strained rrom working stmilir desiruction to a 
large ex ent of firming couotry, other than that 
already burled and destroyed, and from In like 
manner oes'roying or injurinv!, or coutrlbutiog 
to destroy or injure, a city or several thousand 
Innabltants, by m-ans or leve- s erected atttreac 
eX((eose by tbe land ana other property owners 
of the couotiy ana the lnb»bU*nis ot tbe city, 
such levees, cunilnuaily and yearly requiring to 
be enlarged and sirenutbenea, to keep pace with 
me augumentaiion of me mass ot debris sent 
down, a' a grea'. annually recurring exp-nse; 
and It tbe niung and narrowing, by similar 
meaUM, ot the cbannelsot tbe largest and piln- 
cipil waters ot ite Slate, onviiiaole tor large 
vessels to the Ocean, tor a distance ci one honored 
ana nrty mites or more, to the injury or 
tbeir navigauou and dunaer ot the rlp<irlan 
owneisor pioperty— do not cooaiitute a public 
nuisance ot an neBravaieo cbariicier, then, we 
cooies-i, that we do not know what a public nuis- 
ance is. so. ftiso,lt to uma^rully bory and de- 
stroy one hundred aid iweniy-flve acres or a pri- 
vate party's best lann ; to rrom tim- to time cause 
Injury to his remaining liiids and buildings, 
bi ee.ssiiaiing lan;e expense tor lepilre, ano to 
impose upon btm annually an ex'riioiainarlly 
onerous tax ror the purpose ot sirei gtnenlng aod 
eotarL'tng levees lor tne protection of that portion 
of 018 property still left hliu agaiost the con- 
stantly au.tmen'ing oaoirers. as in the case of 
complainant- doeb not itflict a special lojury, 
Peculiar to that party, wbico en'liles mm to re- 
lief, then It wouia be difUcuit to say what kind ot 
Injuiy, arising from a public uuisince, would en- 
title a private party lo relief at bis own suit. 


The acts complained of, if uniawfu', or, In the 
language Of tne i;ode cf caiitorula, if not " done 
or maintained under the express au'borUy o' a 
statute,'' completely nil tbe deflnltlon given by 
the i;ode of a puouc nuisance, and also one ror 
which a private person injured oy It may maln- 
tsiu nu ac ion. rn- provisions ot the uoae ap- 
plicable are as follows: 

'■{3,479. AuytniDg which Is * ' * an ob- 
strucuun to tne free use of properry, sa as to lo- 
leriere with tne comrortao.e enjoyment or lire or I 
property, or unlawluiiy obstrucis tne free pass- 1 
age or use, 10 the custrma'y manner, ot any nav- | 
liable lake, or river, bay, stream, cantti, or oasin, j 
or any public park, square, street, or highway, is I 
a DUlsaoce. | 

ii,48it. A public nuisance Is one wbicn af- 
fects, at toe same time, an enure community, or 
nelgboorooon, or auy considerable number of 
persons, although lbs extent of the annoyance 
anil daaiage Ibflictej upon individuals may be 

" { 8,493. A private person may maintain an 
action for a public uuisacce. It it. Is specially in- 
jurious to himsel:, bu not oinerivlse." i 

Are tbe acts, then, complained of lawful, or are 
they perrormed under the exp,eS8 authority or 
any valid statute ? Thecouusei tor the oerend. 
anta, w ith a courage aod confldence that cual- 
lenge aduilrailon. plant themselves upon tbe 
position that they are lawful, and so author- 
ized, and tbey maintain ihis poiitioo with ex- 
traordinary earnestness and abiliiy. 

They are met upon ihe otner side by aiau- 
ments equally earnest, elaborate and able. The 
Vast store house of a'lthoriiy upon the sutiject ot 
nuisances has been exbausnvely cited, examined 
aod elucidated in tbe masieily arguments of toe i 
respective counsel. Everyiolog to be oeslreo for 
ascenaining ana elucidating the law applicable i 
10 the tacts 01 a case ot such vast importance to i 
the real litliania has oeen dobe oy counsel. | 
WbUe we have examined with care the bumerous 
authorities brought to our notice, we auali cou- 
lent ourselves (Mih stating iheresultsof our ex- 
amination, without comnientiDg at length upon 
or even citing many ol them. 


Defendants allege that both Congress and the 
Legislature of California have authorized the 
use of the lavlguble waters of the Sacramento | 
and Feaiher Rivers, tor the flow abd deposit or 
mineral debits : and havibg so authoilzea their I 
use, all tbe acts or derenaants complained of ate | 
lawiui, and the result J or those aeis, therefore, 
cannot bo a nuisance, public or oiberwise. I', is 
nut pretended tbat eitncr congreos or ihe L'l'gls- i 
liiure of caiifornld has anywhere in express ! 
icim-, provKiei mat the navigable waters of the 
State may be so used, butmisautbouty issougiit 
to be inferred rrom tne legislation or both bodies, | 
recogn.zlng mlnlne as a proper aud lanrul em- j 
ployment ; and encouraging this Ibdustry, know- i 
ing tbat miniDg of the kind complained of ccuid 
only be Carried on successfully by discharging 
tbe debris Into the streams lo tbe mining regions, 
wblch must, trom the necessity of the case. And 
Its way into the navigaoie waters of the State. 
As to congress, it might be suCflclent ro say that 
It has no amhorliy whatever to s^y wbar shall, i 
or what Shall nor, coustitu'e a nuisance wtibin a 
Sta'e, except so far as It affects Its puoilc navl- j 
gable waters, and interferes with imer-State or i 
foreign commerce. The necessary results or the 
acts complained or cieailv coostnute a public 
and private nulsai/c, bo'h at comm'in law, and 
wlmin the express language of the Civil ticde ot 
California, already cued ; and there is no llmiia- 
tloo upon that dcQDlilon, excDt tbat comained 
In Sec. 3,482 of tb ' same Cone, which provides, 
that *< norblng waicb Is done or maintained 
under the expr^^sa luthonty of asta ute can be 
deemed a nut ^'a nee." That moans, or coutse, a 
statu'e, and a valid statute, ot the Siale. The 
casein babd Is not within tnis limitation, be- 
cause there Is no statute ot tbe State expressly 
auihonz ns tne def naanis to seno Ihelr debris 
down, to tne d-siiuc loo or injury of the oavi- 
gable waters or tbe dtate, or to tbe deetrucilon 

or Injury of tbe properly ot the riparian pro- 
prietors along the line ot the water courses of 
the state, navigable or otherwise; abd if there 
wep», the sta ute authorizing such Injuries as 
are compUlned or, as anaibbt private parties at 
least, would be nocoistuutloDHl and void. 


It Is only sought to work out this authority by 
Implication and Intereuce from statutes recog- 
nizing mining In Itself, without reference to in- 
juries to the property of otbers, as a legitimate 
and proper busloes!<. It li not the general prac- 
tice or legislative boaies in ibis country, when 
their powers are limited, in leglslmlne upon va- 
rious subjects within their province, to provide 
I hat in the exercise or rigbrs provMed tor, no in- 
jury shall be done to tbe property ot others It 
isobeottne coodliions always implied by the 
law, that one's rights, whether granted or regu- 
lated by the Legislature, Shall be exeiclsed with 
due regard to itie rtgnis or otners-so exercised 
as tot to injure aDomer ; and certainly no au- 
thoiity to eoGroacn upon the vested riebts of 
otners cab b«< inferred without being id express 
terms Clearly auiborized; aad tbis principle Is 
expressly recognized in me staiuiorv limitatioo 
00 the denmtion or a nuisance, cited Tnis ex- 
press provision excludes the Idea that the Lests- 
laime contemp ateu any oibi r Umitailnn than 
such as Is authorized In •' express" termd. /i is 
as potent in me torm expiessed, as It the s'aiute 
bad said, in express terms, that there should be 
no other limitation. 


But no inteaiion can r>e properly inrtrred,lrom 
any An or Con^-ress brought ro our notice, to 
permit the destruction or lijury ot the navi- 
gable waters of tbe State, or me destruction or 
iDjury of the towns and cities, or propeity of the 
riparian and adjacent owners along tbe watfr- 
ccursesoi me state, navigable or otherwise. As 
to non-navigable Wdieis, Cotgress had no ning 
to do wi'h them, beyond tne rights of the United 
States as a riparian oroptie.or, which are the 
same as the rigais oi other nparian pro- 
prietors, except that it might Itself limit the 
nghr,s of purchasers irom me Ooveriiment of 
landi owned by it, sold subsequent lothe pa'jsage 
or the ACi under which such limited sales are 
made. Ithaonopjwer wb iiever to enlaige the 
ngms or the vendees or lis own pioperty as 
against rights already vested In prior purcatiHers. 
1' could in no way auihopze any encroachment 
by Us grao'ees uoon. or Injury to, tne property 
et o her private parlies; and It will no' be pre- 
sumed ba'. It ibtenoeo aiiy sucu consequences, 
whe,-e It h Id not miuiiesieo us lotention in euctt 
express and expli 'it terms tbat it cannot ba mis- 


Upon the cession ot California by Mexico, tbe 
sovereignty and me proprietorship ot all the 
lands within lis border-", lo which no private lo- 
terest had vesti d, passed to tbe Uni'ed States. 
Upon the bdcnlsbiou or Caliloioia Into the Uijion, 
upoo an equal fooling with the original stales, 
ihesovereiifolty for all internal muolcipai pur- 
poses, and ror all purp:)ses except sucu purposes 
and wt',h sue i pow-ro as are txpressiy confeired 
opon ihe N i lonal Government, by toe Const! lu- 
lion 01 ibr United s ates, passed to the Slate ot 
California. Tnencefortb, the only Interest of the 
United States In the pui>in; lams was that or a 
proprie tor, like that or au> other proprietor, ex- 
cept that the .-iiate, under tne express terms upoo 
wnich It wasodmit ed, could pass uo laws to In- 
terfere witb us primary oisp,>sal, and it was not 
subject to taxation, lo an other respects the 
Uoil-d Slates stood upon the gjnie too tog as pri- 
vate owters or lano. li could authorize no Inva- 
sion to private property, either to enable its 
grantees to mine tne lands purchased by them of 
the fi'ivernment.or otherwise : Biddle Bosrgs vs. 
Merced Mlo. Co., 14 cal., 376. 376 ; People vs. 
Shearer, 3>i Id., 6SS ; Follara's Lessee vs. Hagao, 
3 uow., 223. The oi*btrvaiions or Chiei Justice 
Field in the Hist Case cited, on pages 375, ST6, are 
as applicable to this point as that unaer discus- 
sion in that case. 


As owneis of the public lands, tbe Uoiied 
States, like any other o.vner, could sell them In 
large or small quantities, and convey a fee-simple 
title to their grantees : or could lease Ibem ; or 
reserve them from sale; or grant a limited es- 
tate, subject to easements gianled to others' ; or 
In case or mines, migni allow ihem to be worked 
tree of Charge, or upoo payment r.t a royalty. 
Toey could do all this with their own lands, held 
ID tne character ot proprteiur, mi rely, as the 
public laids are Roid : but they could not grabt 
lands, and lo tne grant, or by statutf or oiber- 
wise. impo;e an easement ror tbe benefli or their 
grantees upon lanos already owned in tee by orl- 
vaie partus, unlocuaibereo b^' easements or con- 
ditions or any kiuo ; or authoriz" any other ires- 
bass upon or injury to sucu other lands. They 
could only deal wHb their own, as other land 
proprietors deal with theirs. 


B'lBg toe owners of the mineral as well as tbe 
agricuitiiial lands of toe Slate, not already be- 
come private properly by prior grants, all the 
legislation of Congress upoo the subject has had 
reference to all tbose lands as ibelr properry In 
the Character or property, and lo their sate or 
other olsposltion. Tne agriculiural lands the 
Fniied states had, tbererore, eoid absolutely, con- 
veying a ree-stmple title, wubout eaiemeuts, in- 
cumbrances, or leservations or any kliid. Had It 
been me policy of the Ubiieo states to sell these 
mineral lands In a tlmliar mode, according to 
the usual surveys aod legal subatvlsiuns in tbe 
case ot other onbllc laods, I apprehend ibatno 
one would have co'iteuoed thai by aui.hor zing 
tne sale and conveyance or such 1 mds in lee slm- 
Die the Gove'oment intended 10 give lo tnelr 
grantees authority to flll up tbe navigable waters 
ot Ihe State or Its non-uavlgable water channels, 
and when these were flUeo lo send meir debris 
over the nelgbborlOK country, to the des,tru.alon 
or tbe farms aod improvements of their owners, 
on the g'ouod that Congress koew, wneo It au- 
iburizeo the sale, that the grantees of tne Uiilied 
states could not make the lands s) purcnased 
available lor all the uses tor which they were 
valuable, aud in many ins'aocea tor n bicntbey 
are oil.v t'a2ua*,')<— such as mining for gold— with- 
out coinaaii ing such nuisances. Y'ei, when the 
United states convey their lands In tee simple, 
they invest tnelr grantees witn all the rigbt 
tbey are caoaole oi conferring. Now, tbe legisla- 
tion of Congress, Instead ol enlarging, or attempt- 
ing to enlarge the lUbts or 'he grantees or me 
Uoiied States lo tbe mineral labds beyood the 
rlgbls whtcu the Uovernmi'Lt possesses, has put 
limitations, resirlcilons, and lucumbrdnces upon 
these grants, in miuy instances granting to one 
party one estate, and to uooihfr a separate es- 
tate, In the same lands, all the estates granted to 
the several grantees 01 niffereoi inierestsln ihe 
same lanos, in the agmwate, making up the ree 
and no mote: and it 18 to this end, ana to tula 
endal'oe, mat ihe legislation or Congiess has 
ne«-n directed with relerence to the mineral latos. 
Uodoub'ealj , it w»s the puriios-- or t bese reatric- 
iloos upon giants ot tbe mineral lauds, toeo- 
courage mining, wblch in itself, when pursued 


wltnom injury to others, 13 a lawful pursuit, as 
are agrlcuiiure, marrufacuresana commerce. 


Until 1866, mere had bt-en no legislation by 
Cougress in regard to lands containing the 
precious metals, other man to reserve them from 
sale. In Juiy or ihat year congress oasseo the 
"Act grannog me rieht ot way to duch aiid 
canal owu^rs ovu me puolic laoas, ana for other 
purpo>M." The Act declared that th« mlnt-ral 
lands are " to De and are opeo toexp oratlon and 
occapa ion Dy all citizens ot me Uol'td S'aies, 
• • • subject 10 *ucQ iPwulatioDS as may be 
prt scrH>ed by law, and subject, alsso, lo thf local 
customs, or rules of m(cers In toe s-veral miDlng 
districifi, so far as the same may not bf in con- 
flict wim toe liiwa ot the United State?." I' al.-o 
priivioes tor a sale and Dateniing to miners of 
qunr'z lodes In limited quamlties, with a right 
10 loUow the vein down vjn usdiptoaoy deom, 
although It shouin extend unoer other lands, 
wltnout I lie boundaries of the surface lines 
or me patent. So, aiso, it recoan'zesmeequiiies, 
as against the United states auo oiher mtu> rs, of 
those WDO had acquired waier rights for DilniDg, 
agricul' ur-ii, mamiiacturlDg and other purposes 
recognizen by me " local customs and decisions 
or Uouns," and provided mat they stouid De 
malntaioed in thfse rights, and granting a ilsot 
ot wav over the ouoiii lands; nut It to.'k care to 
provide, that wheri* any pany, after the passage 
cf the Act, should " li)lure or damage the oos- 
sesslonorany s>*tiler o'o the puolic domain (no 
ma'ter tor what purpose he has settled), the par- 
ty comoDltilng such li juryor damage shall be 
liable to ihH oany Injured for such Injury or 
damag" :" 14 Stat. 261 3. Thib Ac but legalized 
what were oefore trespiisses udob the puolic 
lands, and made lawiul, as beiween the occu- 
pants and the Unltea sia'es, that which betore 
Wd8 unlawful. Icooiy provided for the sale ot 
quartz miues anoerantlng water rights on the 
public lands, although an Kinds ot mines were 
open to exploration and working. 


inthlacas-', the Unlied states were absolute 
owners of toe lands, and they might have grant- 
ed an absolute right or way for ditches and 
canals, without providing tor compensation for 
Inlurlesto occuoanis; but so careful was Con. 
gress not to injure others, even where It lawfully 
might, that- It provided that a party constructing 
aditch or canal should be liable tor any Injury or 
damage to any mere ooss-ssor or the public 
lands, ir Congress was so careiui to provide 
agalust authorizing any injury to me mpre pos- 
8P8S0I8 of the public lands, where It might law- 
fully do oiherwlse. It cannot be reasonably sup- 
posed or Inferred tnat It Intended by the same 
Act 10 aumorize, by Inference merely, the com- 
missi m of a gre\iandln'fllerab1e nul8ince,and 
the perpetration of aggravated injuries to large 
communities holding meir own lands independ- 
ent of the United States, and by the same title, 
and under the same treaty as tho?e under 
which the Government itself claimed — In- 
juries to the lards over which toe Uolt-d 
SUtes had ro municipal or proprieiaiy or 
legislative autoorliy woaiever. But one sec- 
tion of ihe act. of 1S66. now consiltiiiiug bpc. 
2,338 ot the Revised siatu'es. Is esppcially relied 
on as unmistakably showing an inttnr on the 
part of Ceneress 'o aurnorize the BlUng up of tne 
navigable rivers of the State. It reans as toliows : 
" AS a conollion ot sale. In the absence ot neres- 
sarv legislation oy Congress, the local Legis- 
lature of any State or Territory mi»y provide 
rules for workltg mines, InvoUIng easemenis, 
dtainage, and otofr necessary means to their 
compute development : and those conditions 
shall be fully expressed in the patent." 


We draw an entirely difteieni inference from 
tUs provision, from that sought to be deduced by 
defeuJants' counsel. To our minds, It seems per- 
fectly clear thxi this provision is limited to a sur- 
render of this right to the State, so far, and so far 
ODiy, as me public lands are concerned, it au- 
thorized the states and Terrltoiles, In the "ab- 
sence of speciac Congressional legislation" on 
the subjpct, to make lules Irapos-lng easemenis 
and drainage, and omer rights necessary to the 
complete dcveiopmeni ot the mines upon the 
lanoB of the United States; and subse- 
quent purchasers from the Government 
would Uke the lanos purchased sutiject 
to these incumbrances, "as a condition 
or sale ;"" and those conditions shall te luily 
expressed in me pafht,." "Condition of sale '* 
01 wb>t lands, and " tuily expressed" in what 
pa'ent? rne Uoiied Slates could prescrite con- 
ditions ot sale ror no lands out their own, lod 
couln requlie those conditions to be Inserted In 
no pateni but their own. I' is clear from the ex- 
press terms of the sia'uie that this s^cnon could 
have no po-si die reference to anyming but the 
lands of me Uured S'atps. It deals »im them 
alone, and was on'? intended lo give rights In 
the pumic I'lDds of the United States, as to 
other lands or prooerij, eimer of me State or 
private parties, or as to any piivate riehis of any 
kind, '-ongress, by no possmie leglilatioo, could 
and aByming to the legislative powers or the 
State uoon me points mettioned in mis provi- 
sion ot the si.aiu'e ; and It was never gunty of fo 
abjure an act, as to attempt it. Of course, as 
counsel very properly observes, mis section 
•• mnst he cons'riifd wim reffrence to the sub- 
Jeci mut^-r to which U. teterp," bui- that subject- 
matter 18 the dtspohi'lon of me public lands and 
fht- mlues contained in them, an I nomii g more. 
It had no relation to regula Ing commerce or tne 
Davleable waters of the state. Tue S'ate, under 
the express terras 01 the Act of admission, could 
not in anv way interfere wuh the disposition of 
the public lauds. 

Such legislation as Is here authorized " in the 
absence of necessary legislation by coniriess," 
would be a direc interference with me proprie- 
tary right of the Government, and " with the dis- 
position of th» DUDllc lams." The object, there- 
for', was to waive i he right of the United Stales, 
under me circumstances, ann In rh" particulars 
provld''d for, and tbat la all thatcsn be Inferred 
from 1 be provision. The thing Intended to be 
authorized was expressed In clear language, and 
not itit to inf'-rence. 


Subsequently, In 1870 aud 1872, Jongress passed 
further aci« regulaiing the oispo-sltion of mining 
lat>d8, and extending the sale to placer mines, 
Imposing on lands sold under prescribed circum- 
stances, and upon prescribed conditions, case- 
mon s or various kinds, such as lunuW right.", 
wateirigb's. rights to follow lodes or their dips 
uuoer lands sold to others, etc. But there Is no 
provision more s'rongiy Indicating a purpose to 
authorize the Injuries crmplain>-fi of tr in those 
In the Act of 1866, all eady disposed of, and they 
need not be more pariicularlj considertd. 

dad all these lands on tue waiershed ot the 
Yuba, or all lands in toe State containing mines, 
XxtD owned under a Soanish grant oy a private 
party, as was me Merced grHPt, condrmed toFre- 
.uoot, the owner or the lands mli-h'. have mads 
precisely su;o regulations as to me sale or wott- 
ing ot the mmpp, and giving water rights and 
other ca-'emema in bis lands as theUnl'ed States 
nave done by legislation ; and virim precisely tUe 

same effect. Had such been the case, would coun- 
sel for a moment nave pretended mat by s-uoh 
reguutlons he Intended 10 suoordlnaie menHvi. 
gaole waters of me state, and tne riahts ot all 
pnpTiy ho ders on the wnttrs ot the state be- 
low, to the uses of his grantees ot mines? Yet 
the inference that he old so lu'end, would be Jusc 
as legitimate as the interence ih it Congress so 
Intended ov the legislation relied on ; aud ir he 
60 intendert,be hid Just as much power to give 
effect to his intention as had Congress. 


Because in the River and HatDor Bill or laso 
there was a provision directing the Secretary of 
War to cause such examlna'lons and surveys to 
be made " as may oe necessary to devise a sys- 
tem of works 10 prevent i he rui-ther Injury to me 
navigable waters or "lailforuia from me dt-oris 
from tne mines, and estimates ot the cosf. of 
sucu works, and report the result of such exami- 
nation, 8urve?s and estimates ol cost," etc., to 
t^oogress, at I's next s^-sslon ; ana because, in 
pursuance or the examiuatioo, surveys, estimates 
or cost, and repor s, Con>;rPS", In 1S82, appropri- 
ated $250,000 for me ••Improvement and pro'ec- 
tloi' 01 toe n <vlgaDle caanneis ol the Sacramento 
and Feather Rivi-rs," it Is urged, thai Cnmrresa 
assumed ine responMbil'ty of protecting me 
aavigtble rivers or < al'fornia from any lujunes 
10 navigation occasiont oy mining otbri-, and 
that by such legisin'ion and a'sumpiloa oi re- 
spons'Ollity, Cougress had legalized toe use of 
the nav.gtibla waters ol the state for ihe aow 
and depoblt of suca mioirg debris. We do not 
think that any such aiituorliy to Injure orde- 
siroy the navigaole waters ot the State can be 
Inferred from mese acts. If Coneress had toe 
power to grant it, there is no affirmative aumor- 
ity given to u>e the navluabie waters of the 
State lor me flow and depositor mining debt's. 
This aci Ion or Congress recognizes and admits 
the ract mat great injury has resulted, and con- 
tinues to result, rroru the use of the ,vaters for 
such purposes : that the inlury is or such a char- 
acter as not omv affec sthe rights or ihe people 
Of llalirornia, but 01 the whole United States, to 
such an ex enn as to make it a proper subjec for 
Congress to provide a remedy for 'he evil. There 
cnuI'J possibly be no better evidence that a great 
public nuisance nas been committed, wnlch calls 
for red reels, and Congress has an em pied to tur- 
nlsh a remedy. It has attempted a remedy tnat 
may or may not be eff( cUve, or mat may or may 
not be the best that mighr be adooted. 


In the same Act provisions or a simil ir caarac- 
ter are found for surveys, estimates, plans, re- 
ports, etc., for numeious other obstructions to 
navigation in the rivers, harbors, lakes, etc., In 
other parts ot the Uolted States, where iheie Is 
no mlnloir debns ; and in me very Act making 
the appropiiailon referred to, there are more 
man three Qunort-d aoo Bity otht-r items oi ap- 
proprlaMon for removing all forts of obstruc- 
tions, and for improving oavigntlon, in a great 
vaneiy of particulars, in evt-ry pait or me United 
States. But DO argument can be drawn from 
these provi.sloDs and approprlailons that Con- 
gress an'oonz^o these OSS ructions, or asf-uraed 
the original responsibility of tdelr being there. 
Congress simply round mem there, recognized 
the ract or their existence, and the necessity tor 
their removal ; and, under Its power to regulate 
commerce, endeavored to remove them, and 
thereby Improve the navigation. Nothing more 
was done In this case, and no other inference can 
bedrawn from us act loo in regard to It than mat 
which flows from precisely similar acilon tn the 
large niimbc;'' or the omer cases provided for. 
They are all covered by the same Act, and m like 
terms There is nothing in the Act lo dlotln- 
gulsh this appropriation from ihe hundreds of 
others, if Congress has the power by legisla- 
tive action to prohibit the discharge of o>^bris 
Into me navigable rivers or tue State, and make 
It a crime against the United States, it has sim- 
ply not done it, and r has not taken any affirm- 
ative ac'.lon to authorize it. Mete failure to act — 
failure to p ohlblt the acts complained of— Is an 
entirely different thing trom affirmative action 
auihorizlng them. And a failure to prohibit the 
nuisance and Impose penalties does not prevent 
Its bflng a DUbUc nuismce : Wheeling Bridge 
Case, 13 How., 566, 567. It has merelyVodeavored 
to remedy Ihe acknowledged evils— the necessa- 
rily admitted public nulsarce— by other m<>ajj8. 
which may turn out to be far less effective. If 
the acts under me express laws or the state con- 
stitute a nuisance, there Is no n'^ed tor congress 
to declare mem so to make them unlawful ; and 
It would certainly requiie some affirm itive legis- 
lation on thepaitot congress to make that law- 
ful Which me laws of toe sute declare to be un- 
lawful, conceding the power or congress to so 


But If Congress had atiempf^d to authorize an 
uniiml'ed discharge or mining debris into the 
navigable waters of me Stare, to tne destruction 
of or great Injury to melr navigability. It bad not 
the power to render it lawful. lo Pollard's Les- 
see \s. Haeao, 3 Bow., 2i3, the Suor^m- court ot 
the United states f-ays: " When Aiaoami was 
admitted into tne Dnloo on an equal fuoiing wim 
the original stjten, she succeeded to all the 
rights of soverignty, junsaicnon and eminent 
domain wnich Georgia possessed it me date ot 
me cession, except so far as this right was di- 
minished by me punlio lands leniatmng in lae 
p>ss'«sion and unoer the control or ih- United 
Slates for the temporary purposes p-'ovlded tor in 
Ihe deed ot cession, and me legislative acts con- 
nected with It. Nothing remained to the United 
S'aies, accjrd ng lo the terms of me agrci-menr, 
but me public lands. And ir an express stipula- 
tion had been inserted in me agreement grant- 
log tne uiuoiclpil rleit or sovereignty and emi- 
nent domain to me United states, such stipula- 
tion would have oeen void and inope'aiivp, oe- 
cause Ihe Uolifd s,ares nave no c ms'lruiional 
capacity to exercise murlcipal jU' isoiction, sov- 
ereiguty or t-mUient domain within the limits ot 
a state, or elsewoere, except in the cas-s In 
which It U expressly grant-'d.'' Again: "irit 
were true tbat me United acquired the 
whole or Alabama rrora Spain, no such conse- 
quences would result as those contenoed for. It 
Cannot be admitted mat the King ot .spain couid, 
by ireaiy or otherwise, import lo the United 
States any or its royal prerogatives ; ano much 
less can It be adm'tied that mey havecaoaclty 
to receive or power to exercise mem. ♦ • * 
In the case of Martin and others vs. Wad- 
del', 16 Pet., 410, the present Chief Justice, In de- 
livering the opinion of the Court, said: ' Wucn 
thn revolution took place, the people ot eaoa 
State became mems-lves sovereign, and in that 
character noid me absolute right to all their nav- 
igable waters, and toe so'ls under them, for their 
own common use, subject only lo the ngnts since 
surrendered by the constitution. Then, to Ala- 
bama belong the navigable waters, and soils 
under rnem, lo controversy in th's case, subji-ct 
to me rlghif) surrf Bdered by me Constitution to 
theUnited Siaies; and no compact ihit might 
be made betweec her and the United States could 
diminish or enlarge these rights." 


The Court then recognize the aumorlty ot the 
United States to exercise such powers, and such 
powers only, as may be necessary, under me Na- 

tional cons' itution, '• to regula'e commerce wUh 
foreign uati >ns, aud among me sevetal states, 
and to eftabnsh post roais." Ihe court then 
says: "This rignt of emint-nt domain over me 
shores and he soils under 'he navigabl<! waters, 
for all munlc pai purposes, bt loosis exclusively lo 
tne states within their rrspecMvf lenltorial Jur- 
isdictions, and thej , ann tney only, have the con- 
stitutional power to exercise it. To trive the 
Uniieo Slates the r'got to transfer to a ci'izi-n 
toe title to the shoies and the soUn under me 
naviaabie waters, would be placing in their 
hands a weapon wnlch might be wlPlde-a sin ai ly 
to the lEjur.v ot jjiate sovereigoty, aco depilve 
theStai^sot the power to exercise a ntionerous 
ano Important cla.-8 ot p llce powers." I men 
states Its conclusions upon the polu's olscu-^sed, 
as roilows: " First, the shores or navigable 
waters, and the soils under mem, wete not 
granted by me Ooi s'liu'lon to the Uuiteo S'at^s, 
bu' were reserved to me States respectivfly ; 
secondly, the new states have the same rlsrnis, 
sovereieniy, aid J'iilsdicnou over this 9UbJ»ct as 
me original states; thirdly, the right ot the 
United Stales to the public lands, ana me power 
Of Coogrf-ss to make ull n ^edtul rulf s and reuola- 
Hons for the sale and disposition merrof, con- 
ferred DO power to grant to the plaintiffs the land 
in coniroveroy in this lase." 


This case has never oeen overruled, but; often 
cited as authority and affirmed. It "the United 
States have no consiliutlonal capacity to exercise 
municipal jurisdiction, sovereigaty, or eminent 
domain wimm me limits of a State," except so 
far as is " expressly granted ;" If the " navlgiOle 
waiers of California, and the sou under tht m." 
belong to the State tor its " commou use."suDject 
onlv to me rignt or congress to regulate com 
merce among the States i poreon ; ano it no com- 
pact that mlBh' be made between ner and tne 
United Stales could diminish or enlarife these 
right s ; It '• me ngo' or tne United States to me 
public lands, and i he power or Congress to make 
all needful ru es end regulations for the sale i.nd 
disposition 'hereof, conferred no power to grant. " 
me sou under the navigable waiers of ttie S ate 
—then it necessarily roUows tbat Congress can 
give no lawful authority to th"^ miners on Its 
public lands, or to anybody else, to fill up the 
cnaunels and beds of such navigable waters, and 
destroy mem tor navigation, or tor any omer use- 
ful purpose, congress Is authonzed to " regu- 
late, " nut not to destroy " commerce among the 
States. " It may, undouorediy . in its wi.'-aom. ob- 
struct or perhaps d''3troy navigation, to a lim- 
ited extent, at particular points, for me purpose 
cr Its general advaniaae and improvement on a 
larger general scale, such, for example, as oy au- 
thorizing tne building of a railroad or pos'-road 
brldee across a navigible stream ; but it cann >t 
destroy, or authorize me destruction, entire or 
partial, of the whole system of navigable waters 
ot a State foi purooses wholly foreWn to com- 
merce or post-roads or to moir regula- 
tion. If Cougress cou'd so aumo ize, or, as 
la claimed, has 80 authonzed, th>* acts complained 
of as to make them lawful, then It can au' noiize, 
and It has aumorized, the filling up and utter de- 
struction 01 all me navigable rivers. str>-ams and 
bays or ibe stat<', for i here is no limit flxed to the 
amount of debris mat maj be sent down ; and 
upon the hvpomesls claimed. If such waters are 
not filled up and destroyed, it is for wantcl phys- 
ical cipacity to dolt, and not because it is un- 


But the Injury to navigation is not the only ele- 
ment of a public nuisance In the case. The in- 
juries already accomplished, and those still ac- 
ciuing, hS well as ihcse threatened to the ciiles 
and riparian proprietors ot a larue extent or coun- 
try. It unlawrui, constliuie a public nuisance or 
tpemseives, irrespective ol me injuries to navi- 
gation ; ano there can be no possible ground tor 
maintaining '.hat Congress has am bority to legal- 
ize suob iDjtSTles, and tfkeaway thelrcnaracierot 
a public nutsaice. There is, then, no plausible 
ground for holding that Congress has evhp at- 
tempted to moke the acts complained ot unlawiul ; 
or It It had, mat there is any power vcsied in 
Congress to eff-'Ct mat puroose. Tho e acts, 
therefore, nave not been legalized by reason or 
any Coneressional action. 

But It wroog with respect to the (ffect of the 
action ot Congress, defHodants earnestly urge 
that their acts are authorized by the legislation 
ot the State ot California, aifVi are, iherefore, 
lawful; and ii. wUi be necessary to consider 
this point. We have before given the statu ory 
dpflnltion of a nuisance, and expresst-d tne 
opinion that it is not open to doubt or discussion 
that 'he flowing of the mining debris in question 
down the Yuoa into the Feather and o'hfr 
waters, and its deposit. In tne manner b>fnre 
staled, cans'-!: bo'b an obs'ructlon to "the frte 
passage or usf- In tbe customary manor i," of the 
rivers, bays, and n <vieable streams of me S'af, 
and also •• an obstruction to the f-^-e use ot prop- 
erty, so as to interfere with the com'ortable en- 
joyment of both life " am '• oroperty." 


It Is not claimed that any statute of the State, 
la expre ss terms, authorizes miners to All uo the 
channels of tne waters of me State with debris 
to such an extent as to injure navigation, or to 
bury ano destroy me lanos of noarlan pioprie- 
tors. This right Is only inferred t'om legtsiati n 
recosnlzmg and encouraging mining as In itself 
a Inwrul pursuit. As we have seen, to take away 
the coaracer of nuisance from me acts com- 
plained ot, they roust have been done under tne 
express au'horl-y ot a statute : Civ. Code,:Sec. 
3.482 : and It must be a valid s ta' ute. No author- 
ity 10 comrau me nuisances comoialned or can oe 
interrco from any statute ot 'he State b ough' to 
our nonce. The S' ction of me statute woich 
sptms to bf mo i relieo on Is subd'vslon 6, S«"c. 
1,233, ol ' be Code or clv'i Procedure, wh'ch pro- 
vioes mat, "subject to me provisions of tnis title, 
the right ot eminent oomain miy oeexerc's d In 
behalf of me following public u«' 8 : • • • 

" 5. Roads, tunnels, dlicoes, flumes, pipes, and 
dumping places for working mint-s ; also outlets, 
natural or otherwise, for the flow, deposit, or 
conduct of tHilltgs or refuse matter from mines ; 
also an Occupancy In common oy the owners or 
possessors or different mines ot any place for the 
flow, deposit, or conduct of tailings or refuse 
matter from i heir several mines." This Is stated 
Dv counsel to have oeen pass-fd in compliance 
with the provision In the Act of cong'es'.^ot 1866, 
now S'-c. 2,338 of the Revised Statu'es of the Uol- 
teo Stales, already considered, authorizing toe 
Stares and Territories," In absence of legisla- 
tion by conurf s»." to provide lor certain ease- 
ments on me public lands, and It was Doubtless 
suggested by that Act. 


The state Supreme court, lo one case, held 
tbat mining Is not a public use, in tavor of which 
this right ot eminent domain can be, constitu- 
tionally, exercised in the case or a private party. 
An elaborate argument has been made In tavor 
or tne consiuutionaiiiy oi tne Acr, but we do not 
and It necessary to decide It; for tne statute, 
whether const Itutlotal oro'.ijerwise, does not an- 
tuorize me US 8 of the navigable waters ot me 
Slate 10 me injury ot navigation, or the ais- 
chartce by miners or their debris upon ilje lajids 

ot rloarlan proprietors, wtttout condemnation 
andpiymeot. In me mods poiuieo ou . oy tne 
sta' u e. Ins ead of interentiaiiy authorizing the 
injuries complaloed or, 1 he interence is dirtctly 
tue 0' her w;.y— tbat there Is no authority to do 
an '^ct which wou d work an Injury lo a cuDlic or 
private rigm , or, in omer wo-os, consn'u e a 
public or private nul-ance, witnout nrsi acquir- 
ing 'he rUht lo use the property to be approp'l- 
ated or Injured, by purcnase or conoemnauon ot 
and payment fn me prooeny or ns-ht appropri- 
ated, it recognizes toe constitutional rignt ot 
every man to me undisturbed enjovmeoi or his 
pronerty ano all r,i, legal rights, wtmout let or 
idnderaDce, until bis right bas tn some lawful 
mode beeQ extinguisned. Besides, ii Is oy no 
means certain mat toe statute i self would au- 
morize me condemnation or me proue'ty in 
gross or large communllles like ' hose affected by 
me unisat.ce comolalned ot, and especially the 
puoiic rightor navigation < otnmon lo 'he peopie 
or all me States, rne other provision ot me 
statute mos' confldeniiy relied on, to stiow that 
the irjiiries complained or are lawrul. Is sut'dl- 
vlsion S. in Section 1 ot rne Act ot 1578, " to pro- 
vide a sys em of Irrigation, promote rapid drain- 
age, and improve me navi2ation ot tue Sacra- 
men'o and san Joaq'iln rivers," woich reads as 
follows: " The State Engineer snail also ii quire 
into me relation which nyoruulic mlnine bears 
to the navlga' ion or tne rivers, and to tneir car- 
r\ ing capaciiy : toiBqutre into 'he qu stlon or 
the flow of debris from me mines into i ue water- 
courses or the state; to ascertain the amount 
ano value of agricultural lands and Improve- 
ments w'jioh have oeen covered up or injured, bs 
the overflow, or d'>oosit or denii.-* comina irom 
the hyoraullc and otner mines in me Stcramenie 
Valley , iDO to devise a plan whereby the injuries 
caused thereby can be averted \vlthout Inlettering 
wltn the working or tuco mines." 


This, like the aciion or Congress betore consid- 
ered, does not purport lo authorize the acts com- 
plained of, or recognize In any woy their legality. 
It recognizes me results ot me action or defend- 
ants, and others ergaged in the same busiress, 
as constituting injuries, so senous in melr char- 
acter as to ret^uire the State to afford some rem- 
edy in addition to the civil r- medles afforded by 
me law : and It sought to devise a plan whereby 
these iBjunes rali; nt " be avert* d without inter- 
ferl:;g wiih woiklng the mines." But It no- 
where said, that mese acts were lawiul, but It 
expressly calls tbem by the proper lesal name, 
" injuties " which, ex vi termini. Imports that 
mey are unlawiul. or o nerwise they would only 
be damnum absque injuria. An injury Is "a wrong 
or tort ;" Bouv. L. Die. It nowhere provides or 
InUmates mat any plan devised should take 
away, or be a substitu'e tor, the civli remedies 
already provided by me cone in section 3,491, as 
loilows: " The remedies against a public nui- 
sance are : 1. Indictm^-nt or iniormatlon. 2. A 
civil action. 3. Abatement." 


Section 3,493 : " A private person may main- 
tain an action for a public nu'sance, If It Is spe- 
cially 'ojunous to himseir, tut not otherwise." 
To repeal or limit the express provisions of the 
Code deflnlEg nuisances, una providing remedies 
for mem, rtqulies stmeming more man an et- 
tort to " avert " the injuries by aodinonal 
means. There iLust be "txpress authori-y ot 
a statute," and a valid one, to take away the 
character or a nuisance trom ihe acs which 
would omerwise necessarily be a nu sanee In tact 
and in law. We And no exptess au'no 1 y, and 
none can reasonably be Interred ot implud rrom 
anv siaiuie or me State, or trom all me statuies 
brought to our notice laken togemer. The effort 
of me Legislature In ihese siatuies was to 
" avert," Dot to render lawful, tnese nuisances — 
to prevent the acts in question rrom producing a 
nuisance. These statutes conct-rning nuisances, 
unoer the Constitution, cannot thus be repealed 
oy implication by omer laws having no rererence 
lotoesuoject. Every law passed unoer toe lim- 
itations imposed on me Legislature By me State 
CoDstliuiioo must relate lo a single subject, 
which must be expressed In I's tltie. 


Undouotedly, mlnlog is an important industry 
m the State or Calilornia, and the Stale may, 
very properly, tike any lawful measures wimin 
its p iWer to encourage It, to the full exient,'hat 
It can be carried on witnout injury or to the de- 
struction of other industries or other rights, also 
imtor'ant. It became paten' to the most casual 
otsi rver that some pun must be devisid by 
nnlch hydraulic miniig could oe carritd on 
without injur) lo i nt; agru uliural regions in me 
valiejs, and wlmoui obstructing er destroying 
the use 01 me navgabli waters of me Staw, or, 
in other words, witlKui creating a grievous 
nuisance m ihe valleys below, or 
that such mining must be stopped. There 
was no omer It was iberelote Im- 
foriani 10 me interests of tne S'ate, il posMble, 
10 adopt toe flrst alternative, and me leuisiailon 
refi rreo to was simply desiRneo to am nofize me 
devising and oari) lug out of some plan r y means 
ot ^hich me business of mining could be success- 
ruiiy puisued wi'houi creatini; or tun l c ccnun- 
uing mese DU'sai ces. I's maniU'st purpose was 
to " avert " or obviate, not to autnor'ze. tne nui- 
saiice— to devise d' d carry cut a plan oy wnich 
DO nuisance would he cieaiert. so mat all 
branches cf industry might be bormonloosiy car- 
ried on loaemtr wttin.ut injorj to each oiher. 
1 dis was a perfectiv natuia' and legmmi'e ob- 
ject, and not at ail incoDSisient or incompa ible 
with the Idea that ir, notwithstanding 'hese ef- 
forts, mining should still continue to be carried 
on in sucD a » ay as to create or continue a nui- 
sance, 1 ne s'amtes telatir g to nuisancvs and me 
remedies provided should still be applicable. 
This I' eisiation isentireiy consistent wi n me 
continuance nt i he laws and remedies relating to 
nuisatces: and those Uws cannot oe regarded as 
rtpeaieo, superseded, mcdiOfd. or limited by it. 


Numeroua cas-s ha»e been cited trom me En- 
glish chancery repor.s, largely lu relation io the 
sewage ot laige ciiles. towns or other crganiza- 
lions having the matter in charge, where mese 
bodies have been authorued by acts ot Parlia- 
ment to construct seweis and discharge their 
sewaee into tue streams, which, .vnen cob- 
si ructed, created nuisances to lanli below; 
ano in a.l SUCH cases It has oeen h' id mat. mey 
took nothint! by implication, out must be limited 
to toe acts ciearu authorized; ano that it mey 
could not accomol1^h the desired object by the 
ac's expressly aumorized without creating a 
Duisarce, they would be restrainea. Altnough 
iMiliamenr, being omnipotent in its iegl>la'lve 
capacity, could authorize nuisances. or me lakmg 
or or injury to private property without compen- 
sation, it was aiwa.vs cautious not to do so. and 
the Courts were still more tarelul not lo imply 
or infer aumorlty to create nutsmces not 
clearly given in terms by 'ho Act. Tne following 
are some of the cases referred to: Aforney- 
Generai vs. Coinev Hatcn Lunatic Asy um,4L. 
R., Ch. App. C«S., 163 ; Clowes VS. 
Potteries vVater WorKs Co., 8 Id., 126 : Attorney- 
General vs. Blrminwham, 4 Kay & i.. 623 ; Attor- 
ney-General VS. Seed Corporation, 6 Id., 5H3, 

But it we are mistaken as to me purpose and 


fffpct of tbp S'a'p lpgis\tttlnD, coDsidcrPd ana re- 
lied on Dv difejd»ni?, (Ue Stttie baa no cols Iiu- 
tlonai p iwer lo au' hoi izf me ncs complained of, 
aud ttuj statuce d» signed to effect tnai object Is 


TUB old coDS'itution of Cdllioriila provided, 
thai '• no person snail • • • be deprived of 
lite, libert) or oroperiy wlcbour due prnce&s of 
law, oorsua'l priva e pri periy be taken for pub- 
lic use winoui Just compensaiion :" Artie e l, 
Stc'ion 8. *nn me fourieeDiD iiinenimenl ro me 
Constl'uiion of me ITnned sifii s pii's a similar 
llmiis'ioo lipnn me po«irsotilie stales, sec- 
tions 13 and 14 of Article lot ibe New Uonstliu- 
tiun or caiiiorDii, iSi9, coDtinues these provi- 
sions— me Kiier iimtii'ion bPine lo the follow- 
Inir laoKuage : " I'rivaie prooerij' sball loi be 
taken or damaced for puonc use wnhoui Just 
comoenS'itiun huvins b'-eu first made to oi paid 
Into Court tnr iuh owu<r,"pic. Ano Arilcie 12, 
8>-ciion ». nrovioes, tbai •' iQe exercise of the 
police powers oi tne state sSall nev^r be so 
abrldei'O or cons'iued as to p-rmlt c^)^poratloPS 
to conouc their business in men a manner as lo 
lufrinee the rlnbts of icdlviduals Or the general 
■well-beinK or toe State." 


The flerendaiits al.ege in meir answers that 
ihey have 'aken and held aoversc possession, for 
the purpose or dischdrKing ano depositing their 
debris, in cooinjon wim all me other miners 
uponioe rivers >ib0Te, 01 oue turdied and iwen- 
fj-Ove acres Ot complxlnani 's land, until lliey 
hVve acquired a (Hie by adverse oo*s<>ssIOD ; and 
the eviu'-uce sbows mat menty-flve square 
mm R or more Of oiner private lands are in ihe 
SKmecotui'iou. and mat, bu' for tue levees built 
by 1 b' c 'izens 01 tSecityoi MarysviUe, and me 
citiz> ns of Vi oa and suner 'iliuuii>-s, ano tne one 
bum by me mii.ets toemtelves, ihe nuo^e sur- 
rcundirg country, lor an indfllnite distance, 
would necfssariij have be»n,am that by future 
flood-, nreakdge in me levees, and ndoitional »o- 
cuoiuiation Of ibese depom's tuey are hereafter 
liable :o ni-. placed, to a ureaier or les" extent. 
Id a sttDilar condition. 1' is nor preieLded that 
there nas been any cooipt-tiSdMon paid, or that 
the o« ueis of ibi se land'* have been deprived of 
tuem or of torir u-e, or mat ibt.v bave been thus 
appiopriaifd by 'b*- aefendaniv- tor i lie ir own use 
by vtrtUHrf an> I' gal proceedlr?s of any kind, 
01 by Tirtu-' or ary autboriiy o'h"r iban ih'lr 
owu will and pieni-ure. and the license claimed 
to U'-ve been impliedly piven ihem by the legis- 
lation 01 1 omress, ano oi me >*'aie I.ejjHlanire, 
alreaoy eonsioen o. Now, is no', i i)l> a oeurlvlog 
tbeowutTjOi tn> ir larfig— t hfU prepeity— or Ht 
least oamaBtcg tbelr propi-ri> . bjtb wi'noui du° 
processor law »rd wpuout como>-nsaiien ? It 
so, tbeo me 1-ei-latioii oi the ,s ain or tliii'oi nta. 
If at y mere be. inienotd i-nd put ported lo mdke 
the acis rotnpiulueo ot vdlid,aie MrsoiU'Cly void, 
as beirie m dlrec con'riven'lou or bub the Con- 
sti'unon^of the Uuited .-it^tes ai.o tbe state of 
raliroroi ) ; auo mey caotiDi make the acts of 
defetoarits la arm. or in auy way affect tberlghia 
or ine c mpiai. anr. 


Thi' sucb "CIS 01 appropriation viola'e mese 
provisions, IS sei'leo by me ^upreme Court or the 
Uoii'-d Slates m Fumpelly vs. (Jreeo Bjy com- 
Dao\ , 13 Will 181. Tni« C)se nnse out of ibe 
flooainu of complainant 's laijd, by means of a 
oam coostriicteo tor the purpose of improving 
the navigation of Fox R'ver— luanlffstly a lawiui 
puniii: u-e. clearly wiMitnlbe powi-r as well hs 
the doi.v or mesrat*-. if ofriormeo lu a law'ul 
m.nner-UDJer the su bnriiy or a statute of 
Wisconsin. • be CousH'uiioo or wlili h isiau con- 
taiuPO a provision unrinar 10 that, (.f one or ihe 
protlS'OfS now undtr''.onsioerHt|pn. Alter a fml 
dtsrussion 01 tiie question, ai'd exammailoo or 
auihori'ii-s relied on to sustain ibe valioliy ot 
tb" nc, Mr. Jus'lee Miller, .peaking ror "ibe 
Court, 8a>8: •• But we a^e ol opiniou that ihe 
decussions referred to bave gone to ih>- uttt-iniost 
limit 1 f sound Judicial ca- struction in irtvur of 
tb.'s principal, and, id some c<ee(!, tvyono It, and 
thai It rim iins true, I tiai, where real estate Is 
ac'uaily invcded by superinduced addit ons of 
water, ear' b, saod, or oi Ufr maiei lal, or by hav- 
ing any -iititlci u structure placed on it, so as lo 
effectuall} Qt-stroy or imcait its u-'erulnes^. ii ts 
a taking, within the meanlDir ot the Co'-sinuilon. 
and mat tols prnpnsitio ■ IS not in confl ct wlih 
tbe weight of Juricial «ufbriilr,y in ii iscounlry, 
and cerrniniy no' with sound pniciple." He" 
also cooley on Tor's, !jfl9, ano cases cited. And 
again, on D.<Ke |S2 : •• We oo rot ihink U 
necessar> toconsum< time in proving, mat wnen 
the U -lied stt-es sens land by treat>, or otber- 
wise, and rarts wirh me fee oy piteoi witbcut 
resei villous. It retains r.o r'ahl to take that land 
for ouoMc use A-imotit just comp-'nsation, nor 
doesit confer sucb a right on the State wirhin 
wblcb It lies ; and ih<t irs absolute ownershio 
and right of pi'vate property in sucn land is nt.t 
varied by Ihe tact 1 ha' It borders on a naviaable 
stream." snco use, merefore, as dei>-Doants 
made, or claim 'o make, of compldlnani's land. 
Is a lakios'. a fcirtiori. a damaglni; of tbe property 
of coiuoiainanr wlrrm rhe meanirg of Ibe 
several Consil utional provisions, state and 
naronai, ci'ed. Tbeca«e of Eaton vs, b. t^. 4; 
M. R. R,51N n.,610. Is also a very s'rong case 
to 'he same effect, in hich toe Court reviews the 
authori'ies, and discusses the question wlttt re- 
maikttble anility. 


Conceding, then, that such use of these lands 
ford'-posii of mintn? debris is a public use, s'lU 
the Legl-iamre, ui der thl conslHtitional provl- 
sion,cd'ld nit mace it lawful w7 bout taking 
them upon due proeessof law, ai>dupou fut^ com- 
peni-aiiriti tlrsi paio It treuse is private, merelv, 
as ermplainanr corrdentlj irsisis,not wi bout, 
reason, i-nd wttn autborl'y to support the posi- 
tion, thi h tbfy couio not be lakf b at all without 
the crnsent or tb"- owner ; for mere is no au'hor- 
li> In me Cons'i ufton or laws or the couniry to 
corooel ere ntian, unwrlint'ly, to surrenoer bis 
proD^rtj for Ibe use tf another, cli her with or 
wltrou' ccmntD>8tioD. 

80 also tp- se Of tetdints, or 'be principal ones 
are corporations, ard ibe buslne's or these cor- 
porations is mining, and ntitmoe more. Thev 
would, therefore, s' Kin to fall wlibm Ibe Inhibi- 
tion or rbe provi-ion, ib it " ooiue oowers of tbe 
state shall nev^r be so nbrldgf d, or construed, as 
to permii corpni-aiior s to tonouci ibeir ouslness 
10 ?uon manner :is to Infilnee lb" rigurs of Indi- 
viduals or tbe gen^rjl well-being or the state." 
Do no' these deiei.fiant corporanons si corouct 
tn Ir ou.-ti ess of ni'mng i.s to lotringe the righ's 
o' ide comD'Hinani, ami a great oianv other inol- 
viduais, ann ecm the weii.heln'' of' me State? 
Ano if melr acis. in sucb rtndue; of their busi- 
ness, are at-empico to bo auibonzeo oy the legls- 
lotion of the St aie, I re not ihe "police powers 
ot^be^Slate so 9t^|• de, or eonsirueo," by sucb 
legislation as 'o p-rmit ihe inhibited acts? If 
so. It mus' be void on this eround also. It may 
be ibi-t ib's provision was aimfd at infilnge- 
ppents o' rl,>hi8 of 'hn very kind. If rot, to what 
injuries can it be mote aporopriare'y applied? 


A?aiD, so far as any leelslation Is < onceroed 
that would attempt to aumorlz- tbe filling up of 
the navigable rivers and ba'S or the S-a'e to the 
destruction or material Injury of their navlgaiion, 

It must be void for waat of power on other 
grounds. We h>ve sten that the title to the soil 
under the cavlgable waters of ibe State, imme. 
dlaielv conn-cted wim the ocean, and wimm 
the ebo and fl iw of ibe tiaes, Is in 'Le siaie : Pol- 
lard's Lessee vs. Hairan, »i/pro. In 'he c-ise of 
iresb-waler rivers, however, above Ihe ebb and 
flow ot the ud-'S, uo' in a proprietary sense. In 
sucn wa'ers tbe preprleiary right to the foil 
unoer the water Is, o'd Bsrilv, in private pirties ; 
.Tones vs. Suii'aro, 24 Hiw , 6^ ; Smith vs. City of 
Rosnesier, 92 N. Y.. 4«3 : <'benango Bildge co. vs. 
Page et al , 83 N. V , ISS ; but wbelberln tbe S'ale 
In a prnprieiar> sense or no , the rule is, n'ver- 
theiess. In tbe state In a kov< rnsoental sense as 
a par' of I's spveri Ian 0( main— a partcf its mu- 
nicipal sovereignty— helo m 'rusi for an, to pro- 
tec, preserve, and Improv for tbe purposes of 
na viral lOD and the bentflia of commerce, and 
not otherwise. 


There are two senses Id which the rights of the 
Stale are to be cPDSioertd. eie proprietary and 
tbe other governmental; proprietary, as where 
the sia'e owns an absolute f- e in tbe laLd In tbe 
Same mauoer and sense, «i h tne stme righ's 
ano power*, as an iidividuil owns bis land ; and 
governmental, as nhere the tiile is he'd In irust 
lor tbe use of tbe public, sucb as blgbwayg. nav- 
igable etreairs. • <c. l he former is alienaoie, tbe 
latter inaiunable. If the state can be consid- 
er' d as boidini: a proprietary interest In the soil, 
under navigable fresn-water rivers, still, mti 
alienation oi such pioprlotary interest would, 
ntcessarily, be subject to tbe inalienable sov- 
ereign rl,;ht of tbe state to control it for the 
prcpi'r public uses ani iitisis lor which It is beid 
in the interest or ccmmerce, and of all 'he 
people: Sdjltb vs. City ot Rocbesier, 92 N. Y., 
4<i,47S. sa.t 8 Ihe Court, by Ibe Ciller Justne,!!! 
that ca^p, cltirir as au'bority Marion vs. Wad- 
deii. 16 Pet. , 36T : " While a sovereign mnycon- 
vey Its proprietary r giiis, itcmioi alienate its 
control over ufvigabie waters without andtcat- 
Itg Its snvereigD'y :" Ii., 4S4, AisaiD, quoting 
.tudge Earl ID chfnango Bridge Company vs. 
P<ee, S3 ^. 178, Ibe Ci;uri sajs: •• Tue Lpgis- 
laiure, except under the power of emment do- 
main upon making ccuipensatior, can in'erf' re 
with sucb sire- ms only for ibe purpose oi regu- 
lailig, aid pro-rcu'g the pubnc 
ea-empDi. Fuiiber man has no n.ore 
power over iresn-water streams than over pri- 
vate properij Io.,4s6. It Ibe Leidsiaiure can- 
po' inierlere wi b such streams for purposes 
other than I bo.-e mentioned, it cer'ainly citinnt 
BumoriZH ibt m to be filled up wi'b debris from 
mines, or otherwise, tome oes'iuciion ot me 
public easement— tbe right or navufation. The 
title in sucb case.-, pspr cuiiy lo navltiable wa'ers 
exiei olnii loibc ocean. IS Deld,not n.en ly for 
ite bepi Bt ol citiz'bs or tbe Slate, but also for 
Ibe usts cr iB'ers'aie ard even foreign cm- 
merce ; otd me b' o'flt ot tbe p'opie of an ihe 
states initusii o In ccmmerce among ihe sev- 
eral sioK^s, ai d with f( reign ra'lons. Such Is 
the dcct ripe e stab.iobed bj tbe autbrrmes. 


The admission oi ( al fortia Into the Union was 
" up n the < xpress conOHlon " provld' o In tbe 
Act fnr admission, mat "all tbe navigable waters 
within the a.iid state shall be commin hunw lys, 
and 'orever free as well to tbe inbabitanis of 
saio 8'a'e as (O Ihe citizens oi me Uniied stairs, 
without any tax, impost, or duty theieror." 9 
S'-t., 452, 453. In Ibe Wheeiinir Bi-idge ci«e, 
commeniinii uooti a siamar pn vision in tbe com- 
pact betwef L VirelDia and K-'Uiucky. afterwards 
saclioneC by congresu, me supreme i;ourt o-ys: 
"And thpi exoreg-ly sanciioned tne compact 
made by Virginia ano Kentucky at ihe time of 
lis admission into 'lie I'nion, 'that me use and 
navleaiion of toe Riv^r ODlo, so far astbetfrn- 
lorj of tne proposed »iate or the tPi rlrory that 
suall remain within the commonweali h li.-s 
' hereon, i-bail be five and common to the citi- 
zen-, of the TToif'd States.' No.v an ubstrncied 
navlgauou raonoi be said to be nee. • • « 
Tills compact by tne sanction or Congress has 
Lecome a law < t the Union. • • • No state 
law can binder or onstruct tbe frie use ot a 
license gratt'd under an Act ot ' nngrrss [a 
license 'o a vessel to nav'gate the waters ot tbe 
Unit, d siat> s]. Nor can any State violate tbe 
compact, Sanctioned has 11 has been, by obstrucr- 
ittr tbe lavigation ot me iiver." 13 How., S66, 


Tbe provision in the Act ot admission may not 
be valid as a mere compact bet ween me United 
states and toe new S ate; but it is valid as an 
Act of Congress, past-ed by vinue of its constitu- 
tional power lo r'gulate coronierce among tne 
states and with toreien nations, and its suibor- 
iiy to establish l osiroiios. HoliaiO'a Lessee vs. 
Haeen, 3 How., i'M. '226 , 229. 23(1. In the Wheeling 
Bridg- case, ps we bave sten. tbe Court says: 
" Thecomp'O' by th" sanc'lon of ' 'on,rres8, has 
become a law of ib' T'diod." 13 How., 5S6. 


The conditions ibus lmpo^eu upon California 
by the Act ot congress admitting her Into tbe 
Union can not be lawfully violated by oostruc- 
ing, much less de-troyitg, me ntvigaiion or ber 
liver- ano bays lor puioo-es having no relation 
to f^cllllaIllg navigat on or commerce. Tbe 
power ot Congress to reguiate i^mmerce be- 
tween Ibe S aies would aino, doubtless, enable 
lt,ti.\ proper logl^la Ion, Independent ot tbese 
coDQiiloDs impofeO b.v the aoi or admission lo 
prevent the Slate ircm desirojlng or ohstruct- 
ing. orau'norizing 'be destruction or obstruciion 
or, tbe capacity for navieaiion of per navinable 
Waters. If Califnrnia can lawfully aumorize, 
and It she Das au' bor'zea, the ads complained 
or, a3 19 argued by deiendBLis. then, as Was said 
In regard to i he Uni'ed stales, the whole naviya- 
ble wa'ers or rue rivers and oays of ihe State 
may be tilled up, and i heir Davitiabilii} be utter- 
ly aestroyed ; ano ir ihey are nor, so filled, It 
will be because of a want or physical capacity, 
ano not becaii-e itis unlawtul to dolt. Butne 
are satistleo t nat neither CoOKiess nor me Legls- 
laiur. of California has atieinpied to legalize 
tuosea>^i8, aid teat neiiber bas the constitu- 
tional power to do it. Neither can rne, by sjp- 
plemen'irg ihe acts of lueoiher, eff. c this pur- 
pose. Bom are wpbtu' power to oo li ; and 
each witnou' power to aod any mine lo thp 
powers or be other. The ac s complained ot 
are therefore clearly unlawful : aid me sending 
down and deposit ot ibeir debris In tbe rivers, 
navigable or otherwise, by detendanis. In the 
manner staled, to 'be Injury or property owners 
and the public, consiHu'es oom a public and 
private whico complainant oas here- 
tofore sust aim o, he is now susiainlni?. and be 18 
hereatier likely, even morally certain, sooncror 
later, to sustain special injury. 


Qefendnnts next claim a right to do tbe acts 
compliined of b> preserip'lon. Sec. l.i OJ of tbe 
Civil code provides, that: "OccupyiDe fort-be 
period prescribed by tbe'iode of (;ivll Piocedure 
as sulBclent to bar an action for the recovery of 
ptoperiy, conf r« a title thereto, otnomlnateo a 
iltie oy prercrip'loD. wbicb is sufficient against 
all." Ttooesno' deUD>- what actssi ail consil'u.e 
such occupaicy, or unde'' what prec'se circum- 
s'ances ihp iltie by prescrlotion wi uld arise, or, 
in o'her words, does not define tbe term '■ pre- 
scription " The siaiu'e really dees nomiog but 
fix the lime at which a title by prescription shall 

vest, which was not very deflnite under the com- 
mon law; Du' leaves me circumstcncea which 
consiliuie prescription lo be d.termined by the 
settled law ot tbe land, as it stood before tbe 
Code. This Is all tbe Ciide says, m terms, upon 
prescription. But at common law, no ilgutcould 
be acq'iired by prescription to commit, or con- 
tinue, a public nuisance. In the word» of Mr. 
Wood: " The law IS that no li-ngtb ot time can 
prescribe for a public nuisance- oi any descrip- 
tion." Wool on Nuisance. 81. 30, 79U 2. Or, as 
staiefi in cooley on Tort)*, 613 ; " It is a familiar 
principle mat no lapse ot time can conrer the 
right to maintain a nuisarce as against the 
State." TbH aumorii les to this effect are num 
erous and unlfrrm. Bui even If it were no- so, 
tbe express provisions of Sec. 8,4»0 ot our Civil 
Code, "No liuse of ilme can bgallze a public 
nuisance amountinir to an aciual obstruction ot 
puniio rlgnt ," estabiisr-es the same rule, so tual 
It 18 not open to question in this state. In this 
connection, afn r KiAiing hatarliibt can be ac- 
qiii-ed by prescription when a nuisance i'< purely 
private, and coliitus only t he one person, or the 
few wno are injure-d. Judge Ctioiey nos'-rveB: 
"There still re-mains the case of a public nui- 
sance not complaiued of by the State, but by 
those to Whom it works t pecuilir injury; and 
w betber ibr tigot to maintain it. as against sucb 
persons, can be gaiied by lapse ot time, may 
pos-ibly be opec 10 some que-stlon;" out after 
cinslderipg tne point, he announces bis conclu- 
sions as follows ; " On the whole, the better doc- 
trine would seem to te that ihe acquisition ot 
rlL'hts by prescription can have Loining to oo 
wnhtbec8890f publu nuisances, either where 
the S'ate or where the individuals complain of 
them," citing a lariie number of cases wherein 
Ibe doctrine la recognized, and stated, if me 
point was not necessarily involved or decided. " 
10.,6'3 14. 


And " a uniform roii»«im» of sucd Judicial ex- 
pressions of opinion." even though not absolutely 
Dtcessary to tbe decision of tbe case, •■ especially 
where accepted oy able and approved lext- 
writers, atd not contraoicieo by a single direct 
Orotsioo. IS as High eviQence of a docirine or rule 
of law as can be trund:'' Santa ciar* Ceuntv vs. 
S. P. K. R. CO., 12 Fed. Rep., 423. and 9 Sawy. 
Wood also stales tbisiot)e me lute, citing me 
auiDOrlties: p. 791, 79*2. lo Vlller vs. Uail, 9 
Wpod., 315, sutbrrlatd, J., said : " Aomltiiuif loat 
deiennant,'a dam bes been erected and maiuiained 
more iban twenty years, and that during tue 
WDOle of that ppriod it bas rendered the adjacent 
countrv uDhealtiiy, su' h a leniim of time e^n be 
DO defense to a pioceediog on tbe par ot tbp pub- 
lic toanatelt,or loan acion by any luoiviou il 
for'be siHx'lal injury which he may have suffered 
from 1' : 8 cow,, 152, 1.')3 : 3 Wtnd.,925." Aujong 

b- r cases. Wood c'res Kegina vi-. Brewster, 8 U. 
C, 208. where a liiige tr iC of country ano a pu i- 

1 c iiiEbway bad beep tinoo'-o, and noxlousga-es 
isjuini- from li were prodm log diseas-. A pre. 
gcrlpiive right to maih'ain Ibe dam biTing been 
sei up. I be Chief Justice, In deciding tt.e case, 
said : "It was urged at tbe trial mat tbe dam b :d 
been erected formoreibab twentv ye^-rs. Forthn 
putpo'e ot esianli-blog an easement afr'»c'ing 
private rigb's or others this wouli oesufflcieni, 
generally spc aking, but It is not so wupn the- con- 
sequences of his act are a puoiic nulsancp." and 
Rhodes vs. Wnitfhead,v7 Tex.. 304, in which it 
was held tbat no prescrip'lve rieni could be ac- 
quired 10 maintain a public nuisance, and If a 
private party sbetud sustain special injury by 
surh public ntiisnbce. it is a p-lvate Luisanoe 
aNp, and the party Injured touid maintain the 
aciion. "TnerensoD is, thit be l' g a public of- 
lense 1' Is unlawful in Its incept'on and in its 
coniinuante, and oelpg unUwfiil lo the public In 
Its aegr'gate capacity, it can never become 
lawful by any lerigih of exercise against ibr- in- 
dividual members ot rhe public." He then aods : 
•• Tbe ooctrine of these eases [the last two cases 
citfd], al'htiugh reached wlibout any very tlab- 
or^'e process of reasoning, and wHbout any par- 
ticular thought as to tne resuu, nevertheless em- 
bodies me law as recoirntz-'d in 'he courts ot this 
country ano is snppor'ed b' •principle and au- 
thority :" Wood on Nuisance, p. 792. 


We bave no doubt mat ibe rule thus stated is 
correc, and we so bold. In tbe case ot a mere 
private nuisance of the kind In question, by con- 
tinuing It under the proper conditions reeoK- 
niz'd by tbe law tor toe prescribed period a right 
becomes vested oy pr'-scnptlon, and henceforth 
It isln Itself lawful. Bu' In ihe ease ot a public 
nulsmco. It never becomes in itself lawful. It 
IS not unlawful as to the whole public, and law- 
tul as to Its coDstituen's, or a part of us constlf- 
uen's. It Is "bsolutely and wholly uoluwiul. 
The act being unla alul, a private party sustain- 
ing sfiecial damages from ihe nuisance- from the 
unlawful act— gains a S'biua w'lloh enables hiin 
to mhlntain a prwaio action tor sucb Injury. 
When 8 private person thus ob'ains a standing 
lo Court, by reason of bis having suftered special 
oamaKCs, aitnouL'h be cnn only malMain bis suit, 
tor an It'lunetioD on ibat ground, yet me <;ourt 
grants relief, no: so'eiy b-cause tbe nuisance Is 
private so tar as he is concerned, but oecause it 
is public, and me relief will benefit the public. 
Kiich appears 10 be the doctrine of the Supreme 
Court, as declared In M. & M. R. CO. vs. Ward, 2 
BlR(k,4»4 says the Cou't : "A bill In tqunytp 
abate a public nuisance, died by one who has sus- 
tained special damage's, bas succeeded to the for- 
mer mooe In England or a iDiormation In chan- 
cery prosecuted, on behalf ot the- crown, to abate 
or enjiln me rulsance as a preventive renieoy. 
The private party sues rather as a public ptose- 
cutorihanoo bis own accouni ; and uniess he 
shows mat he has sustained and Is still sustain- 
tng Indiv'duel damng", be cannot be heard. He 
seeks fi dress of a continu'tg trespass and wrong 
against himself, atd acts in bebalf of all others 
who are or may be Injured." 


The present case affords a striking Illustration 
Of tbe bardsblp and wrong ihat would result to 
private parties It any oiher rule should prevail. 
In the case otsuch a widesprcal public nuisance, 
where It Is unlawful sno cannot be piescrlbea 
acalustas 10 the Injuied public, why sboulo any 
one p'lva'e citizen— ore ot the consii uems of 
tdat public- at Ibe peril or losirg bts rieht by 
mere tal ure to sue. be compelled to tat-e upon 
bliLself the burnen and expense of a litigation 
which 'he publ